Parkinson’s Law and the Peter Principle: Understanding Business and Politics Using Business Axioms

What business axiom or management principle have you discovered to help you live better, work smarter, or to understand organizations in a way that is unique, funny or provides that rare but special “ah ha” moment?

An example of a well known business axiom is the famous “Peter Principle” (1) that states: “People rise to their level of incompetence.” Explaining how incompetent people can achieve executive and high level political positions without any management or leadership skills provides some understanding to why so many businesses and governments may fail. There are many corollaries to this intriguing concept that may explain government and business poor performance. Perhaps major decisions also rise to their level of incompetence. That is, the more critical a decision, the more probable is that it will be taken away from the people with expertise and be decided either in a steering committee (to avoid any accountability) or at the C-Suite or government cabinet level where truly awful decisions are sometimes rendered out of ignorance. While this principle is meant to foster discussion about the follies of some bureaucracies, all of us can relate to those major business blunders caused by executives who thought they knew better. Remember new Coke, the Edsel and the infamous business failures at Enron, Arthur Anderson, Lehman Bros. and Bear Sterns? Government failures are even more common as evidenced by the Arab Spring uprisings and most of Europe facing serious budget deficits and even a European Union currency collapse.

Talking to a high level bureaucrat who was going to announce the immediate closure of a major call center, I replied that determining its future call distribution would be critical as this location had nearly 400 staff at work. He responded that I was incorrect and that no one was working there. Stunned by his lack of knowledge, I replied that I had just returned from a visit last week, and that we had over 400 active staff conducting business there. A bureaucrat located remotely and especially at headquarters can be very dangerous to sound decision-making!

My personal favorite business axiom is Parkinson’s Law, written by C. Northcote Parkinson (2) in 1954: “Work expands to the time available.” It is the only management principle I can remember with clarity from my four collegiate years of study in administration because I have experienced the relationship between work and time is both elastic and unpredictable. It is an irreverent but insightful view on how workload is not proportional to staffing within bureaucratic organizations. It reminds us that in our world, one must understand human behavior, embrace humor and recognize a tendency by people to make foolish decisions especially when emotions take control from basic common sense.

All students recognize the value of Parkinson’s Law. It is critical to determine how much time a task will take or it will naturally expand to two, three or more times the actual amount of time needed. As students we quickly learned this fact after laboring several days on an …

Five Reasons Graduates Of John Marshall Law School Pass The Bar And Find Employment

John Marshall Law School

The John Marshall Law school has a famous name, an aggressive curriculum and stays on the forefront of legal issues. This combination benefits the future lawyers who grace these hallowed halls. With over 85% of the graduates passing the bar and having a job within nine months, this school does it right. Not only does the training facility feature a strong structure of curriculum and practice, it embraces technology, attacks innovative issues and customize the training process.

Five Reasons Graduates Of John Marshall Law School Pass The Bar And Find Employment

Name

John Marshall was an influential 19th century US Supreme Court Chief Justice responsible for making the Supreme Court an equal branch of the government along with the legislature and executive branches. Under his 30+ years of guidance, the federal court system developed policies for disregarding laws contrary to the Constitution. Although the school bearing his name was established in 1899, it was accredited in 1941 by the American Bar Association.

Strong Core

Attorneys need skills in writing, research and oral arguments to succeed. Smart students know these skills lead to high-paying jobs and profitable careers. Because the John Marshall courses are kept small, each student develops necessary communication and investigative abilities. In fact, the US News and World Report ranks this school in the top tier of legal schools in the United States for 2012.

Practice

Curriculum is an important part of education; However, honors programs give students a chance to excel. Five different programs are offered: John Marshall Law Review, Review of Intellectual Property, Journal of Computer and Information Law, Moot Court Honors Program and Trial Advocacy and Dispute Resolution Honors Program. With over 50 different student organizations advancing social awareness, community service, legal discussion and social activities, students get important real-life, hands-on experience.

