The Ethnic Composition of Benue State

The formation of Nigerian states after regional government failed was being thought of by General Gowon administration as the best option to help unite the various ethnic groups which were being segmented along regional divisions. This was because the regional politics made the central government very weak and on the other hand, made the dominant ethnic groups to pay more allegiance to the regional governments than the centre. It was after the abolition of the regional divisions that Nigerian ethnic groups begin to live and interact with others on states level.

The first generation of states created was twelve and the Benue as a state was carved under Benue-Plateau. The Benue-Plateau state was more or less like a sandwich of over thirteen minority tribes or ethnic groups of different inter-cultural affiliation towards one another. Dominant tribes /ethnic groups however include Ngas, Biron, Kutev, Tiv, Idoma, Igala, etc. The headquarters (state capital) was in Jos and all the representatives of these peoples (different tribes and ethnic groups) were normally sent to Jos in order to deliberate on the affairs of the state.

The second generation of states created, add-up to a total number nineteen state and it was during this time that Benue was separated from Plateau with each having its separate state. Benue state after it was created habours ethnic groups like Igala, Idoma, Tiv, Igede, and other relatively smaller ones. None of the groups mentioned above is among the three dominant cultural groups in Nigeria (Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba). These minority trbes were socially and politically brought together under one plat-form as a state to run the affairs of the state. During this period, the only radio station, Radio-Benue, will have news translation in the local languages of the different ethnic groups. During occasions of state or national event, all the cultures would have their cultural displays in form of dance and drama and other performances, first to entertain but mostly to indirectly represent their tribe and to identify with the state.

Latter on the creation of Kogi state cut away Igala and join with some parts of Kwara. This reduced the number of ethnic groups as well as cultural representation in the state. Considering the fact that Western civilization came very late within the area compare to the north and south areas in Nigeria, this also affected development in a way. There is very little industrial development within the state and the people who constitute over ninety percent of traditional farmers (peasants) make their living through farm produce. Food is practically abundant and the state is a major source of food supply to the entire nation. This alone has earned Benue state the title of “FOOD BASKET OF THE NATION”.…

The Law of Attraction Versus the Law of Reversibility

Lately, I’ve been pondering which of these two laws is more relevant in these times… The Law of Attraction or the Law of Reversibility?

In reality, they are not in opposition, but rather they work together in harmony.

Unless you’ve spent the past few years in total isolation, its very likely that you’ve heard something about the Law of Attraction (LOA).

The basic premise of the LOA, is that like attracts like. In other words, the circumstances you are experiencing in your life are as a direct result of your dominating thoughts, both conscious and unconscious. Therefore, the Law is at work at all time, regardless of your awareness of it or attention toward it.

In 2006, a cinematic release entitled “The Secret” helped to catapult the Law of Attraction into the mainstream. Many people that were newcomers to the concepts of the Law mistakenly interpreted the content to mean that all you needed to do in order to fulfill your desires was to “ask” for something, focus your attention on it, and **POOF**, you’d magically get it!

…Just make a wish!

And sadly, many people (maybe even you?) have discounted the validity of the Law because they’ve failed to achieve measurable results from their initial attempts at applying the concepts in their lives.

But it’s not your fault…

The problem is that you weren’t taught anything about the Law of Reversibility. And without a working knowledge of THIS Law, your results are likely to be marginal, at best.

Yet it’s likely that you’ve never even heard of The Law of Reversibility, right?

It’s somewhat difficult to describe, but when you officially “get it”, your life may never be the same!

First, you must understand that all transformations of force are reversible. (Heat is an example of a transformation of force, as is electricity, or controlled imagination, and so is cause-and-effect).

For example, if friction (a transformation of force) can produce electricity, then The Law of Reversibility dictates that electricity can produce friction. Is this making sense to you?

To put it another way, if a physical fact can produce a psychological state, then IN REVERSE, a psychological state can produce a physical fact.

And why does this matter? Well…think of the implications…

If you knew exactly how you would feel if you were to realize your dream or objective, and could replicate that feeling mentally, physically, and psychologically (controlling your state of mind), then the Law of Reversibility would automatically cause your objective to be realized. Make sense?

Your job then, is to assume and sustain the exact feeling associated with your dream or goal being fulfilled, until such time that your dream objectifies itself. And in order to sustain that feeling, you must live, move, and BE in that state of belief…

The belief that you already ARE or HAVE that which you desire.

“Get it” yet?

