Fundamentals Of Abnormal Psychology – Obedience Across Cultures And Generations

The phenomenon observed by Milgram (1963) was that of obedience under the influence of authority, against one’s own beliefs. Milgram (1974) described obedience as ‘…the psychological mechanism that links individual action to political purpose’. Its basis is the belief that authoritative figures have a legitimate right to request actions. His experiment in 1963 looked at the reactions of participants believing they were part of a punishment and learning experiment. Participants were told that they would be administering electric shocks as a ‘teacher’ to a ‘learner’, really a confederate, when he answered incorrectly to a memory task. The ‘learner’ was seen being strapped to a chair with electrodes attached to him and the participant was given a sample shock.

This sample was quite severe but the participant was told that it was mild. The participant was sat in a separate room in front of a machine to administer the shocks. The levers on the machine increased gradually from 15 to 450 volts, with labels of words and numbers describing the level of shock that each would give, for example, ‘135 volts, strong shock’. The participant gave the ‘learner’ pairs of words to memorize. If the participant gave an incorrect answer when asked to recall the pair of the word the participant gave in the test, the experimenter ordered the participant to administer a shock. The shocks were not actually being administered but with each incorrect answer the shock was, apparently, increased. The ‘learner’ would begin to object to the shocks and complain of heart pain, but the participant was given instructions to carry on, such as ‘you have no other choice sir, you must go on’.

The results showed that 100{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of participants would administer up to 240 volts, a ‘very strong shock’, 68{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} would administer up to an ‘extremely intense shock’ of 360 volts and 65{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} would give a ‘XXX’ shock of 450 volts. This level of obedience was far higher than anyone, including Milgram, expected. Milgram used this to suggest that ‘normal’ people are capable of performing intolerable requests under the influence of a legitimate authority. The presence of authority creates a situational pressure to perform and often responsibility is thought to be that of the authority and so an individual feels less responsible for his or her actions.

At the time of Milgram’s experiment, the United States was beginning to recover from McCarthyism. McCarthyism is a term used for the period of time throughout the 1950’s where anti-communism was enforced (retrieved January 5th, 2007, from wikipedia.com website: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/McCarthyism). People were persecuted if it was believed they were communist or sympathized with communists. They were made unemployed, imprisoned and sometimes even executed for espionage. The presence of this type of oppression at the time of Milgram’s experiments may have had an effect on the level of obedience found. Although by the time of the experiment society was no longer experiencing McCarthyism, it was accustomed to obeying the order that it must adhere to an anti-communist way of thinking or …

The Importance of Plumbers and Plumbing Services

Many often do not think much of plumber and plumber services. This is due to many reasons such as the low prestige of the trade or the infrequent need of and contact with the plumber. However, they provide a valuable service to society, allowing us to enjoy the comfort of our environment with a well functioning plumbing system.

While simple leaks in faucets can be address to by homeowners ourselves, leaks or burst in our pipes especially understood ones often have to be left to a professional plumber. With their wealth of knowledge and advance equipments, they can ensure that the affected area is fully repaired so that your home plumbing system is functioning well again.

Beside leaks or bursting, installation of pipes in homes must also be done by a plumber as we will not have the know-how to do so. Without a plumber, we will not have the pleasure of clean running water and enjoy the basic sanitary pleasures we are so used to enjoy today. Imagine how backward we will become without them, having to draw water from wells for our daily usage. Any home owners facing a stubborn clogged drain, choked basin or toilet bowl can be tested to the importance of a plumber in their life. Imagine the stink caused by a choked toilet bowl or the situation of not being able to take a shower; One can easily guess how frustrated one can be. A plumber with their variety of useful tools can quickly rectify these problems and ensure everything run smoothly for us again.

What's more, there may be instances when we drop something valuable or with high sentimental values ​​such as jewelery into our drain. Who else can we turn to help us retrieve these items? Only a plumber will be able to help us do so without making a mess of drain system. Thus, from the above, you can see the importance of plumber and plumbing services in our daily life. So next time you engage a plumber, remember the valuable service they bring to our society and how they can help us solve problems which we can not deal with ourselves.

If you ever need plumbers in Singapore to help you, here is one reliable plumber in Singapore I recommend. …

Using Law of Attraction to Increase your Wealth Creating Opportunity in Forex Trading

Forex Trading is just one of the many wealth crating mean and process to achieve wealth. As far as wealth goes, you don’t need money to be happy. A lot of people refer to cliché like “Money is not everything”. There is truth to that statement but the opposite also holds true- without money you may have nothing!

I believe wealth will only follow those who ‘think’ and ‘see’ themselves as wealthy. Only then will the Universe present you with wealth creation opportunities. If you have the opportunities but don’t act upon them, you will not be able to convert it to real wealth. Forex Trading is one of the many conversions to wealth.

Before we could achieve anything in life, we need first to condition our minds. We need to feed our brains with all positive thoughts. Positive affirmations can help to overcome all negative thoughts and assist in promoting a healthy state of mind.

Most of us don’t realize that if we constantly tell ourselves negative things, we are building a destructive belief system. A negative but powerful barrier, which limit and prevent us from achieving success in life. Many self improvement gurus have mentioned that one of the most effective ways to change this belief system is to replace misguided negative messages with new positive ones.

Many Gurus said that the power of positive affirmations will make itself felt if you repeat them DAILY and when you are thinking negatively. The Law of Attraction is perfect and will follow only your thoughts and actions.