Technology

Although the libraries are immense, all students are trained in modern technology including iPods. After all, these marvelous devices allow attorneys to research, write and assemble complex legal documents quickly. This saves time and effort while giving students benefits they can use.

Innovative Issues

This diverse law school is not afraid to tackle modern issues like immigration, International Business and Trade Law, tax and Veteran topics. Since education is an expensive process, students should invest only where they get the best return for their money. The John Marshall Law school offers cutting-edge classes in intellectual property law, information technology, employee benefits and privacy law letting graduates choose exciting and expanding legal fields.

Customized Training

Students are in control as the same classes are offered both day and night. Anyone can attend full or part-time. In addition, these almost attorneys can specialize and receive a certificate in that field or earn joint degrees.

The cost difference between a mediocre education and an education of quality and diversity is small. However, a degree from John Marshall Law school is worth more. Although these graduates have an easier time passing the bar and finding employment, the real benefit is in the …

Voter Approved Medical Dispensary – States And Federal Law

US Medical Marijuana Card

In the United States, there are currently 16 Legal Medical Marijuana States and District of Columbia that currently have laws that have legalized marijuana for medicinal purposes.

The states are:

Alaska, Arizona, California, Colorado, DC, Delaware, Hawaii, Maine, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New Mexico, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont and Washington.

You may acquire a Marijuana Card only if you suffer from a medical condition as prescribed by a doctor.

Although many states have approved medical marijuana as an alternative form of medication for many ailments, the United States Government is still in opposition of the state laws regarding voter approved marijuana.

For example, in a well written article, there is reason to believe that those marijuana patients in the states that currently allow marijuana use for medicinal purposes are in jeopardy of losing their Second Amendment Rights.

Second Amendment Rights are The Right To Bear Arms as a US citizen.

According to the article, The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms (ATF) says that a patient gives up his or her constitutional right just by letting the state know that they want to take medical marijuana.

The article also points out that medical marijuana users have diminished rights just by having a marijuana card.

Here's how the ATF sees it:

If you are a medical marijuana patient, you are in violation of federal code Sect. 922 (g) of the federal Gun Control Act, which basically says that anyone "who is an unlawful user of or addicted to any controlled substance" is basically barred from possessing or receiving guns or ammo.

The article is worth reading, which I highly recommend … and most importantly, if you are going to apply for a medical marijuana card, it's best to know all of your rights and options.

Read the full article here .

In addition to the marijuana patients possibility losing their Second Amendment rights, there have been a serious assault by California federal prosecutors against marijuana dispensaries throughout the state; the Feds are threatening to shut down dispensaries and sending letters out to landlords warning them about the sales of the drug on their premises.

In the letter, it warns the landlord that they must comply within 45 days in order to avoid the possibility that their property will be seized and they will be sent to prison.

What is your opinion regarding this controversial debate? Let your voice be heard at the polls.

Source Article

U.S. V. Nixon: Is the President Above the Law?

Forty years ago, on July 8, 1974, the Supreme Court heard arguments in United States v. Nixon, the landmark case that ultimately defined the limitations on the power of the president.

These were the issues:

1. Should the president be required to turn over the records of 64 conversations to Watergate prosecutors?

2. Did the grand jury act properly in naming Richard Nixon as an unindicted co-conspirator?

Underlying it all, though, was the real question: Is the president above the law? The prosecutors argued that the president was not above the law. Nixon's defense was, as it had been all along, that the chief executive is above the law – via the principle of executive privilege.

More than a year earlier, in fact, in February 1973, Nixon's own tapes showed that Nixon and two of his subordinates, H.R. Haldeman and John Dean, had discussed using executive privilege fraudulently – not to protect others but to protect themselves.

The executive privilege concept, while not addressed specifically in the Constitution, is based on the principle of separation of powers. A level of confidentiality is understood to be extended to a president and his aides in certain circumstances, particularly in matters involving defense and national security.

Then-Associate Justice William Rehnquist recused himself because he had served in the Nixon administration (in the Justice Department) prior to his appointment to the Supreme Court, leaving eight justices to rule on the matter.