Instead of just making a wish and concentrating on your desired outcome, I want you to assume the feeling of your …

Division of Assets: An Essential Matter Of Marriage Dissolution

Among the most important parameters of a marriage dissolution or annulation is the division of assets. That is to say, either party has the right to claim his or her contribution to the increase of the property of the other partner. In this point, it should be underlined that Cyprus jurisdiction applies in case the parties have lived in the Republic of Cyprus for at least three months, regardless of the nationality.

The Cyprus jurisdiction will deal with the division of assets in accordance with the Law Regulating Property Relations of Spouses (Law 232/1991). Section 13 of the Law 232/1991 points out that marriage does not influence the proprietary independence of each spouse. In other words, each partner preserves and obtains his or her own property even after the marriage.

The provisions of the Law 232/1991 underline that once the property of one spouse has been increased during the marriage and the other spouse has his or her own contribution; then the other spouse may claim the part of the property that has been increased due to his or her contribution. Generally, the contribution will be assumed to be 1/3 of the increase unless a larger or smaller contribution is proved.

The contribution is not only of a monetary nature. For instance, if a spouse takes care of the children of the family and the household, or provides moral support to his or her working spouse, this could be considered to have contributed to the growth of the other spouse’s property. On the other hand, in case the spouses have acquired assets from donations, inheritance, legacies or other ex-gratia sources, this is not taken into consideration when estimating if there has been a growth in the property of the spouses. In the case of debts, each partner is liable for his or her debt, except for particular circumstances.

The Court must compare the assets that either partner had at the time the marriage was celebrated with the assets that either partner had at the date of marriage dissolution or annulation so that to estimate whether the property has increased during the marriage of the parties. In case, there is no increase, or if the property of one of the spouses has decreased, then the Section 14 of the Law 232/1991 does not apply, and the other spouse has not the right to claim anything. As a result, each spouse is obliged to provide the necessary exhibits so that to justify that the matrimonial property has increased during their marriage. The latter can be facilitated by establishing an inventory of assets or by other means.

Disclosure of Assets

Following the submitted application of any party, the Court may issue an order whereby the other party is obliged to submit within fifteen days an affidavit to the Court. In the affidavit, the other party must fully and concretely describe the property he or she had any direct or indirect benefit within the date of marriage dissolution or other relevant date defined by …

6 Reasons Why People Become Vegetarian

While there is no one single form of vegetarianism, what all forms have in common is a lifestyle that abstains from the consumption of meat, fish, and poultry. One the more moderate end lacto-ovo-vegetarians eat both dairy and egg foods and products. On the other extreme there are the vegans who do not eat or use any animal byproduct, (i.e. meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy, honey, leather products…etc.). In between these two extremes are ovo-vegetarians, who eat eggs but not dairy, and lacto-vegetarians, who eat dairy but not eggs.

The reasons people become vegetarian are many. It could be due to religious/spiritual reasons, like me with Buddhism, or for political, health, ethical, environmental, practical, or aesthetic reasons. Here’s a brief rundown.

  1. Religious – The majority of Eastern religions (e.g. Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Taoism) prescribe a vegetarian diet. While the Western religions (e.g. Judaism, Christianity, Islam) do not advocate a vegetarian diet, one can interpret certain lines of Scripture or morals behind holy stories or prophecies as good cause to practice vegetarianism.
  2. Ethical – A person might abstain from eating meat since he feels it is abhorrent to take the life of any living creature.
  3. Political – One may abstain from eating meats on the grounds of battling globalization, food corporations, agribusiness, trade revolving around livestock and meat.
  4. Environmental – Since livestock needs large grazing grounds, a great deal of land would have to be cleared increasing the carbon footprint. In addition, there is always the risk of overgrazing on a particular parcel of land and the methane released by cows which all have environmental repercussions.
  5. Practical – Some people just don’t have the access or resources to buy and eat meat.
  6. Aesthetic – Some people just don’t like the taste of meat, or how it looks like, or the fact that they’re eating a dead thing  

But the best and perhaps most widespread reason people become vegetarian are the health benefits. Vegetarian diets have time and again proven to be healthier and more viable than non-vegetarian diets. A vegetarian is less likely to have a high BMI, high levels of cholesterol, high levels of blood pressure, and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, renal failure, bone loss, and dementia. The reason for the health benefits of vegetarianism is due to the omission of meats, especially non-lean red meat, which have high levels of saturated fat and carry risks of animal-human disease transmissions as well food-borne pathogens due to poor preparation.…

How to Use the Law of Attraction in Dealing With Difficult People in 4 Easy Steps

For centuries, humans have been dealing with circumstances and problems, whether it be relationships, money and other stuff that has an effect in our lives. Sadly, almost 97{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the population deal with these problems externally. When I say externally, they try to change their situations and how other people treat them by trying to do something outside of themselves, but to no avail. Can you somehow relate to what I am saying? Best example is when you see something that you don’t like about a person, such as an attitude or a habit. You then try to tell them about it and ask them to change. Eventually, you will notice that as you focus on their problem, they tend to get worse and more problems and headaches occur?

