Relationship Between the Government and the Private Sector

Why is there a need for government intervention in the market? Basically, there are two reasons: social efficiency and equity. Social efficiency occurs at an output where social marginal benefits are equal to the social marginal costs of production or consumption. Governments are pressured to provide a fair distribution of resources among their people but it is quite subjective for the issues of equity. Taxes and subsidies are used to regulate market efficiency. Taxes can reduce a monopolist’s profits without affecting price or output and subsidies can help the monopolist to produce a competitive level. Laws can also be established to prevent monopolies and oligopolies and offer consumer protection.

The government intervention in the market can create positive or negative results. Countries with business-friendly governments have generally performed better than countries where this relationship between government and business has suffered. These business-friendly countries have responded more positively to pro-growth policy reforms. In Malaysia, former Prime Minister Mahathir had set target for the business and government cooperation and developed the concept of “Malaysia Incorporated” which aim to attain higher productivity and accelerate the modernization of Malaysia economy. In order to bridge a closer public-private sector relationship, major groups in business like Federation of Malaysian Manufacturers (FMM) regularly organises meeting with the government on business issues. Malaysia is a relatively open society and is influenced by other developed countries. With more than 50,000 students overseas, majority of them would return and offer Malaysia with new ideas from the wine that they drink to industrialisation policy.

Malaysia has taken a couple of measures to be an open economy and has set up Consultative Panels to identify areas of cooperation for improving the delivery of services from the public to private sectors and improving the public administration. Malaysia has become one of the most liberal import regulations in South East Asia as their import taxes on foreign goods (incl. luxuries) were very low with little restrictions. These helped the foreign business people but hindered the growth of local industries. Thus local manufacturers called upon the government to protect the local industries and provide them with opportunities to grow. Efforts are also made for deregulation such as the reduction of composite application forms, the issue of composite licenses, the extension of the validity period of licenses from one to five years, the abolition of licenses or license fees and the improvement to the systems and procedures for licensing. Further administrative improvements have been implemented (e.g the reduction of procedures for processing export licenses for GSP, ASEAN-PTA and textiles, computerisation of work processes to expedite delivery of services and installation of modern telecommunication systems at most agencies to upgrade communications with government agencies).

With the declaration of Vision 2020 in 1991 by the Prime Minister, Malaysia is determined to become a fully developed, competitive, dynamic, robust and resilient country. Currently, the Malaysian PM Razak Najib is liberalizing the economy to try to increase foreign investment by easing certain restrictions. A requirement for Malays to own a …

To What Political Party Did Abraham Lincoln Belong?

Barack Obama is a Democrat. Most people know this. What many people may not know is that the man Mr. Obama looks to for the most political (and now presidential) inspiration and guidance was a…. Republican!

That’s right. Barack Obama’s hero, Abraham Lincoln, was a Republican. Lincoln wasn’t just any ole Republican either. He was among the founders of the Republican Party and was the first Republican to be elected President.

The Republican Party was founded in 1854 in Ripon, Wisconsin. Its principal goal was to stop the expansion of slavery into the western territories. Lincoln had been involved with the Whig Party, which was disintegrating due, in large part, to sectional rivalries. Since Lincoln was personally opposed to slavery, he found the Republican Party platform much to his liking.

The first Republican to run for President was John C. Fremont, and that was in 1856. But Fremont’s appeal was largely regional, and he was defeated by James Buchanan. By 1860, however, things would be different.

Before Lincoln ran for President in 1860, he campaigned in his home state of Illinois for the US Senate. Back then, senators were chosen by their state legislatures. Lincoln was the Republican nominee for Senate, but since the Republican Party was so new, he lost. Nevertheless, the series of debates Lincoln had with Democratic Party opponent Stephen Douglas aroused great interest in the country.

Lincoln followed by his Senate campaign with a series of pamphlets and speeches that captured the nation’s attention. He became one of the leading voices against the expansion of slavery, and, in 1860, emerged as the Republican nominee for President.

While the appeal of the Republican Party was still regional (at the time, the Northeast), the entire nation was split regionally at this point. There were, in fact, four candidates for President that year, including Lincoln’s former Senate campaign rival, Stephen Douglas. None of the candidates received a majority of the popular vote, but the population advantage in the Northeast gave Lincoln an Electoral College majority – making him the 16th President of the United States and the first President to be a Republican.…

What is Due Process? Basic Rights and Fundamental Fairness

You may hear the phrase “due process” in the media whenever a prominent criminal case is in the news, but where does it come from and what does it really mean?

