Revocation of Patent

A patent is a territorial right which excludes others from making, using, selling or manufacturing. A patent get published after eighteen months from the filing or priority date.

Any person can file an opposition within six months from the patent publication based on the prescribed grounds which is called pre-grant opposition. After patent is granted, within a year a person interested can file opposition based on prescribed grounds called post grant opposition. If a person has missed these two chances, he has other option to challenge a patent at any time of patent by revocation of patents under section 64 Indian patent Act.

Patent can be revoked anytime during the life of patent by any person interested. Revocation of patents may be brought up in two ways.

1. One is the Intellectual Property Appellate Board where a revocation petition can be filed by any person interested or by the Central government.

2. Another forum is High Court where revocation of patent is argued as a counter-claim in a suit for infringement of a patent.

A notice of any petition for the revocation of a patent under Section 64 must be served to all persons appearing on the register as proprietors of the patent or to have shares or interests therein and it is not necessary to serve notice on any other person.

Revocation of patents can be brought on following grounds:

1. The invention as claimed through the claims in complete specification was claimed earlier through a valid claim contained in complete specification of another patent granted and having earlier priority date.

2. The patent was granted on the application of a person not entitled to apply under the provisions of the Patents Act, 1970.

3. The patent was obtained wrongfully i.e. in contravention of the rights of the petitioner or any person under or through whom he claims.

4. The subject-matter of any claim of the complete specification is not an invention within the meaning of the Patents Act.

5. The invention claimed through any claim of the complete specification is not new having regard to anticipation by previous publication and by prior claim as referred to in Section 13.

6. The invention claimed through claims in the complete specification is obvious or does not involve any inventive step having regard to what was publicly known or used in India OR what was published in India or elsewhere before the priority date of the claim.

7. The invention as claimed is not useful.

8. The complete specification does not sufficiently and fairly describe the invention and the method by which it is to be performed. The description of the method or the instructions for the working of the invention is not themselves sufficient to enable a person ordinarily skilled in the art to work the invention and also the complete specification does not disclose the best method of performing the invention which is known to the applicant and for which he was entitled to claim protection.

9. The scope …

Importance of Bankruptcy Laws

Bankruptcy laws have been introduced to provide some relief to debtors. Generally, people fall in debt trap knowingly or unknowingly, but it does not mean that they have no right to live freely. If debtors are unable to repay the amount of debts towards creditors, then they can file bankruptcy. Financial experts consider bankruptcy as a last option to eliminate the debts completely. There are many other options available in UK market too like debt management, IVA, debt consolidation loans etc. According to a common law, bankruptcy involves the liquidation of assets. It means when an individual becomes bankrupt then court sells the property of debtor to recover the amount of creditors. It does not mean that all assets will be sold out. Few assets or properties can be exempted from the liquidation depending upon the type of bankruptcy you filed.

There are many bankruptcy laws exist in UK market. Debtors are free to choose any type as per the requirement, debt amount and kind of debt. There are few important chapters in it like bankruptcy chapter 7, chapter 11 and chapter 13. Bankruptcy chapter 7 contains the liquidation of assets. Chapter 11 is available only for companies, organization, partnership firm, industries etc. Under chapter 13, courts allow debtor to repay the debts with low interest rate. It is advisable to hire a best bankruptcy attorney, lawyer or experts. These people are professionals and can help you in worse situation as well. Individual should file bankruptcy petition with the help of attorney because they know what to write and how to write in document.

Bankruptcy petition is document through which you file bankruptcy and let the court know that you are unable to repay the existing debts. According to bankruptcy laws, after filling bankruptcy, creditors are not allowed to contact you for repayments. Court issues notice to all creditors and ask them not to contact debtor unless the case is over. Now days, bankruptcy courts concentrate on creditors as well and try to provide them some relief from loss.…

Current Economic and Marketing Trends That Will Shape the Next Generation

The primary purpose of our publication is to provide useful and effective information while at the same time providing an understanding of current trends in the marketplace, and then subsequently joining together these concepts into a meaningful conclusion to provide companies with an effective result. An effective outcome, from my perspective, is to purely think about the trends shaping our economy, and having the insight to project these trends into your sales and marketing strategy.

