Cultural Diversity in Nigeria: A Blessing or a Curse?

Cultural diversity is a phrase generally used in describing a society with people of different ethnic roots which manifest in their languages, mode of dressing, arts, as well as other traditional practices which are either similar or distinctively different from each group. Such traditional practices are highly valued and held with great admiration among people of an ethnic group. In Nigeria for instance, when it comes to dressing a core northerner is identified with a starchy ironed fez as a cap. In the western part of Nigeria which is dominated by Yoruba ethnic group, people generally sew their cap in a long style which is neatly folded when worn on the head. On the other hand, in the eastern side of the country the Ibo are know for their red cap which is traditional worn (but mostly) by title holders. Other minority ethnic groups within the middle belt region like the Tiv, Ngas, Idoma, Nupe, etc, also have unique cultural attributes which help in recognizing their cultural roots when appeared in the public. For example, the Tiv people in Nigeria are widely known for their a’nger, a unique traditional costume (fabric), lineally sewn in black and white features, which is generally worn by Tiv people to identify with their cultural origin.

The picture created above is that of a cultural mosaic or congress of cultures consensually residing in one community called Nigeria. However, to express how culturally diversified Nigeria is, there is need to have mental cross-section of Kaduna state which has, over the years, remained a unifying point for varying cultures.

Kaduna state is an epitome of a highly diversified sub-political entity in Nigeria with over fifteen tribes/ethnic groups. Apart from the Hausas, which dominate the northern part of the state, there are a lot of minority tribes/cultural groups settling in different parts of Kaduna state. For example, the southern part of the state has Kagoro, Moro’a, Jaba, Fantsuan, Kataf, Baju, Gbagi, Kagoma, Mada, Ninzam, Attakar, Fulani, Attukur, Koro etc. All these tribes/ethnic groups mentioned above have cultural attributes which are similar in practice or remarkable different from each other. Kagoro ethnic group, for instance, set aside January 1 of every year to celebrate her people and culture. In every Kagoro Day (1st January), there are a lot of cultural display: Dance, costumes, arts, etc. The event draws people from various parts of the country especially sons and daughters of Kagoro as well as highly dignifying chiefs within Nigeria.

On the other hand, the disparities within the ethnic groups have existed for a long time. Even in the history of Nigeria, one may agree with the writer that it was the cultural or ethnic differences which propelled polarize ideologies that made indirect rule during the colonial era to be successful in the north and failed in the south. Also, it was the manifestation of such differences that made the people of the southern part of Nigeria to demand for independence in 1958 when the northern representatives said they …

Emile Durkheim’s Analysis of the Problem of Anomie and Its Connections

According to Durkheim, anomie is a breakdown of social norms and it is a condition where norms no longer control the activities of members in society. Individuals cannot find their place in society without clear rules to help guide them. Changing conditions as well as adjustment of life leads to dissatisfaction, conflict, and deviance. He observed that social periods of disruption leads to higher rates of suicide.

While suicide is an individual act, Durkheim argues that the suicide rate is a social fact; something that is external to any individual. It is a product of the social structure of any given society. Durkheim figured by examining the different types of suicide, he could identify key elements of social organization. He then collected several European nations’ suicide rate statistics, which proved to be relatively constant among those nations and among smaller demographics within those nations. He discovered a collective tendency towards suicide among White, Protestant males. Of equal importance to his methodology, Durkheim drew theoretical conclusions on the social causes of suicide. He proposed four types of suicide, based on the degrees of imbalance of two social forces: social integration and moral regulation. Integration is the extent of social relation binding a person or group to others and regulation is defined as the normative or moral demands placed on an individual that comes with membership in a group

Egoistic suicide resulted from lack of social integration. Individuals who were not sufficiently bound to social groups were left with little social support or guidance had higher rates of suicide. An example Durkheim discovered was that of unmarried people, particularly males who, with less to bind and connect them to stable social norms and goals, committed suicide at higher rates than unmarried people.

The second type, altruistic suicide occurs when individuals are too filled with society. It is also results from lack of social integration and is the opposite of egoistic suicide. The self lose significance, where individuals are so integrated into social groups that they lose sight of their individuality and became willing to sacrifice themselves to the group’s interests, even if that sacrifice was their own life. The most common cases of altruistic suicide occurred among members of the military.

On the second scale, that of moral regulation, lies the other two forms of suicide, the first of which is anomic suicide. Anomic suicide was divided it into four categories: acute and chronic economic anomie and acute and chronic domestic anomie. Each involved an imbalance of means and needs, where means were unable to fulfill needs.