This issue has been a mystery for me for many decades. Just to give you an idea, I have read and listened to so many self help, religious, and even “new thought” books and audio books. Not to mention joining organizations and religious groups. I have struggled and failed almost my entire life. These things seem to be good, based on what the norm and culture told us. I’ve read about people getting good results on those helpful tools and groups that I mentioned, but the fact is it did not work for me.

You might be doing okay with some areas of your life, but some part is really pulling your momentum down which is outrageous. And the most common problem for most people is dealing with relationships. It can be your spouse, relative, friend, neighbor, or a bum on the corner of the street. Still, their words and actions will always have a mental or emotional impact to you that you would wish to change.

Recently, I finally found a REAL solution to this problem that haunted me for so many years. And now I am going to share this to you. First let me tell you something very important. Most of us might know this but have been ignoring the power of it. YOU ARE RESPONSIBLE TO ANYTHING THAT IS HAPPENING IN YOUR LIFE RIGHT NOW! Yes, you read it right. You might say “what the hell are you talking about Paul? Are you serious? Are you implying that I’ve caused those people to hurt me, when it is clearly their fault and I have done nothing wrong to them?” Well, my answer is a resounding YES!

I believe you must have heard about the so called “Law of Attraction.” If you haven’t, I believe you can check out Rhonda Byrne’s “The Secret”, Joe Vitale’s “The Attractor Factor, Or Wallace Wattles’ “The Science of Getting Rich.” It gives you an overview about this law. It is as real as any other laws of nature such as the Law of Gravity, Law of Cause and Effect, and others. Law of Attraction is mostly defined as “like attracts like”. Whatever is going on in your mind, accompanied with a feeling, …

Differences Between Formal and Informal Social Control

Social control can be considered as an important aspect of an individual’s socialization process. There are some universal norms or rules which should be followed by members of all societies. Any deviation from these norms may result in a minimum level of punishment for ensuring the social order. It refers to the processes of regulation of an individual or group behavior in a society, which encourages conformity and obedience. It may include social or political mechanisms. Its two forms are formal and informal controls.

Formal Social Control:

Formal social control is implemented by authorized agents including police officers, employers, military officers, and others. It is carried out as a last option at some places when the desired behavior is not possible through informal social control. The situations and severity where formal control is practiced varies with countries.

This is practiced through law as statutes, rules, and regulations against deviant social behavior. For example, certain laws like prohibition of murder can be directed at all members of a society. Fishing and hunting regulations are made for certain groups. Corporate laws are laid for governing the behavior of social institutions. Formal control is conducted by government and organizations through law enforcement mechanisms. It can also be conducted through some formal sanctions including fines and imprisonment. Processes of formal control in democratic societies are determined and designed through legislation by elected representatives.

Courts or judges, military officers, police officers, school systems or teachers, and government agencies or bureaucrats, enforce formal control.

Informal Social Control:

It is exercised by a society without stating any rules or laws. It is expressed through norms and customs. Social control is performed by informal agents on their own in an unofficial capacity. Traditional societies mostly embed informal social control culture to establish social order.

Shame, sarcasm, criticism, ridicule and disapproval are some of the informal sanctions. Social discrimination and exclusion are included in informal control at extreme deviant cases. Self-identity, self-worth and self-esteem are affected in informal control through loss of group approval or membership. The severity and nature of informal control mechanisms differ from varied individuals, groups, and societies.

Informal is effective in small group settings including friends, family, neighborhood, work group and others. However, in some large and complex societies, informal social control and disapproval is ignored easily. At such situations, it is necessary to follow the formal one.

Some of the differences of formal and informal social control are:

•Formal social control includes written, formalized and codified statements in laws, rules, and regulations. Whereas informal control does not contain any written rules.

•Formal control agencies are authorized ones created by government and informal control agencies are created by social networks and organizations but not by government.

•Formal control is much effective and stronger than informal social control. Any situations which cannot be handled by informal control are subjected to formal one.

•Formal control is effective for even large groups of population but informal control is effective only for a small group of people.

Social control, …

Global Economic and Political Issues

In an article written and published by Ed Crooks on January 6, 2011 entitled “America: Riveting Prospects,” he writes about why companies in America are opposed to exporting.

