I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale – Khushwant Singh: A Story Of Baptism In Blood

Sher Singh killed a crane. He wanted to be a terrorist. But there was baptism in his blood. He felt for the crane. If one crane is killed, the other dies of grief. His instigator is Madan. Madan feels if there is baptism in blood that blood should be shed. Sher Singh and Madan were training to shoot Englishmen. This short novel by Khushwant Singh is about the Sikh community who created a military brotherhood to fight against the British. The Sikhs were defeated by the British in six successive battles. Having been defeated the Sikhs however were recruited in the British army for their valour and honour. The Sikhs believed that ‘God is truth’.

The story is ultimately about love, kindness and peace in spite of terrorism, revolt and militancy. This is depicted by the symbol of the angry crane who loses its mate. Even as Sher Singh stuffs up hand grenades and rifles he thinks of the wounded bird. So the story is ultimately about the inefficacy of terrorism and violence and the message of peace.

Sher Singh was the son of a senior magistrate as well as the head of a band of terrorists. He had so long reveled in both identities but now he had to make a choice. The concern was what to choose, security or terrorism.

Sher Singh’s home was a haven of comfort and security. His mother and sister represented feelings of comfort and security. But Sher Singh was policywise at odds with his father Buta Singh. They differ in their opinions regarding the British. Buta Singh is basically a supporter of the British. He believes in mutual help between British and Sikhs. On the other hand Sher Singh thinks there are plenty of Gandhis and Nehrus whom they should follow, not the British. Buta Singh cannot change his loyalties at his age. But he is realizing that the nationalists need to be supported. In fact his loyalty to the British was being taken as servility. He was being accused of double facedness.

The story is thus basically about the tension between the British and Sikhs which the author has brought out through a vivid charting of conversations, revolutionary speeches, meetings and such. It emerges that there are two parties, the anti-British and the Pro-British. The old generation of Sikhs are pro-British. The younger generation are trying to do away with the British. There were Hindus like Madan who were instigators of terrorism. Young aspirants for leadership were dancing to the songs of Madan and bundling up handgrenades.

Along with the general background of politics the story charts very simplistically the private lives of Sher Singh, Beena, Champak and Madan. Sher Singh being a failure at his marital relationship tries to please his wife by aspiring a high position in politics, by becoming a political leader, a hero and a terrorist. Bina his sister is passionately in love with the tall, handsome, charming Madan from whom she gets a stinker. Madan a married …

The Five Main Elements of Civilization

Although the elements of civilization and the emergence of civilization have been studied extensively, I never gave the topic much thought. That is, until I was tasked with finding at least five elements that are characteristics of a civilization that make it different from non-civilized peoples. Initially, this seemed like a daunting task, but upon viewing the video “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” (Wood) and reading the assigned portion of “Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society, 1” (Perry), it was apparent that there are a number of distinct elements which characterize every civilization. Namely, large population centers in cities, writing, ceremonial buildings, or ritual centers, continuity, and the arts. Each of these characteristics of civilization works synergistically, making civilized societies stand out in stark contrast from those non-civilized societies which preceded them. A brief overview of some of these vital components will demonstrate their importance.

Firstly, large population centers in cities are one of the elements of civilization. The word civilization, itself, can be most easily expressed as life in cities. The area of Suma, or Mesopotamia, in southern Iraq, was birthplace of the first city, Uruch (Ur). The vast lands, made fertile by the constant flow of life from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were the ideal place to farm and sustain the hordes of people drawn to this city. Naturally, people congregated in increasing numbers to this prototype city.

Secondly, writing is another one of the elements of civilizations. In fact, some would argue that writing was invented in Uruch. The obvious advantage of which, was the ability to transmit and pass down to posterity important cultural, spiritual truths and stories. Though the oral legend of the people of this era is well documented, the story of this people was now being preserved and disseminated through the written word.

Equally important were the ceremonial buildings and ritual centers which peppered the landscape of Ur. Shrines, alters, and temples served a central role in ancient civilization, as they also do today. Tied to the religious and cultural fabric of the society was ritualistic worship and ceremonies. These ritual centers were considered holy places and like the fertile land itself, served as a people magnet.