Where is Due Process Found

Due process is a constitutional principle that our government must follow before it may take a person’s freedom or property. The 5th Amendment states, “nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice guarantees due process from the federal government, stating no person shall “be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.” The states are required to provide due process because the 14th Amendment states, “Nor shall any state deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law.”

What is Due Process

A simple definition means due process requires notice and an opportunity to be heard before adverse action is taken against you. In criminal cases examples of due process include the need for probable cause to arrest someone and that a criminal defendant is presumed innocent until proven guilty by an impartial judge or jury. Due process does not just exist in a criminal trial, any time a person’s property interest may be taken due process protections also apply.

The courts have ruled that possessions such as a government issued license and even civil service jobs are property, which may only be revoked after a hearing. A quasi governmental organization like a homeowner’s association is also subject to due process requirements. If a homeowner’s association wants to fine a resident for bylaw violations such as excessive noise or because their house paint is the wrong color a hearing must first be held where the resident is given the opportunity to be heard.

Fundamental Rights

In addition to the “procedural due process” rights described above, which governs how the government must act, the constitution also guarantees “substantive due process” rights. While substantive due process is sometimes a difficult concept, it basically means that there are certain rights we hold to be so fundamental in our society that laws attempting to restrict them may be deemed to be unconstitutional. These “substantive rights” are considered to be so fundamental that they enjoy protection even if they are not explicitly mentioned in the Constitution. Even if procedural due process is followed in enacting and enforcing the law a substantive right “vetoes” the law.

Right to Privacy

The federal Constitution does not contain a right to privacy, but the courts have ruled that it exists. Our substantive due process right to privacy is the reason that the Supreme Court has prohibited the federal and state governments from enacting laws that completely restrict an adult’s choice to have an abortion, buy contraceptives or engage in consensual sex. The substantive due process right to marry has formed the basis for striking down laws prohibiting interracial marriage nationwide and gay marriage in Massachusetts. In Goodridge v. Massachusetts Department of Public Health the state Supreme Court ruled that excluding gay …

What Are the Different Features of Complaint Letter Sample?

Need for drafting a complaint: There are many scenarios in which you may be required to lodge a complaint against any individual or an organization. Such scenarios may arise when you receive a poor quality product or there is any deficiency in the services of the service provider. It is quite possible that you are harassed by a government employ on one pretext or the other. In such situations, you would need to send a complaint letter to a representative of the company or the concerned government department.

How to use a complaint letter sample: When you need to draft a complaint you can take the help of a complaint letter sample. It would be separated into relevant sections such as address and designation of the person to whom you are sending the letter, subject and salutation etc. You would find that it would be available in different formats which are suitable for different departments such as commercial organizations and government offices.

In such a complaint letter sample, you may even find some sample text with necessary space for entering the name of the company, product or service name, date and cash receipt number etc. You can change the relevant text easily and fill out the details which are related to you. Use of email is not advised as there are dedicated customer care executives or secretaries in every company who are given the responsibility to handle the emails. In this way, you way get entangled in the red tape and resolution of your complaint may take some time.

Where to find the samples: You can find such a sample at number of websites. It is quite possible that you find a sample which caters exactly to your requirements. All you would need to do is to make the necessary entries and your work would be done in a matter of minutes. Do take care to address the letter correctly so that it has maximum effectiveness.…

Insurance In Tort Laws


This project has been an eye opener for me. It is extremely relevant to the modern times and as the future of India we should understand that it is the common mass that runs the country. Consumer protection rights are an important issue in modern days. The law can be effectively used to stop any abuse of the common people especially illiterate masses who do not understand the rules and regulations which is to be followed while buying particular item. It is law, the controller of the entire society which can stop this abuse from taking place. It can place effective standards guiding a product’s genuinity and the proper verification of its price. No extra taxes should be issued according to the seller’s wish. I have proceeded by referring to the books written by Avtar Singh, Venkat Rao and others. It has been a wonderful and educational delight in going about this topic and making a project which is of greatest importance in the present day scenario.