To summarize his article, showcased is the Middle River Aircraft systems plant where the world famous Rosie the Riveter, during the second World War, represented the millions of women that joined the manufacturing workforce making the industry a power house, and compared it to today’s meager offerings. The plant that is now owned by GE, although still thriving has faced some tough times through the years. Although weathered by the storms, the president of GE’s aircraft parts division has hope for a brighter future.

Although some political leaders and some American businesses also have hope in rebuilding growth and employment based on manufacturing, production, exporting and earnings and less on construction, consumption, importing and debt, leaders of some of America’s largest manufacturing companies feel that it will be a long hard road to rebuild production in the U.S. GE’s chief executive Jeff Immelt, however, shares with Andrew Liveris of Dow Chemical the dream of restoring industrial America to greatness, especially with unemployment at 9.8 and rising. Liveris has even written a book on the topic of how to be competitive on a global basis, “Make It in America: The Case for Reinventing the Economy.”

Ed Crooks, however, claims that many U.S. companies, overall, has issues with exporting. Although the world offers many opportunities and America is seeing some of the benefits with emerging markets in China, India and Brazil and creating everything from a-z, Barry Botsworth of the think-tank, Brookings Institution, states that although the U.S. is similar to other developed countries in importing, we are very poor when it comes to exporting manufactured goods. Other industry executives agree that the problems with U.S. manufactures run deep. Ed Crooks has given five reasons to support his view and I summarize them as follows:

* American industries are not familiar with selling internationally. According to the chamber of commerce, only one percent of U.S. companies participate in exporting and 58 percent of those companies only export to one other company.

* The United States has been the most inactive entity at signing agreements to participate in international trade. With about 262 agreements around the world and about 100 in negotiations, the U.S. has only signed 17. In addition, the U.S. is severely affected by tariff barriers and ranks number 8 out of 121 ‘tariff-faced’ exporting countries.

* U.S. manufacturers have inefficiently skilled and inefficiently educated workforces which threaten the industry base to fall into disrepair, job opportunities to dwindle and closing of production lines. Furthermore, without a strong pipeline of industrial talent in the future, there will be no capacity for future opportunities, no chance of developing new market segments, or creating the next innovation in aerospace, which will further deteriorate the industrial base of the U.S.

* With the emerging economies furthering skills and facilities, there us the opportunity for them to …

Impact of Social Media on Society

“Do you have Facebook?”

“Yes, of course. But I don’t think you can find me, as there are too many people who have the same name as me. Try searching with my surname as well.”

“Hey, you celebrated your birthday in K-Box, right? I saw the photos in your Facebook.”

“Bro, I saw your comments about the YouTube video that I’ve posted in my blog. I’m happy that you are also deeply moved by the ‘Dancing Peacock Man’ as well.”

Social media or “social networking” has almost become part of our daily lives and being tossed around over the past few years. It is like any other media such as newspaper, radio and television but it is far more than just about sharing information and ideas. Social networking tools like Twitter, Facebook, Flickr and Blogs have facilitated creation and exchange of ideas so quickly and widely than the conventional media. The power of define and control a brand is shifting from corporations and institutions to individuals and communities. It is no longer on the 5Cs (e.g. condominium, credit cards and car) that Singaporeans once talked about. Today, it is about the brand new Cs: creativity, communication, connection, creation (of new ideas and products), community (of shared interests), collaboration and (changing the game of) competition.

In January 2010, InSites Consulting has conducted an online survey with 2,884 consumers from over 14 countries between the ages of 18 to 55 years old on social networking. More than 90{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of participants know at least 1 social networking site and 72{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of participants are members of at least 1 social networking site. On the average, people have about 195 friends and they log in twice a day to social networking sites. However, 55{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the users cannot access their social network websites at work. In the past, not many adults were able to make more than 500 friends, but with social media, even a child or teenager can get to know more than 500 people in a few days by just clicking the mouse. Social media has devalued the traditional definition of “friend” where it means trust, support, compatible values, etc. Although we get to know more people, we are not able to build strong bond with all the people whom we met as our available time is limited. Hence, there is an upcoming social trend of people with wider social circles, but weaker ties (people we don’t know very well but who provide us with useful information and ideas).

Social media also influences people’s buying behaviours. Digital Influence Group reported that 91{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the people say consumer reviews are the #1 aid to buying decisions and 87{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} trust a friend’s recommendation over critic’s review. It is thrice more likely to trust peer opinions over advertising for purchasing decisions. 1 word-of-mouth conversation has an impact of 200 TV ads. With the prevalence use of social media, there is numerous news related to it from the most viewed YouTube video on “Armless pianist wins ‘China’s …

The Important Role Of Public Relations

Public relations is fundamentally the art and science of establishing relationships between an organization and its key audiences. Public relations plays a key role in helping business industries create strong relationships with customers.