Continuity is another characteristic of civilization. Unlike nomadic peoples, civil societies, by definition were sedentary societies. Of course, people and ideas flowed in and out of the first civilizations, but there was the element of perpetual inhabitants. No doubt, ownership and private property rights were natural products of this continuity as people opted to settle in the cities.

Lastly, the arts are another one of the essential elements of civilization. As legend has it, the arts were sent down by Enki, the God of Wisdom, through the Goddess Innana, known today as Ishtar. Decorative arts, pottery, jewelry, ‘fancy’ clothing and ritual ornaments were increasingly popular commodities during this time. As the people’s standard of living improved in the first cities, there was more time (relatively speaking) for the leisure indulgences that the arts afforded.

Clearly, …

Coastline Law Leaves Thousands Of Spanish Property Investors Without Right Of Title

The current legislation was passed by the Socialist government of Felipe González in 1988, but it has only been widely implemented in the last few years, under another Socialist (PSOE) administration, with far-reaching consequences.

The difference is that the Ministry for the Rural and Marine Environment, formerly known as the Ministry for the Environment, has begun to mark out the boundaries of these so-called designated areas, thereby categorising areas occupied by private individuals as public land. All these areas are now considered Areas of Public Maritime Land. (Dominio Publico Marítimo-Terrestre DPMT).

Loss of Rights

This has meant that perfectly legal, private sector constructions have found themselves in this public space, with the property owners concerned losing their right to ownership of the property.

The state informs those concerned of their new status – or will do so in the future. From that moment, all those affected can appeal to the local Department for Coastlines found within every regional government, and to the relevant courts of law. To date, however, the government has won 98{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the cases.

Just where do the waves reach?

What is an Area of Public Maritime Land (DPMT)? The Coastline Law includes in this section all sand dunes, cliffs and marshes. It even refers literally to the “strip of land which can be reached by the water from the sea (waves) during the heaviest storms ever known”. Therefore in many areas, it extends to points much further inland than normally reached by the tide.

Included in this categorisation are any humid or marshy areas, inland lagoons, and, of course, the beach. The beach is defined as the coastal area with sand, pebbles, or sand dunes, with or without vegetation. It also includes non-private islands or land reclaimed from the sea by natural or artificial means.

A team of biologists, geologists and judges coordinated by the Department for Coastlines decides which areas of land meet the above mentioned specifications. All land which does is marked out and included in the area of public land.

Use without Ownership

What happens to the owners of properties in this designated Area of Public Maritime Land (DPMT)? If they can demonstrate that the construction is legal, they lose their right of ownership, but not their right to use the property.

The Ministry concedes them the right to mortgage their residency rights and pass them on to their heirs. This concession is renewable every 30 years with no payment required.

Right to Reclaim

Nevertheless, the government reserves the right to reclaim the property, if it believes it is in the general interest – as described in the legislation. In such cases, the owner concerned is evicted and the property demolished. To reassure property owners, however, the government has been quick to state that this action has only been taken in a few instances in the past 20 years, and always after an agreement has been reached with the owners of the condemned property and compensation paid prior to the demolition.

If, however, …

The Effects of Computer Hacking

Computer hacking is a term that is used to refer to the unscrupulous use of technology to obtain illegal access to delicate data that is stored and computer, which obstructs the security and confidentiality of the computer user. It is a method which is employed by a lot of identity thieves to steal valuable personal information. Most hackers focus on hacking personal computer of individuals who are connected online while other’s focus their hacking energy into accessing company computers.

How does hacking affect its individual victims? Read on if you want to know more.

1. Hacking is a clear breach of the security of the computer. It renders important user data exposed and risks the user into various threats like identity theft. Various hacking activities are directed mainly towards exposing or stealing confidential user information like social security numbers, credit card numbers, bank account information and individual photographs. These important personal information, when in the hands of computer hackers, can be very vulnerable to illegitimate use and manipulation like that of identity theft’s.