They heard arguments from Watergate special prosecutor Leon Jaworski and Nixon's lawyer, James St. Clair, after which they reviewed the facts of the case and returned to hand down their decision two weeks later.

"Jaworski seemed nervous," Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein wrote. "He spoke awkwardly as he slowly recited the history of the grand jury's proceedings. He noted that the grand jury had named the president an unindicted co-conspirator, and then he moved haltingly to the heart of the matter. Who is the arbiter of the Constitution?"

"'Now, the president may be right in how he reads the Constitution,' Jaworski said. 'But he may also be wrong. And if he is wrong, who is there to tell him so? And if there is no one, the president, of course, is free to pursue his course of erroneous interpretations. What then becomes of our constitutional form of government?'"

The defense argued that executive privilege was absolute, but the prosecution said it was not and that any confidentiality that was extended to the president had to yield to the needs of the legal system in a criminal case. If the president were given absolute executive privilege, Jaworski said, it would be an unchecked power that could subvert the rule of law.

St. Clair argued that, under the doctrine of the separation of powers, the case shouldn't be heard in the courts at all because it involved a dispute within the executive branch of the government. He also contended, as I have said, that the president deserved absolute executive privilege and should not …

Government Auto Auctions – Cars Under 500 Dollars?

Until recently, used car prices had been going through the roof. They started getting cheaper when gas headed toward $4 a gallon, and then when the credit crisis hit, and there were a lot of repos on the market, they got even cheaper. Now that gas is back down under $2, they’ve gone back up somewhat, but they’re still cheaper than a while back. Of course, “cheap” is a relative term, and one man’s bargain is another man’s extravagance. What if you need a car fast, and you only have five hundred bucks? I’d head for government auto auctions. Cars under 500 dollars are available there.

Great Audi Q7 personal Contract Hire Deals, affordable Leasing and personal Car Lease Offers on your next Used Audi A3.

Now, don’t get me wrong. At government auto auctions, cars under 500 dollars aren’t a dime a dozen. They really aren’t even plentiful. But you stand a very good chance of finding one or two such bargains at any given government auction you attend. And, yes, I’m talking about cars that actually run and are street legal. Now, it’s probably going to be quite a it older than most cars on the street, but that’s no problem. If you’re really looking for a cheap car, you can forget about a late model one, anyway. Those will be snapped up by the dealers, and they’ll go for a lot more than 500 dollars.

That’s because they’re looking for cars that can be resold fast, which is late model cars in great condition. That’s why dealers attend government auto auctions. Cars under 500 dollars don’t interest them, because they’re going to be too old to have much of a market. But that doesn’t mean there’s anything wrong with a 500 dollar car you pick up at one of these. It will just be older than average, and probably not in tip top shape. But you can certainly find yourself a 500 dollar car that runs if you attend a few auctions.…

Keynesian Theory On Demand Pull And Cost Push Inflation

According to Keynesian, inflation can be caused by increase in demand and/or increase in cost.

Demand-pull inflation is a situation where aggregate demand persistently exceeds aggregate supply when the economy is near or at full employment. Aggregate demand could rise because of several reasons. A cut in personal income tax would increase disposable income and contribute to a rise in consumer expenditure. A reduction in the interest rate might encourage an increase in investment as well as lead to greater consumer spending on consumer durables. A rise in foreigners’ income may lead to an increase in exports of a country. An expansion of government spending financed by borrowing from the banking system under conditions of full employment is another cause of inflation.

An increase in demand can be met initially by utilising unemployed resources if these are available. Supply rises and the increase in demand will have little or no effect on the general price level at this point. If the total demand for goods and services continue to escalate, a full employment situation will eventually be reached and no further increases in output are possible. This leads to inflationary pressures in the economy.

Demand-pull inflation is caused by excess demand, which can originate from high exports, strong investment, rise in money supply or government financing its spending by borrowing. If firms are doing well, theey will increase their demand for factors of production. If the factor market is already facing full employment, input prices will rise. Firms may have to bid up wages to tempt workers away from their existing jobs.