The words “consumer”, “consumed”, “consumption” is all cognate, and when one is defined, the contents of the definition go into all of them wherever they occur in the same act.

Section 2 of the act wherein ‘consumer’ is defined. According to him, the definition of the consumer will not take a client who engaged the advocate for professional services.

Consumer means any person who-

– Buys any goods for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid and partly promised or under any system or deferred payment and includes any user of such goods other than the person who buys such goods for consideration paid or promised or partly promised or under any system of deferred payment when such use is made with the approval of the person, but does not include a person who obtains such goods for resale or for any commercial purpose

– Hires or avails of any services for a consideration which has been paid or promised or partly paid or partly promised or under any system of deferred payment and includes any beneficiary of such services other than the person who hires or avails of the services for the consideration paid or promised or partly paid or partly promised or under any system of deferred payment when such services are availed of with the approval of the first mentioned person but does not include a person who avails of such services for any commercial support

In Black’s Law Dictionary it is to mean:

One who consumes. Individuals who purchase, use, maintain or dispose of products and services. A member of that broad class of people who are influenced by pricing policies, financing practices, quality of goods and services, credit reporting debt collection and other trade practices for which the state and federal consumer laws are enacted.


The act is dedicated, as its preamble shows, to provide for better protection of rights of consumers and for that purpose …

Applying For a Government Job – How to Nail Your Cover Letter For Positions With Selection Criteria

Applying for a government job is a bit like doing a jigsaw puzzle. It’s sometimes difficult to work out how to fit the pieces together to create the right picture. Many organizations require you to complete a Cover Form or Application Form, so do you need to supply a cover letter as well?

YES, you do!

This is because a cover letter provides another opportunity to ‘sell’ yourself. It provides the chance to highlight your achievements and show the employer how your experience and skills can help them to achieve their goals.

Here’s an easy step-by-step guide for writing a cover letter for a role that includes selection criteria:

  1. Put the job title and vacancy reference number under the date in bold, e.g. Re position: Customer Service Officer (A03) VRN: 335/06.
  2. Find out the name of the person who will be reading your application and personally address your letter, checking that you have the correct spelling and title. (If you don’t know the person’s name, use ‘Good morning’ as the greeting rather than the deadly dull ‘Dear Sir or Madam’.)
  3. In the first paragraph state where and when you saw the advertisement, the reason for the letter and what you are including in your application. e.g. I wish to apply for the position of ‘Customer Service Officer’ as advertised on the Careerone website on 25 August 2009.
  4. In the second paragraph, state what you are including in your application. e.g. To support my application, I have included my responses to the selection criteria, a copy of my résumé and three referees who can vouch for my work performance.
  5. In the third paragraph, refer to your qualifications, skills and experience to explain how you match the requirements of the position. e.g. I hold a Diploma of Frontline Management and have five years’ experience in customer service roles.
  6. In this paragraph, include a few of your key achievements and use a quote from ‘secret sales documents like appraisals and written references to build credibility and ‘sell’ your claims. e.g. I am confident that I have the skills and experience to be an asset in this role. In my last appraisal, my manager states: ‘Mary has built strong relationships with our clients, resulting in a 43{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} increase in sales.’
  7. Finish with a strong close, as if you expect to be selected for an interview. e.g. I look forward to discussing this position with you in an interview.
  8. For hard copy applications, personally sign your letter and type your name below your signature. For online applications, you can use a different font to indicate you’ve signed your letter or use a digital signature.
  9. Add ‘enc.’ at the bottom of your letter. This means ‘enclosure’ and is used if you are adding other documentation such as a résumé and selection criteria statement.
  10. Proofread for errors in spelling, grammar, typos, phone numbers, email addresses, postal addresses, job titles, and so on. Your application must be 100{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} error- free.
  11. Keep the letter to one page in length.

How Has Mythology Shaped Society?

From the dawn of time, people from all countries have invented their own deities and myths. These legends were often handed down from one generation to the next, until the invention of the written word. Once the written word was invented, it was far easier for people to keep record of their deities and the many heroes that went on quests, and mythology involved into something far more interesting and personal for all societies. Gods gained their own personalities and agendas, heroes went off on epic quests, and from the mind of the authors, entire worlds were invented. Myth and legend had been tied in to life back in the days of yore, and to this day, it still plays a very important role in society.

