The Treaty of Westphalia: Description, Analysis and Prescription

Peace of Westphalia, treaty, signed October 24, 1648, closed the Thirty-Years War and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe. It is called like that because the negotiations, which began in 1644, took place in the German cities of Münster and Osnabrück, in Westphalia. The main participants were France and Sweden and their opponents Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. By the terms of the treaty, the sovereignty and independence of each state of the Holy Roman Empire was fully recognized, making the Holy Roman emperor virtually powerless.

By the early 1640s, after witnessing so much abuse by the Hapsburg Emperor’s feudal authority against the peoples of the small and war-devastated German states; and realizing that the horrors of the Thirty Years’ War were leading toward the destruction of civilization, Cardinal Jules de Mazarin acted to shift the attention of Europe away from religious conflicts. He sought to base a peace on the economic recovery and political sovereignty of the German Electorates and States, to move them towards freedom from the tyranny of the Emperor.

According to the treaty both sides must forget whatever happened to them and each side must avoid any act of hostility towards the other side as taking revenge. Neither this side nor the other must help the other’s enemies. Both sides must try to reconstruct and reestablish the damages remained since the war.

Before the Treaty of Westphalia, according to the treaty of Augsburg (1555), the religion of each German state was to be determined by the religion of its prince-Roman Catholic, Lutheran, or Calvinist. If a prince changed his religion he would forfeit his lands; this provision was included as a method of checking the spread of the Reformation. The Peace of Westphalia marked the close of the period of religious wars. Thereafter, European armed struggles were waged principally for political ends.

After the Thirty-Years War which was on the independence of lands ruled by the Holy Roman Empire and on religions, each of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire became independent enough not to be obliged to obey the Empire on peace and war. In terms of religion they could have the religion they wanted to have and have private or public churches and even the Calvin followers were respected.

Despite the many results and consequences that the treaty had, I think the most important and influential result of the Treaty of Westphalia was fully recognition of the independence and territorial sovereignty of each of the states. That is since the Treaty of Westphalia, territory is the most significant and the determining factor of a state. Since then, a state is not recognized by its people or by its legitimacy or authority, but it is recognized by its territory. Territory of a state became valuable and borders got sacred.

Although Germany was not recognized as an independent state and it was a collection of many states, and despite the fact that the treaty resulted in Germany’s weakness, it had an …

President Ronald Reagan’s Keys to Public Speaking Success

Former President Ronald Reagan, our 40th President said: “America is too great for small dreams.” Reagan’s optimism can be found in his numerous speeches delivered across America while serving as president. During his tenure in the White House he faced many challenges, obstacles and adversity with great courage. As a student of rhetoric I found the delivery and content of Reagan’s speeches to be dynamic, upbeat, positive and hopeful. We can learn how to be more effective speakers and communicators by reviewing three key qualities in President Reagan’s public speaking style:

First, Reagan captivated his audiences by using a strong voice and vocal variety. Reagan’s developed his abilities as a strong speaker in his early years as a radio and sports broadcaster. Years later, he refined his delivery skills as a professional actor in Hollywood. Reagan recognized that a speech includes more than content. To be effective, speakers need strong delivery skills. Delivery is the oral and physical presentation of your speech. Effective delivery involves present your message with a sense of communication. It is possible to research, organize and write a powerful speech, yet the speech can be rendered ineffective by a poor delivery. Reagan had a strong, deep, enthusiastic voice. He utilized the concept of vocal variety. Vocal variety involves the pitch (highness or lowness) and tone (serious, humorous, happy) of your voice. Many of us can remember Reagan’s speech at the Berlin Wall in 1987 where Reagan raised his voice in his request to the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev to “Tear down this wall.” Reagan also presented his speeches using a comfortable rate of speaking. He utilized pauses to effectively highlight major ideas. Successful speakers recognized that vocal variety is more attention-getting and appealing to an audience.

Second, Reagan optimized the use of nonverbal. He was known for looking directly into the camera during televised speeches from the oval office. Eye contact is critical to effective speech delivery. Some speakers spend too much time looking down at their manuscript. This approach shows a lack of preparation and self- confidence. The tone of your remarks should be reflected in your face. Reagan’s historic speech following the Challenger Disaster in 1986 is an example of using your face to establish the tone of your speech. Reagan’s facial reactions during the Challenger Disaster speech reflected a genuine tone of sadness and tragedy, mixed with hope for the future. Posture is also very important for a speaker. Reagan was known for standing straight up during speeches. His posture during a speech reflected his confidence as a leader of the free world.

Third, Reagan utilized an audience centered approach to speaking. He was familiar with each audience and his speeches were customized to each audience he addressed. Speechwriters for Reagan participated in audience analysis. Audience analysis is a term which means that the speaker will take care to understand the interests, values, beliefs, and attitudes of the audience to ensure greater success with the speech. Not only must the …

Write Love Letters Using the Law of Attraction

I recently searched the Internet to find out what people were saying about how to write love letters. I found a ton of ebooks advertised. Many of the ads talked about writing love letters to make the man or woman of your dreams fall head over heels in love with you.

One website wants nearly a hundred bucks to show you how to do this. Yeah, right. Where did I put my wallet?

My whole philosophy about how I write love letters is so different. I think of love notes as spreading love around. I don’t do it to seduce someone. I don’t scheme, plot, connive. I just beam love like sunlight and don’t live in fear of what the response will be.

Rather than thinking of writing love letters to make someone fall in love with me, I think of the process as sending out a reflection of who I am on the inside. I write from the heart and I show them my soul. I don’t play aloof or hard to get. I don’t worry about appearing too eager or too easy.

I be who I am and I figure that sooner or later the right someone is going to resonate with me. My words will have impact not because I have skillfully manipulated somebody’s emotions but because I have written what I stand for and that person likes it.

Have you seen or read The Secret? It’s about the law of attraction and how it works. Of course, the law of attraction has been around for centuries and great teachers of motivational thinking and positive psychology have been teaching it all along.

The law of attraction essentially says that you create your reality by how you think. If you constantly think good stuff, you’ll attract good stuff to you. If you constantly think about doom and gloom, that’s the consciousness and experiences you’ll attract to you.

So here’s the deal: If I geared a mate search or ran a relationship with a mentality of I have to manipulate someone to love me, that’s what I am going to get back. The whole relationship will be a fraud. The person I would want to love me wouldn’t really love me; she would love a cardboard fantasy image of me. Chances are that she would be using similar tactics in an attempt to manipulate me!

I recommend using the law of attraction in a positive way. If you don’t have a relationship, use it to attract one. If you do have a relationship, use it to energize the bond you have created.

What does this mean in practical terms? Think about what you want to happen in your love life. Think about what you want to create. Then write about it with all your heart.

Avoid thinking about what you don’t want or don’t have. Since you create your own reality through your thoughts, beliefs, and expectations, focusing on bad stuff just attracts bad stuff to you.

Common sense …