It is most likely that during full employment conditions, the rise in wages will exceed any increase in productivity leading to higher costs. Firms will pass the higher costs to consumers in the form of higher prices. Workers will demand for higher wages and this will add fuel to aggregate demand, which increases once again. The process continues as prices in the product market and factor market are being pulled upwards.

Keynesian theory of cost-push inflation attributes the basic cause of inflation to supply side factors. This means that according to Keynesian, rising production costs will lead to inflation.

Cost-push inflation is usually regarded as being primarily a wage inflation process because wages usually constitute the greaer part of total costs. Powerful and militant trade unions who negotiate wage increases in excess of productivity are more likey to succeed in their wage claims the closer the economy is to full employment and the greater the problem of skill shortages.

An increase in the price of coal, oil and many other basic inputs or even semi-manufactured goods used as component parts in the production process will manifest itself as higher consumer prices. The oil crisis in 1973-1974 and 1970-80 resulted in many countries experiencing severe cost-push inflation.

Inflation may occur when there is a depreciation of the home currency. A depreciation of a country’s currency results in increases in the price of imported foodstuff, raw materials and capital equiment …

The Ban on Greyhound Racing in the ACT

This is a big issue in the Australian Capital Territory as the Greyhound Industry gears up for a legal challenge to the governments disbandment of it. The question is whether it constitutes a sport or a business that exploits innocent animals and causes them pain and suffering. The other agenda at work here is the clamp down on gambling in the territory. One can’t be seen to support a racing industry while denying other forms of it.

The feeling in the political arena is that people are spending wildly on things like poker machines and other forms of gambling. Many addicted to it have become homeless or dependent on charities and the like as a result. There is also the question of cruelty in the greyhound business when secret cameras filmed live bating in training sessions.

The animals in these images were rabbits, kittens, and possums, who were ultimately ripped to pieces. That was after being tied to a machine and driven at speed around the track with a pack of dogs in hot pursuit.

As a pet owner and one who respects all life this type of thing has disgusted me. Even more so as years ago when I gave some kittens away and a man told me he only wanted one to train his dogs. He never got it from me and my words to him were not so kind.

What is in the human psyche that supports this type of animal cruelty? That is what the Minister who issued the ban has also asked. Surely it is up to society to stand behind his judgement and let the matter proceed to court where hopefully the judge will favour the victims over the ones who make money from them.…

The Real Purpose of Government Grants

We all know that government grants are a way for the citizens of a country to get free money from the tax payers, but the question is what's the whole point of doing that? Many people work very hard and do great things with their intelligence and business acumen, but get no help from the government at all. Why provide government grants to some people and not others if we all pay our fair share of taxes? The real purpose of government grants is so that the government can make a political decision of where to invest its money for the greater good of the country. It's their decision making that helps excel certain programs that can compete against foreign countries. It's intent is to continue to be a super power by putting money where it is needed.

For instance, one way government grants are offered through small businesses. In the economic downturn, President Barack Obama needed to do something to help stimulate the economy again. People were losing their jobs and everyone was saving their money causing business to go down. The issuing of grants helped small businesses get back on their feet. These businesses now had the opportunity to hire more workers which provided more jobs to everyone. Money was being spent because people were getting their jobs back. The use of these grants can do great things if pointed in the right direction.

Many grants are also offered to help research facilities and technology developers to get their ideas rolling. The use of this money can help pay for a lot of expensive equipment that can expedite these companies' course of plan. If the United States is the first to discover something new, the government grants have done its job. It could not hurt to attempt to apply for these grants. Being honest and convincing can help you beat out your competition. If you are truly good at what you do and know your ideas can be put to good work, you should definitely apply for government grants to help make your dreams a reality. …

Becoming a Child Custody Lawyer

This professional is a family lawyer who specializes in child custody cases, helping to protect children’s rights. To become a child custody lawyer you would have to pursue the same path as any lawyer but specializing in child custody cases. In most states, you would need an undergraduate degree, like a bachelor’s degree before you can go to law school. When getting your law degree your bachelor’s degree does not need to be in a subject related to law. If you have already chosen your career path there are some existing pre-law specializations. For example, when specializing in custody law, you could major in social work, philosophy, or psychology. Any of these majors will help give you a unique education that will help you further down your path to become a child custody lawyer.