We continually look for new and innovative ways for companies to look beyond the daily scope of their business. First and foremost, consider the purpose. The operative word is “trend”, so let’s begin by providing a definition:

Noun: a general direction in which something is developing or changing.

Verb: change or developing in a general direction.

The most effective way to construct your plan is to immerse yourself into a profound appreciation of the economic landscape in America, and the trends shaping this landscape. In past publications, despite my overwhelming desire, I have steered clear of the political composition, unfortunately, as business executives, we need to consider the path we are headed and how we can intellectually capitalize on this potentially negative trend and transform it into a positive development.

Consider the media environment and broad message America has been digesting each and every day. Russell Brand, the world’s greatest intellect is a prime example. In a recent interview; he proclaimed that a ‘socialist revolution and massive redistribution of wealth is necessary in America, he believes in heavy taxation of corporations and an increase in punitive responsibilities for energy companies exploiting the environment. ‘ This is the rhetoric our young people are hearing and the message being embraced by the Obama administration and the liberal media. How ridiculous. Who is Russell Brand, and since when does a British comedian become an expert on the capitalistic revolution?

We need to begin by exploring the failure of our current president and political system. No world leader in history has made so many errors and provided so few options. The last five and a half years will shape our economy and business trends for decades well into the future. One failure after another is well documented: the economy, Benghazi, Solyndra, the stimulus package, health care reform, foreign policy, the national energy policy, partisan politics, social reform, the campaign to divide America through class warfare. Not to mention the fact that his administration has been and will be documented as the worst selection of cabinet members in history.

Abstract:

  • The federal debt as a percentage to GDP (Gross Domestic Product) has exceeded 100{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} in every year since 2007. See the graph below.
  • The number of people receiving benefits under the federal government has grown from 94 million people in 2000 to more than 128 million in 2011. This means that over 41{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the U. S. population receives at least one benefit.
  • A large portion of the American public have two kinds of income: (1) money they earn and

Bureaucracy – The Demon Controlling Our Lives

What is bureaucracy?

Bureaucracy is the administration of a set of rules that are used to run an organization or a government. The more rules that are created, the more people are needed to administer them, and the more complex the organization becomes. The administrators who create the rules are themselves part of the bureaucracy. In the case of government, the rules created are called laws. As a result of the proliferation of all sorts of requirements and laws in today’s society, life is becoming increasingly complex. Here are just some of the ways that bureaucracy affects us in everyday life.

Bureaucracy makes it hard to get a job.

These days to qualify for certain jobs one needs degrees, certifications, licenses, good references. Your background, credit history, medical records will be investigated. Even janitorial jobs require resumes. Besides all these requirements, many large companies are looking for someone who knows “everything” in his or her field in addition to being a “self-starter with excellent communications skills.” Most human resource departments don’t realize that the world is full of people and not “gods.” The successful candidate usually turns out to be a “friend” of a company bureaucrat or someone who is highly skillful at lying.

Bureaucracy makes it harder to do your job.

You may have been hired to do one thing, but in a bureaucratic system, “corporate” finds a lot of extra things to do to provide you with the additional skills or motivation they believe you need. There are those morning meetings, where everyone must get up and cheer the praises of the company and listen to endless discussions about the “bottom line.” Then there are the dozens of daily emails from “corporate” that require your immediate attention.

Everyone is being constantly rated, teachers are rated by students, sales associates are rated by customers, products like movies, books and articles are rated by the “stars” they receive from the public. It’s quite easy to get bad ratings if you’re a teacher who doesn’t entertain the students enough, or if you’re a salesperson who’s too technical for a customer, or if you’re a writer, writing about an unpopular subject.

Performance ratings also come from your supervisors. You get bad ratings when you fail to meet assigned quotas or other company requirements. These ratings can affect your salary and even be an excuse for your dismissal.

Bureaucracy makes life more complicated.