Acute economic anomie is when traditional institutions such as religion and government fail to exercise the moral restraints on a capitalist society. Chronic economic anomie is the gradual diminishing of social regulation. Durkheim’s example of was the ongoing industrial revolution, which deteriorated traditional social rules and often failed to replace them. Obtaining wealth and property was not enough to make individuals happy, as was demonstrated by higher suicide rates among the wealthy than the poor.…

Long Island Limousine

The Great Gatsby, by the American author F. Scott Fitzgerald is set on Long Island’s North Shore and New York City during the summer of 1922. For Fitzgerald-both in fiction and real life-the automobile and more specifically, the limousine, was the ultimate status symbol; it gave proof of one’s location on the road to social and financial success. The chauffeured car was a device he often used as a central symbol in his writing, and Fitzgerald was not blind to the social phenomenon to the appearance that “wealth rolls by in limousines”.

Historically, the limousine has been a status symbol for powerful and rich people in American society, whether they were presidents, business bosses, celebrities or gangsters.

Though the word limousine is of French origin – it was originally used as a term for a cloaked carriage driver – the limo is a uniquely American invention. The first stretch limo was constructed in 1920’s by Armbruster & Company of Arkansas and rapidly became an international standard in ground transport for those wanting a blend of both comfort and prestige.

Most recently, news headlines have reported that the number of limos owned by United States government owned limousines increased by 73 percent during the first two years of the Obama administration. Officials said the increase reflects an enhanced effort to protect diplomats and other government officials in a dangerous world.

The presidential limousine or “state car” that transports President Obama carries many current Cadillac styling themes, but doesn’t exactly resemble any particular production vehicle. The car is fitted with tear-gas cannons, reinforced run-flat tires, and a wheelbase built to resist bomb and missile attacks. The interior is completely sealed to protect the President against the risk of a chemical or biological attack. Kept in the trunk is a blood bank of the President’s blood type. Interestingly, there are no key hole in the doors. Although a price tag has not been announced, there is a rumor that each limousine costs US$300,000.

The most expensive limousine ever made was produced by Rolls-Royce in December 2006. It is a stretched version of the Phantom and it is designed to be bulletproof and capable of sustaining a mine detonation. The granddaddy of all limos has a price tag to match its uniqueness: $3.8 million! So far, it’s the most expensive luxury car ever.

Even with the exorbitant price tags of these elite automobiles, hiring a limousine for the rest of us has become a popular and economical way to celebrate a special occasion. It is no longer limited to the world leader or the business executive. They are now an affordable option to anyone who wishes to travel in this mode of supreme luxury.

Long Island limousine services such as Long Island Limousine by Broward Limousine in Island Park, NY offer a wide array of ground transportation solutions that make travel by limousine a perfect addition to any birthday celebration, prom night or wedding ceremony. Stretch limousines are elegant and sophisticated which ensure that …

Tea Party Speech

Fellow Patriots!

Good afternoon, and welcome to our tea party! Let me begin with a quote from Thomas Jefferson: “When governments fear people, there is liberty. When the people fear the government, there is tyranny.”

At our tea party today, we are letting our government know that we do not fear it, and that we taxpayers will do whatever it takes to preserve our liberty.

I was asked to talk today about the massive expansion in government spending and taxation. I will explain why you should care about it, and how much of a threat it is to our way of life.

Let’s review recent spending programs implemented by the federal government:

· $700 billion for TARP I

· $750 billion for TARP II

· $819 billion for the Stimulus Bill

· $410 billion for the Omnibus Spending Bill (with 9000 earmarks for special interests)

· $3.6 trillion for the annual budget

And that’s just domestic spending! At the recent G20 summit, Obama committed America to huge overseas spending, including:

– $1 trillion for the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank

– $845 billion for the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals, known here in the U.S. as the Global Poverty Act

– Perhaps trillions more for a foreign aid program called Special Drawing Rights

– Perhaps trillions more for the initiatives of the UN Climate Change Conference

The good news is that the G20 overseas spending proposals have not yet been approved by Congress. The bad news is that Congress is controlled by Nancy Pelosi and Harry Reid.

The worse news is that none of this money actually exists! Here are a few frightening facts to put these spending proposals in perspective:

· The national debt at the end of Obama’s first term will be greater than our entire Gross Domestic Product.

· If you spent $2 million dollars every single day during every single year from the birth of Christ until today, you will still not have spent as much as Obama’s budget deficit planned for the coming year.

· If you added up all of the debt accumulated by all of the presidents from George Washington through George W. Bush in the course of 234 years, Obama’s proposed debt exceeds that amount in just his first four-year term.

· And here’s the one that ought to frighten every taxpayer to death: If the government had to account for its finances like a private business, its true deficit is actually $65 trillion, which exceeds the GDP of the entire world. This is because future obligations, like Social Security and Medicare benefits liabilities, are completely unfunded. There is not a single penny saved for these programs, but we are already committed to the spending.

So, what are we getting for these trillions and trillions of dollars? Here’s a sampling:

· We will get nothing for the trillions Obama has committed to spend on U.N. and IMF initiatives, other than perhaps other countries may accept Obama’s apology for American arrogance.…