When getting your bachelor’s degree make sure that you are maintaining a high GPA as this may help you get into this type of school. On the road to becoming a child custody lawyer, applying to such a school is often stressful and rigorous but is a necessary step to becoming a lawyer. When completing all of the required application letters take your time to ensure that you are doing them correctly. If any have a deadline to summit them, try to get them done first so they will get there on time. During the application process for law school, you will need letters of recommendations so try to get professionals you know or former teachers to write the recommendation letters for you.

To get into law school most require applicants to submit standardized test scores that focus on the general law. One such test is the Law School Admission Test (LSAT). This is a very hard test to pass but is needed in order to get into law school. Before taking the exam experts recommend that you study for this test at least six to twelve months in order to pass, get a good grade and possible admission to law school. When attending law school, you should tailor any elective courses so they relate to family law subjects. While at law school and during your undergraduate schooling you should look for assistant or internships with a family law firm. This extra training can provide you with a wealth of information it can also help you establish a professional contact network. Once you have completed law school you will have to sit and pass the bar exam for your state or the state where you will be practicing as a child custody lawyer.

Although you are specializing in child custody cases, you will start out as a family attorney. It may take several years to gain expertise and become an established child custody lawyer.…

Alcohol Addiction – A Social Evil

There is a group of who start using alcohol to drive away the sorrows and pains of life, whereas others turn to it because they know not any other way. Most alcohol addicts give the reason that alcohol gives them a power to face the challenges and difficulties of life. The practical theory behind this feeling is that alcohol can generate illusions and hallucinations in the minds of people and they are taken to another world where they forget the real world worries, and tensions. Sinking in this dream world, they start loving alcohol to an amount that they can not even imagine being without alcohol.

The effects of alcohol addiction are long lasting. The harmful effects are never limited to the individual; Rather the circle of society is forced to suffer the consequences. Alcohol addiction sends out a red signal by producing physical ailments and mental disorders in the individual. Even then it is not the individual but the associated ones that realizes the danger and think of how to help the injured stop drinking alcohol.

Harmful results of alcohol addiction start with physical damage to kidney, liver, heart and almost all internal organs. It starts carving the walls of intestine. Loss of appetite, vomiting, dizziness, nausea etc. Are some among the numerous difficulties followed by the addict. He slowly starts losing memory and false often due to lack of sleep. The physical appearance and facial appearance becomes too ugly.

Worst of all ill effects is the interference in his social and personal life. He fails to execute his duties and responsibilities. Instead of being a support, he becomes a burden to his family. Peace of the family is disturbed and they become the center of criticism for the entire society. The place of his work is another area affected badly. You start to have serious backlogs at work and co-workers are humiliated. Everyone dependent on him will be forced to take the pains of suffering and obviously live through the aftermath.

Social peace is disturbed. When alcohol addiction haunts a person, he will start engaging in criminal activity. Slowly he changes into an anti-social element and none will dare to get acquainted with him. He is isolated and this adds up the fury. His evil behavior shoots up and a criminal is born.

Several methods are available that will teach people how to stop drinking alcohol. De-addiction centers play a major role in bringing them back to life. Medicines that make them feel the taste of alcohol will inculcate a feeling of hesitance towards the drug. But the major problem in dealing with alcohol through medicine is that, their going to be a drug dependency or the forceful withdrawal could lead to many related problems. These efforts of not carried out in a professional manner can cause more harm than good. This later addiction is a critical factor to be deal with.

Hypnosis is the best method to slowly change the attitude of the individual towards liquor. The …