In the sixties, it took less than a half hour to purchase a car and drive off, now it takes close to a workday needed to fill out the paperwork before you can take possession of your auto. In the sixties you were able to afford to pay cash, now most cars are bought on credit. The credit checks and added government regulations make the purchase a much more complex procedure. It is also is more complicated and costly to own a car. There are all the licensing fees, the insurance, the air quality tests. Any small driving mistake can …

How to Use Printable Fake Money to Manifest Money With The Law of Attraction

When learning how to use printable fake money to manifest money with the Law of Attraction, it is important to learn a few “tricks of the printable play money trade.” This article reveals five tips to use when beginning to learn how to manifest money with the specific “prop” of pretend printable money.

Tip 1: An unusual “rule” when deciding to use printable fake money is to decide not to tell anyone what you’re doing. Why is this so important? Because by giving away your “secret,” you’re doing two things; i.e., 1) Setting yourself up to feel silly that you’ve told someone what you’re doing and having them “laugh at you” instead of supporting you, and 2) Giving them ammunition to shoot you down and discourage your holding and playing with printable play money because they think they know more about the subject than you. This gives your subconscious ammunition to fight you when you’re holding the printable money and doing your wealth affirmations and should be avoided.

Tip 2: When creating money using printable fake money in this fashion, you want to set a small goal and stay committed to seeing it through the learning curve. To do this, create a corresponding wealth affirmation that is completely believable and say it when you look at or hold the pretend printable money. When your subconscious mind wants to fight you and say, “That’s not going to happen,” focus on your commitment to seeing this through the “learning curve” of getting accustomed to combining your wealth affirmations with the printable play money and learning how to manifest money with the Law of Attraction. It might take awhile to get everything “jellied” and going in the same direction, but staying committed to it and acknowledging that there is a learning curve will help you see it through to realizing your goal.

Tip 3: Find some printable money worksheets that not only look real, but give you exercises to do in connection with using these printable money worksheets with your money affirmations and other instructions on how to attract money using the Law of Attraction. This is important because using printable fake money all by itself can work, but works much better and faster when you have more of a “program” that goes around the use of the money printable worksheets.

Tip 4: One key in learning how to attract money with printable fake money is to do it in incremental steps and to make your “wad of cash” believable. Holding a “fat wad of cash” and doing money affirmations to “win the lottery,” still won’t work because your subconscious mind will fight the enormity of the goal. Instead, take a small amount of pretend printable money and place it in view often, so your subconscious mind will “acclimate to having money around.” Does this work? Yes, but it’s important to make sure the money is placed in strategic places and coincides with an appropriate money affirmation.

Tip 5: A critical factor in …

Cataract Surgery: Advantages and Disadvantages

Are you suffering from cataract in one or both eyes? Is the cloudiness of the eye’s natural lens is robbing you of your vision and quality of life? You no longer need to live with the vision impairment due to cataracts, thanks to cataract surgery.

Anyone thinking about undergoing Cataract surgery should first understand what is cataract.

The simplest definition for cataract is that it is a clouding of the natural lens, also called crystalline lens, in the eye that affects your daily activities and your ability to drive or read, and eventually leads to vision loss.

The only permanent way to repair a cataract is to have a cataract surgery. People with blurred or misty vision decide to have cataract surgery when the cloudiness in the eye’s natural lens gets bad enough where the vision cannot be improved with glasses or contact lens.

The surgical removal of cataract is also recommended to prevent other progressive eye disease s, such as diabetic retinopathy- a leading cause of blindness; and macular degeneration- deterioration of the center of the retina which leads to loss of central vision.

Cataract surgery, medically known as phacoemulsification, is performed with minimal sedation and typically takes around 20 minutes.

With the use of an operating microscope, the surgeon makes a very small incision about 3mm wide in the surface of the eye in or near the cornea. The clouded lens is then painlessly dissolved (phacoemulsify) using a fine needle that emits ultrasound waves. After the tiny fragmented pieces are sucked out, a folded artificial lens made from plastic or silicon is placed into the thin capsular bag. This artificial lens unfolds naturally in the eye.

Advantages

Cataract surgery is very simple and almost painless.

It is generally the safest and effective way to restore vision with no serious complications.

After having the surgery, you will be allowed to return home the same day.