2. When your computer is hacked, the criminals may delete valuable information and sensitive data inside your computer. They can deliberately or unwittingly manipulate sensitive data for their own personal gain. This gain can be both financial, as with the cases of credit card identity theft, or medical, like that of medical identity theft.

3. Denial of service attack is another consequence of attacking. This is typically known as the DOS attack, which simply makes various computer resources unavailable to its authorized users. For instance, hackers may change your log in username and password which thereby blocks you totally out of the entire computer system. More often than not, websites are the ones who fell prey to these DOS attacks, which makes the entire website unusable to all its members.

4. Hacking can also lead to theft of essential business information like client’s database as well as customer’s record can be either lost of maneuvered by computer hacker’s. These databases can be sold to identity theft sites where personal information is being posted for sale to other individuals who might otherwise have other purposes for this information.

5. Information that is crucial to national security, confidential government data, data regarding national defense, security and crimes, can be exposed through computer hacking and these can have very serious consequences to the welfare of the entire society. It can create total panic among the people especially if exaggerated information is posted and issues are blown out of proportion.

These are among the various effects of computer hacking. If you want to keep yourself protected, you need a reliable antivirus program as well as an anti-spyware program. You also need to closely monitor the various programs that you download online as some of them come with a free virus that can be very destructive to your computer.

Hacking is a real threat, just like identity theft. You need to keep yourself protected and secure against any attacks from the outside.…

How a Positive Aura Helps Leaders

How many times has it happened that a leader enters the room and you can feel a burst of positive energy floating around him, touching each and everyone standing or sitting near him? Even before he says a single word, you know that he means business and knows how to get the job done. Even before your first interaction with him, you have become his admirer; you want to follow him, observe him and work with him. How is all that possible? It is all about the aura a person carries with him. As much as it used in regular conversations, it is hard to define aura. Some call it a luminous radiation surrounding a person while others term it as a positive energy carried by a person that influences individuals and things nearby.

Who has an aura?

Character associated with great leaders of all generations; be it the religious ones or the political ones. For instance, people believe that Lord Buddha’s aura had a radius of 3,500 km from where he sat. Indira Gandhi’s aura covered a range of over 1,000 km easily. Their aura boosted their personality and made them stand out in more ways than more. Today, the same aura is needed by any corporate leader to steer his organisation during tough times and get the people to rally behind him when the going gets tough.

How to develop a positive aura

The first step is to understand that people are not born with an aura of leadership; it needs to be drawn up over time. With that said, you cannot just jump out of bed and decide that today be the day when I would start building my aura. If you have not given a thought to it till now, you need an executive coach to help you with the process and bring out your leadership aura. While leaders are usually good with their skill sets, they also need improvement in certain areas which they may not realise intuitively. These shortcomings may be playing the hindrance role in the establishment of a positive leadership aura. These can be picked out by the executive coach and worked. Some of the most important requirements for development of a positive atmosphere are giving attention to minute details and being open to sharing experiences. While for normal people, details are a time-consuming aspect of work that ideally avoided, leaders dig deeper into it and reach the point that matters the most.

Changing your personality to develop an aura that leaves others in awe is a tough task, which is even tougher when tried achieving alone. So while you are at it, take the help of your executive coach to make sure you are on the correct path.…

All About Securities – Debt, Equity, and Derivative Contracts

Sometimes it is difficult to know which part of the law applies to your case, especially if you are dealing with what an outsider may view as a complicated financial dispute. If you hold North Carolina securities, where do you go for help? Rest assured, there are attorneys in business and financial law who can advise you in regards securities that you may hold. But until you have retained the services of a local lawyer, let’s get up to speed on the terminology of securities law so you are ready for your first appointment.

What are securities?

A security is a fungible, negotiable instrument representing financial value. Most securities will be represented either by a certificate, or more commonly, will be in electronic form only (non-certificated). As in the rest of the country, North Carolina securities certificates will be either “bearer” or “registered”. A bearer securities certificate is one that entitles the holder to rights simply by holding the security. A registered certificate is one that only entitles the holder to rights if their name appears on a security register maintained by the issuer or the issuers appointed intermediary.