Personally I try to watch these videos just before the start of a new Forex Trading day. It really inspires me to make TODAY successful

The following affirmations are those from the video clip of MarcyFromMaui under the title “The Secret Riches Visualization Tool”. You can also develop others of your own. Tell yourself:

“I am a money magnet

Everything I touch turns to gold

I have more riches than King Soloman’s mines

Money falls like an avalanche over me

There is more money being printed for me right now

I am receiving money making ideas every day

I am receiving unexpected checks in the mail

I have more than enough money for everything that I want

I have my dream home

I have the best of everything

I am grateful and celebrate everyday

I know when to ask for what I want

No matter what it is that I want

No matter how impossible it may seem

I believe and know its mine

The answer must be… (your wish is my command)”

Of all the money making opportunities, Forex Trading is just one method that you can act upon to attain your goals to abundant of wealth.…

The Importance of Tort Law to Minimize Liability

You often come into contact with the term law of Tort. What is Tort Law? Briefly speaking, law of Tort is actually designed to manipulate the behavioral pattern of human beings. Tort law is a regular body which offers the instant remedy for the social wrongs. It mainly puts emphasis on the behavior of the persons or the relation between the company and the individual. It actually highlights the quality of care. Suppose, you have been severely injured with a running ball that was kicked or thrown by your friend. Now you have blamed your friend for that mishap.

At the same time, you have claimed compensation for the injury. There will be two questions against such claim. Was it a crime? Did your friend intentionally hit your body with a ball? Or is it just an accident? If it is intentional act of criminality, your friend must be responsible to pay the price for the injury and for the loss of time which you have spent or wasted. On other hand, if it is inadvertent mistake, there will be confusion about the true consciousness of your friend.

To what extent he was careful and how much attention he applied to play the game. Herein lies the importance of Tort law which deals with the behavior and the action of the citizens. Due to the massive negligence and lack of care, your friend has committed the wrongdoing by throwing the ball at your face without taking the appropriate measures to act in perfect way.

Tort has set a number of guidelines and norms which must be followed to get the compensation. Before charging a person for the dereliction of duties, you must prove that his action was not up to the mark. On the other hand, there is another limitation in the case of activating the Tort law. You will have to keep it in mind that if the injury is done indirectly without the direct participation of the suspected party or company, it will be called the remoteness criterion. What is that? That means if an accident happens in such a way in which the company and the individual are not liable to accept the charges which are supposed to be framed against them for the lack of care.

For instance in case you have received injuries due to stumble over a protruded paving stone in the street, you can’t claim compensation framing the charge against the local authority or administrative machinery who is supposed to take care of the street. In this case, the liability is very remote and the party is not involved directly to enhance the wrongdoing. For this particular reason, you will not be able to move court to claim compensation package due to your physical injury.…

Dalai Lama Short Biography

The 14th Dalai Lama, Tenzin Gyatso, is the spiritual and political leader of the Tibetan people. He was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989 and has travelled extensively around the world offering the message of Tibetan Buddhism.

The Dalai Lama was born in the small Tibetan village of Takster in Northern Tibet. His original name being Tenzin Gyatso. At the age of 2 Tenzin was recognized as the reincarnation of his predecessor, the 13th Dalai Lama. Thus from an early age the Dalai Lama spent many years studying Tibetan scriptures and he completed a doctorate in Tibetan Buddhist philosophy by the age of 25.

The Dalai Lama means Ocean of Wisdom. Lama also means “Guru” or teacher. The Dalai Lama’s are believed to be reincarnations of the Bodhisattva of compassion. These are beings who choose to reincarnate to serve humanity. As the Dalai Lama says himself.

“The more we care for the happiness of others, the greater our own sense of well-being becomes.”

Despite being a man of peace the Dalai Lama has had to face the consequences of the Chinese occupation of Tibet. In 1950 the Chinese army entered into Tibet and began to degenerate the Tibetan culture and religion. Despite many attempted negotiations and non-violent protests the Dalai Lama was finally forced into exile in 1959. With many followers the Dalai Lama fled to Dharamsala in India. Since 1960 the Dalai Lama has maintained a Tibetan government in exile from this base in Dharamsala. Despite the turbulent and difficult times the Dalai Lama has lived through he has sought to maintain a spiritual outlook and learn to deal with life’s challenges, even his “enemies”

“Feelings of anger, bitterness, and hate are negative. If I kept those inside me they would spoil my body and my health. They are of no use.”

“Infinite altruism is the basis of peace and happiness. If you want altruism, you must control hate and you must practice patience. The main teachers of patience are our enemies.”

– Dalai Lama

The Dalai Lama has sought to preserve parts of the Tibetan culture through educational and cultural institutions. He has also sought to raise awareness of the plight of Tibet to the wider world.

The Dalai Lama has travelled extensively in the West meeting with many religious and political leaders. The Dalai Lama has said that there is a need for a variety of faiths and religions so that it can suit the different temprements of people. He advises people to think very carefully before changing their religion. He has often said there is an underlying unity between the different world religions.

” All religions are essentially the same in their goal of developing a good human heart so that we may become better human beings.”

In 1989 the Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The Nobel citation read:

“The Committee wants to emphasize the fact that the Dalai Lama in his struggle for the liberation of Tibet consistently has opposed the …