The days of the week are in fact named after the Norse gods, each of whom had a day dedicated to them, even though there are not many people today who are aware of it. The creatures that modern society has come to love, such as dragons, werewolves, faeries and even vampires all originated from multiple legends and myths. Mythology has also played a role in politics and even some of the spoken phrases that we use. Many video games and movies owe their back stories to creatures or figures that have come straight out of ancient texts.

Religion even sprang forth from legends. People needed to believe that there was someone, some omnipotent beings, that created the world and everything within it. Therefore, the gods were born. Our modern religions all have very close similarities to the deities invented by ancient cultures. Though it has evolved in the same manner that all thoughts and dreams do, our religions all contain somewhat modern twists on ancient mythology.

We have even named our vehicles, some of our cities, planets, plants, animals and a few bodies of water after mythological creatures or deities. Pets are commonly named after mythological gods, and that trend has also began to affect how we name our children. Even some of our more commonly used words such as “satire” are simply re-spellings of words taken out of mythological texts. Some musicians include mythological references in their song lyrics or titles, and we still teach ancient religion in school. Though most people probably do not realize it, society is actually very heavily influenced by ancient society and the legends that were created and passed down for thousands of years.…

The Importance of Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery is one of the most beneficial and crucially medical procedures in the world. This is giving somebody a second chance to look normal or gain their normalcy and in many cases to be more beautiful. People have the choice to get rid of that their birth feature and get a new look. The society has changed and accepted the fact that one can undergo physical makeover.

Millions of people all over the world have discovered these new procedure, most of them have permanent damages to some parts of their bodies. With the realization of this procure; it gives them hope to know that they can get a life changing experience. Physical deformities can affect somebody psychological and even emotionally. Some traditional societies tend to separate those children or adults who have been born with certain abnormalities on their bodies; they become outcasts in a society. It is a similar case in modern societies, which strives for perfection, people with abnormality somehow feel out of place. For such people, the chance to get a new and better look is a life changing opportunity.

They feel confident, reborn and can enjoy life to the fullest. In short, the surgery can work wonders whether you want to get a tummy tuck or undergo a breast argumentation or having a facelift. The cosmetic surgery industry has contributed a lot economically by providing jobs for health practitioners to helping underprovided in poor countries through the provision of free medical treatments. Another importance of the surgery is that provides indirect employment for persons working in pharmaceutical companies around the world.

It is important to consult a surgeon before undertaking any cosmetic surgery. This is because one needs to get professional advice as well as a look at your past medical history to avoid any complications that might arise in the future. This will also make you feel comfortable when undergoing the surgery.

Cosmetic surgery is something that should be thought through carefully. If rushed, complications could occur. You can easily Google “facial surgery” or any type of surgery and find pictures of surgeries gone wrong. Make sure to always consult with your doctor for a lengthy amount of time before jumping in. The doctor should be able to give you brochures, pamphlets, and even references of people who were happy with their surgery. If he’s a great doctor, he’ll even give you names and numbers of those who weren’t so happy with the service, whether it be that they didn’t like the final outcome, or maybe it was just way too expensive for what they received.…

New Government Accounting System In The Philippines (NGAS)


Accounting is an effective tool of management in evaluating the performance of the different agencies of government. The performance of the public managers would depend at most, on financial reports generated by the use of accounting systems.

Cognizant of this need, a new accounting system needs to be developed that would help the different agencies to hit on financial targets, and at the same time be understood by all users of financial reports.

With this new development, the Commission on Audit (COA), under the new 1987 Constitution, promulgated the New Government Accounting System in the Philippines (NGAs) for use by all government agencies.

The shift to NGAs was made in response to the following need:

1. Adoption of an accounting system that is in conformity with the International Accounting Standards.

2. Computerization of the accounting systems to generate reports that will be easy to understand by the general public.

3. Preparation of regular and routinary financial reports.

4. The use of the generated financial reports as tools of management in decision making.

Government Accounting – Defined

Under Section 109, of the Presidential Decree (PD) no. 1445, defines Government Accounting as one that encompasses the process of analyzing, classifying, summarizing and communicating all transactions that are involved in the receipt and disbursement of all government funds and properties, and interpreting the results thereof. In pursuant to this definition, objectives were set to cover several areas in government operations.

