Social Control During the Roman Empire – Politics

Politics are a central instigator for social control as they set out the guidelines for how a culture is directed. During ancient Rome a number of political themes were in evidence as part of gladiatorial spectacles that exhibited social control. The rhetorician and advocate Fronto (no date) was well aware of the political power of the gladiatorial spectacle. He provides a fascinating insight into the political structure of the time, claiming that:

the human drives that lead men to demand the grain dole are less powerful than those which lead them to desire spectacle (Fronto no date, Letters 2.18.9-17)

Fronto is inferring that the power of spectacle outweighs that of life itself; in order to live the Romans require the grain. This is possibly a slightly exaggerated view point expressed by Fronto, as without life the Roman people would not be able to view the spectacle, however it does provide a useful indication as to how powerful the spectacle could be. In the same letter Fronto (no date, Letters 2.18.9-17) also points out the political significance of the spectacle:

that only the people eligible for the grain dole are won over by handouts of grain, and at that individually, whereas the whole people are won over by spectacles

Here Fronto is pointing out that the grain has an impact on the populace on an individual level, however the spectacle can win people over on a collective level. As the Roman games developed through the late Republic and into the empire the Roman games became increasingly more spectacular and more politically charged. Upon the formation of the Empire, Kyle (2007) argues that the Roman people surrendered any freedom that they had and succumbed to autocracy, both of which were substituted for spectacle and free food.

Political Status

Social control through gladiatorial spectacles could be used to enhance political status, via admiration of the populace and the acquisition of votes. Poliakoff (1987, p109) states that “the arena most clearly displayed the power and control of its organisers”. Fronto (no date, Letters 2.18.9-17), while discussing Trajan, highlights this further, stating that Trajan’s rule was endorsed by the populace as much for the gladiatorial spectacles that he put on as for more serious matters. Fronto also commented on the neglect of both these aspects stated that “serious things are neglected with greater loss, but games, with greater resentment” (Fronto no date, Letters 2.18.9-17).

The abolition of the Republic and formation of the Empire meant there was no longer the need to compete for votes, so the focus of gladiatorial spectacle changed to “fit the Emperor’s agenda” (Futrell 2006, p29). The gladiatorial spectacle provided Emperors with the opportunity to stamp their own authority on the people, Poliakoff (1987, p109) states that the Emperor was “the arbiter of life and death”.

Julius Caesar was fully aware of the power of the spectacle in determining his political status. Plutarch (75 CE) puts forward that he “entertained the people with three hundred and twenty single combats” and …

Keria Knightley’s Astrology-Numerology Combination – Aries Scientific Psychic

As Elizabeth Swann in the “Pirates of the Caribbean” films, Keria Knightly has become on of Hollywood’s favorite leading ladies. Literally born into acting, this young star has amassed a long list of credits. Most of us only know her from the roles she has played, yet there is far more to this talented young woman. Read on to learn what her Astrology Numerology combination tells us about this rising young star.

Astronumerology – Life Path and Horoscope Combined

If you want a quick way to know someone’s personality, Astronumerology is an excellent choice. This method involves using their date of birth to get their Astrology sun sign, and to calculate their Numerology Life path number. These two values single out one personality type from over (100) different combinations. The Life Path calculation involves summing the digits of someone’s full date of birth including the century, and then reducing the total to a single digit using fadic addition. In Keria Knightley’s case, her birth date of March 26th, 1985, tells us that her Astrology Numerology combination is Aries with a Life Path value of (7).

Aries (7) – The Scientific Psychic

People with this combination are perfectionist with strong psychic gifts. Education, particularly in the areas of history, law, medicine, politics, religion, and psychic phenomenon is a passion for these souls. Aries sevens will learn to do anything they set their mind to, practicing these new skills tirelessly until they can do them perfectly every time. These souls have limitless curiosity, and will try anything once. They love games for their own sake, and can play them for hours; yet when they tire of them, Aries sevens will walk away, forfeiting all to the total bewilderment of their opponents.

When an Aries seven, really wants something, they will find a way to get it, regardless of the obstacles in their path. They will try tactical strategy, or political savvy first, but if these fail, expect the impossible if that’s what it takes. These souls start out life fighting over trivial things, but as they get older, they learn to pick their battles with care and save their talents for things that really matter. Aries sevens are excellent at hiding their feelings and keeping secrets, unless they decide its in their best interest to open up and tell all. It’s easy for their foes to think they are predictable, but this is a trap that Aries sevens will often use to their advantage.

Conclusion

Keria Knightley’s Astrology Numerology combination bode well for her career. Her curiosity, and her ability to hide her true feelings behind a mask will let her assume many different roles. And, her ability to focus and get what she wants will bring her the roles she needs to stay on top of the A-List actresses. It will be really interesting to see where her passion for new things takes her in the next few years.…