One of the biggest advantages of having cataract surgery is undoubtedly the dramatic improvement in the quality of vision.

It helps you get rid of blurry vision and have a better and clearer vision.

The surgery has little or no risks. The percentage of risk associated with the surgical removal of the cataract film from the lens is less than 10{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}.

Following the surgery, your surgeon keeps you under observation for a couple of hours before marking you to be cleared for discharge.

The recovery time for a cataract surgery is very short. The tiny incision size allows the eye to recover faster.

With greater vision, you can walk, climb stairs, drive car and do household chores more actively.

Disadvantages

Like any other surgery, unexpected complications can occur during, or after, cataract surgery, albeit on rare occasions. The possible complications include:

Similar to any other major operation, the surgery may lead to blood loss

Abnormal reaction to the anaesthetic such as stickiness or itchiness of the eye is possible

Eye infection is also a possibility

Tearing of the lens capsule during surgery, causing reduced …

The Influence of Basketball Throughout Your Life

Basketball, just like any sport, is important for any child during their development and growth. Basketball can be played by both boys and girls and men and women. Organized kid’s teams start as early as 6-7 years old. Basketball promotes team work, team spirit and helps get children into better physical shape.

Not only do people play organized basketball in some sort of league but it is also played in a pick up format. Pick up basketball can be played by just showing up to the park and getting in a game among people who you may or may not know. As an added bonus playing basketball is a great way of meeting other people whether in organized leagues or during the weekend at outdoor pick up games at the park. Quite often, people who meet each other on the basketball court end up being off the court friends further down the road. These relationships can last many years, which all begin on the basketball court.

Basketball is a great sport, since you don’t always need someone else to play with to enjoy the game. You can practice shooting free throws, dribbling the ball and do some wind sprints to keep you in shape. Even playing with one other person is a lot of fun and there are many games like five-three-one and horse that you can play for hours at a time, while trying to improve your shot. If you find a few other people, you can play two on two, three on three or five on five. You can choose to either play full court games or half court which demands less running. There is just so much flexibility in getting out there and playing.…

How to Deal With an Overprotective Mother-In-Law

To many individuals, marriage is a life-long relationship. It starts when a man and a woman decide to live together as man and wife. Normally, there is a little ceremony during such a moment, where a number of friends and family members come to witness the start of the marriage. However, even without such a ceremony, when a couple decides to get married, they are recognized as husband and wife. It is soon after marriage when many couples start to face challenges such as how to deal with an overprotective mother-in-law. This happens when a female parent of the married couple becomes too protective to her ‘child.’

To some parents, it is quite simple to let children go and have their own families when they become adults. However, to some individuals, it is not that simple. Some parents refuse to admit their children have grown up and got married. They want to stay close to them to ensure their spouses are treating them right.

Although both male and female can be overprotective to their married children, the case is more prevalent in female. They are the so called mother-in-law. It does not matter whether it is their son or daughter who is married; they always want to be protective. At times they are protective for genuine reasons while at other times they are guided by selfish motives. Nevertheless, there are a number of things you can do to ensure to keep such parents from wrecking havoc to your marriage, in case you are married to their son or daughter. Below are some tips on how to deal with an overprotective mother-in-law.

1. Institute a base of trust between her and you. Give her reasons to trust you and believe you are capable of taking good care of her son or daughter without being pushed to do it.

2. Establish communication channels with her. This way, you will learn why she is so protective. Probably you are not the problem. Rather, she might be the problem and is only overacting because she feels you are taking her son or daughter away from her.

3. Avoid being too possessive of your spouse. This way, the mother-in-law might drop her militant attitude and stop being overprotective to her son or daughter.

4. Cultivate friendship with your mother-in-law. By so doing, she might cease seeing you as a threat and start considering you as a friend.

5. Get people you trust and who she respects to discuss with her how you feel about her attitude and over protectiveness.

6. Do not attempt to stand between her and your spouse. Doing that would make her more protective, since she will feel you are trying to rob her of your spouse’s affection.…

Critical Review of Saladin’s Achievements in the Era of the Crusaders

Saladin was a prominent figure in the Medieval history. He was the most famous of the Muslim military heroes. His achievements were not limited to the military sphere alone, but transgressed across the political, diplomatic and administrative arenas. He succeeded to unite the Muslims and defeated the Crusaders and recapture Jerusalem.