Public relations involves supervising and assessing public attitudes, and maintaining mutual relations and understanding between an organization and its public. The function of public relations is to improve channels of communication and to institute new ways of setting up a two-way flow of information and understanding.

Public relations is effective in helping:

* Corporations convey information about their products or services to potential customers

* Corporations reach local government and legislators

* Politicians attract votes and raise money, and craft their public image and legacy

* Non-profit organizations, including schools, hospitals, social service agencies etc. Boost support of their programs such as awareness programs, fund-raising programs, and to increase patronage of their services

Public relations in present times practices miscellaneous techniques such as opinion polling and focus groups to evaluate public opinion, combined with a variety of high-tech techniques for distributing information on behalf of their clients, including the Internet, satellite feeds, broadcast faxes, and database -driven phone banks.

As public image is important to all organizations and promoter personalities the role of public relations specialist becomes pertinent in crisis situations. Public relations agencies provide important and timely transmission of information that helps save the face of the organization. In the words of the Public Relations Society of America (PRSA), "Public relations helps an organization and its public adopt mutually to one another."

Experienced public relations agencies have formulations press releases into which they can plug the company news, as well as a targeted list of publications for their industry. Truly good public relations agencies generally have a good working relationship with key reporters, boosting their chances of getting coverage. Some public relations agencies deal only with large, established clients, while smaller boutique public relations agencies specialize in certain areas.

At present public relations as a career option exists in private companies or government institutions that actively market their product, service and facilities. Public relations training courses are widespread in educational institutions. According to the US Bureau of Labor Statistics, there were 122,000 public relations specialists in the United States in 1998 and approximately 485,000 advertising, marketing, and public relations managers working in all industries.

Most public relations practitioners are recruited from the ranks of journalism. Public relations officers are highly trained professionals with expertise and knowledge in many areas, for example shareholder management during a crisis, the evolving role of the in-house public relations professional, account management skills for public relations, an introduction to financial public relations, an Introduction to consumer public relations, an introduction to public relations software etc. …

Statutes in U.S. Healthcare System

The healthcare field is the subject of a host of federal statutes, regulations, guidelines, interpretive information, and model guidance. There are a considerable number of statutes and regulations that have an impact on the delivery of healthcare services. A statute is legislative enactment that has been signed into law. A statute either directs someone to take action, grants authority to act in certain situations, or to refrain from doing so. Statutes are not self-enforcing. Someone must be authorized to do so to take action. A statute may authorize the Department of Health and Human Services to take action, and it is up to the department to implement the law. Regulations, or rules, are made by administrative personnel to whom legislatures have delegated such responsibilities. It is a tool for developing policies, procedures, and practice routines that track the expectations of regulatory agencies and departments. The statutory and regulatory requirements are subject to judicial interpretation.

A very important element of healthcare management is to understand the key regulatory environment. One government statute that effects patient healthcare is the Anti-Kickback Statute. The Medicare and Medicaid Patient Protection Act of 1987 (the “Anti-Kickback Statute”), has been enacted to prevent healthcare providers from inappropriately profiting from referrals. The government regards any type of incentive for a referral as a potential violation of this law because the opportunity to reap financial benefits may tempt providers to make referrals that are not medically necessary, thereby driving up healthcare costs and potentially putting patient’s health at risk. The Anti-Kickback statute is a criminal statute. Originally enacted almost 30 years ago, the statute prohibits any knowing or willful solicitation or acceptance of any type of remuneration to induce referrals for health services that are reimbursable by the Federal government. For example, a provider may not routinely waive a patient’s co-payment or deductible. The government would view this as an inducement for the patient to choose the provider for reasons other than medical benefit. While these prohibitions originally were limited to services reimbursed by the Medicare or Medicaid programs, recent legislation expanded the statute’s reach to any Federal healthcare program. Because the Anti-Kickback statute is a criminal statute, violations of it are considered felonies, with criminal penalties of up to $25,000 in fines and five years in prison. Routinely waiving copayments and deductibles violates the statute and ordinarily results in a sanction. However, a safe harbor has been created wherein a provider granting such a waiver based on a patient’s financial need would not be sanctioned. The enactment of the 1996 Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) added another level of complexity to the Anti-Kickback statute and its accompanying safe harbors. HIPAA mandated that the OIG (Office of Inspector General) furnish advisory opinions to requesting providers that are either in an arrangement or contemplating an arrangement that may not fit squarely within the law. For a fee, the OIG would analyze the arrangement and determine whether it could violate the law and whether the OIG would impose sanctions …