Objectives of Government Accounting

1. To produce relevant financial information about past and present transactions of government.

2. To serve as basis for decision making for future operations

3. To serve as the control mechanism for the receipt, disposition and utilization of government funds and properties

4. To come up with financial reports pertaining to the results of operations of various government agencies that are for dissemination to the public.


The need for timely preparation of financial reports in government is necessary to evaluate the performance of the different agencies of government. The result of the reports would indicate the areas that may still need improvement, as well as come up with the budgetary requirements for these agencies if needed.

Public officers are managers of funds, that are entrusted to them by the national government. The financial reports would clearly show if the agencies are achieving what is mandated of them. These reports would also show the extent in the use of agency assets and resources, as well as the need for additional infusion of funds if required

The accounting data would show how the funds of government were used. This would also reveal the inflow and outflow of funds and the need for stiffer fund management and control, if necessary.

On Accounting Responsibility

This fiscal responsibility emanates from the Constitution and its governing laws, rules and promulgation. The mandate as prescribed under the said Constitution of the Philippines calls for the keeping of the general accounts, as well as the promulgation and submission of financial reports that would cover the …

Nevada Drug Possession, Sale and Trafficking Laws

The impact for a drug conviction can be severe for misdemeanor and felony offenses in Nevada. With the widespread use of background checks, a conviction can shut many doors for future employment opportunities. Certain fields may be especially thorough with background checks and will disqualify individuals with drug convictions. This includes many healthcare fields, law enforcement agencies, and other government bodies. Given what is at stake, it is important to understand the Nevada drug laws, even if you are being represented by a defense attorney.

Currently, Nevada laws severely punish individuals arrested for possession, manufacturing, cultivation and trafficking of illegal drugs. Commonly used drugs in this list include cocaine, heroin, opium, LSD, ecstasy and a variety of other narcotics. Chapter 453 of the Nevada Controlled Substances Act defines the schedule of drugs, offenses and penalties in the state. Some of the defined offenses are:

  • NRS 453.316 – Maintaining a place for unlawful sale, gift or use of a controlled substance
  • NRS 453.321 – Offer, attempt, or commission of unauthorized acts relating to controlled substances
  • NRS 453.322 – Offer, attempt, or commission of manufacturing or compounding of controlled substances
  • NRS 453.331 – Distribution of controlled substances, use of unauthorized registration number and possession of signed blank prescription forms
  • NRS 453.333 – Second or subsequence offense for selling a controlled substance to a minor
  • NRS 453.336 – Unlawful possession not for purpose of sale
  • NRS 453.337 – Unlawful possession for sale of flunitrazepam (Rohypnol), gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) and schedule I or II substances
  • NRS 453.338 – Unlawful possession for sale of schedule III, IV, or V substances
  • NRS 453.3385 – Trafficking in controlled substances Trafficking in controlled substances: Rohypnol, GHB, and schedule I substances (not including marijuana)
  • NRS 453.339 – Marijuana trafficking

Penalties for drug crimes in Nevada can vary, depending on the specific criminal offense, circumstances of the arrest, amount of illegal drugs involved, previous criminal history of the alleged offender, and strength of the defense or prosecution’s case. Under Nevada’s Controlled Substances act, the most common offenses may be punished as follows:

Drug Possession, Not For Sale

  • Class E Felony (1st or 2nd offense,schedule I, II, III, or IV) – 1 to 4 years in state prison or probation and/or up to $5,000 in fines
  • Class D Felony (3rd or subsequent offense, schedule I, II, III, or IV) – between 1 and 4 years in state prison and/or up to $5,000 in fines
  • Class E Felony (1st offense, schedule V) – between 1 and 4 years in prison or probation and/or fines up to $5,000
  • Class D Felony (2nd or subsequent offense, schedule V) – 1 to 4 years in Nevada state prison and/or up to $5,000 in fines

Unlawful Possession of Schedule I or II Drugs, Rohypnol, or GHB

  • 1st offense, category D felony – 1 to 4 years in state prison and/or up to $5,000 in fines
  • 2nd offense, category C felony – between 1 and 4 non-probational years in Nevada state prison and/or up to $10,000 of