His Youth

Saladin was born in Tikrit (present Iraq) in the year of 1138. His father, Najmuddin, was a Kurdish from Azarbaijan. On the night of his birth, his father, Najmudin, decided to move to Aleppo and worked for Imaddin Zangi, the powerful Turkish governor in northern Syria.

He received a taste of military life under the guided eyes of his uncle, Asaddin, and the academic and religious elements from his father. Following the tradition in those days, Saladin was trained to be expert horse rider and handled various weapons of combat, such as the sword in and archery. While growing up, Saladin was an ordinary undistinguished youth, with a greater interest in religious studies, rather than military achievement.

Uniting the Muslims.

Egypt became the stepping stone for Saladin’s ambition to recapture Jerusalem. This opportunity came when he was part of the triumphant army sent to Egypt by the Emir of Damascus to face the onslaught of the Crusaders. Upon the death of the vizier and his uncle, (army commander Asaddin), he was appointed as the Vizier of Egypt, keeping alliance to the emir in Damascus. When the Emir in Damascus died, Saladin proceeded in his plan to unite the fractional Muslims states with single minded intention to stage a holy war.

Battle of Hattin.

This is the beginning of the downfall of the crusaders. The exhausted army was trapped. So great were the losses in the ranks of the crusaders in this single battle that the Muslims were able to overrun over nearly the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem. One by one their stronghold fell under the power of Saladin, Acre, Toron, Beirut, Sidon, Nazareth, Caesarea, Nabulus, Jaffa (Yafo), and Ascalon (Ashqelon) within three months.

Saladin’s main achievement was the capture of Jerusalem (1187). In stark contrast to the Christians who captured the city 87 years earlier, the Muslim reconquest was marked by the civilized and courteous behavior of Saladin and his troops. By 1189 the crusaders occupied only three cities in the entire Middle East. Saladin’s conquest sparked the Third Crusade, which was led by the famed military leader Richard I (the Lion-Hearted). The clash between these two great powers ended in a draw, but a treaty was drawn up that allowed Christians to visit holy sites in the area. Saladin died a peaceful death in Damascus in 1193.

Achievement

Saladin’s every act was inspired by an intense and undivided mindset to the idea of jihad, or holy war, taking the example from the struggle of the prophet and the companions. He opened colleges and mosque and created a system to support the quest of knowledge. He invited scholars and commissioned them to write edifying works both in …

NCERT – The Sublime Educational Body

NCERT:- National Council for Educational Research and Training is an apex education organisation set up by the Government of India. This body was set up with an objective of providing valuable assistance, guidance and advice to the Central and the State governments on matters concerning academics in relation to school education.

Introduction:

NCERT was established in the year 1961 as an autonomous organisation by the Government of India. The key role of this educational body to emphasize on the qualitative improvement of the educational system in India. It also aims at enriching the educational systems by implementing valuable policies, guidelines, strategies to be formulated in the Indian Educational system. This body assists the ministry of Human Resource Development, Government of India and Department of Education in States and Union Territories. It is headquartered in New Delhi

Structure:

NCERT has a defined organizational structure divided into 3 Functionaries

1) Senior Functionaries consisting a team headed by the Director In charge followed by the Joint Director NCERT, Secretary, Joint Director – CIET(Central Institute of Education Technology) & NCERT, Joint Director In-charge PSSCIVE, CAO and IFA.
2) Head of Departments/Divisions
3) Principals of RIE (Regional Institutes of Education)

Functioning:

NCERT undertakes, promotes and co-ordinates research in school education. It organizes per-service, in service training, extension activities for research and development. Acts as a clearing house for all matters concerning school education. Publishes, books, materials and periodicals. Acts as an interface in achieving universal education.

Conclusion: NCERT issues guidelines to have an effective and systematic educational system in the country. It accelerates the concept of universal education for all. NCERT also implements the bilateral cultural exchange programmes with various countries in the field of education.…