Securities include shares of corporate stock or mutual funds, corporation or government issued bonds, stock options or other options, limited partnership units, and various other formal investment instruments. In North Carolina, securities may be issued by commercial companies, government agencies, local authorities and international and supranational organizations (such as the World Bank). The primary goal of purchasing securities is investment, with an eventual aim of receiving income or capital gain; (capital gain being the difference between a lower buying price and a higher selling price).

Securities are broadly categorized into three categories.

1. Debt securities:

These include debentures, bonds, deposits, notes and commercial paper (in some circumstances). If you hold one of these debt securities, your North Carolina securities attorney will advise that you are usually entitled to the payment of principal and interest on these. There may also be contractual rights a good lawyer will advise you of, including the right to information.

Debt securities are usually fixed term securities redeemable at the end of the term, they may be secured or unsecured or protected by collateral. Debt securities may offer some control to investors if the company is a start-up or an established business undergoing ‘restructuring’. In these cases, if interest payments are missed, the creditors may take control of the company and liquidate it to recover some of their investment. People favor buying debt securities because of the usually higher rate of return than bank deposits. However, debt securities issued by a government (bonds) usually have a lower interest rate than securities issued by commercial companies. This applies nationally and to North Carolina securities.

2. Equity securities:

Common stock is the most popular type of equity security. Investors are called shareholders and they own a share of the equity interest of capital stock of a company, trust or partnership. It is like saying someone who invests in equity …

The History and Use of False Face Masks Among the Seneca

False Face Masks are considered to be living and breathing “faces” that carry a spirit’s presence with them. The masks are typically used in healing ceremonies to bring relief from health afflictions. There is a False Face Society among the Iroquois tribes and those who are cured with the help of False Faces automatically become members. Believers in traditional Iroquois thought do not believe or call these False Faces “masks” as they believe the faces are inhabited by living representations of spirits. False faces are even “fed” with a cornmeal “mush” and they accept gifts of tobacco for healing illnesses.

Iroquois legend has it that the beginning of the False Face Mask tradition came about because the “Creator,” “God,” “Divine Supreme Being,” whichever name you elect to use, encountered a stranger once, known in the Onondaga language as “Grandfather.” The Creator challenged Grandfather in his ability to move a mountain. Grandfather made the mountain shake and rumble but was unable to move it. The Creator said Grandfather had some power but not enough power to move the mountain. The Creator then moved the mountain to demonstrate his ability to Grandfather. The Creator told Grandfather not to look behind him when the mountain moved, but Grandfather was curious and when he turned to look, the mountain struck Grandfather in the face and left his face broken and smashed.

The Creator then employed Grandfather to protect his children but he knew the sight of Grandfather’s broken face would scare the children, so Grandfather was exiled to the forests and underground caves. To this day, sightings are reported of a lone figure, clothed in regal Iroquois attire, peering from behind the trees of the forest. He is said to have long hair and either a red or black face. He only leaves the confines of the woods when called upon to heal or interpret dreams. He is now referred to as “Old Broken Nose.”

To make a False Face, an Iroquois man walks among the trees of the woods until he feels inspired to carve a particular spirit’s face from a particular tree. The spirit desiring the face carving stirs the soul of the Iroquois man and moves him with what to carve. He carves the representative face mask directly into and on the tree. The mask is only removed from the tree when it is finished. Basswood is the type of tree most often used. If the carving of the mask was begun in the morning, the Iroquois paints the face red. If it is begun in the afternoon, the color of choice for the Iroquois is black.

The masks are given long flowing hair from horses: black, brown, reddish brown, white, or gray. Before European settlers brought horses to Native American lands and introduced them to the Iroquois, the Iroquois used buffalo hair and corn husks to adorn the masks. The eyes are set deep in the face and emphasized with pieces of metal. The noses are always made bent and …

The Law of Supply – The 2nd of The 11 Forgotten Laws by Bob Proctor

The Law of Supply that is talked about in the 11 Forgotten Laws is a spiritual law, or a Universal Law. In trying to practice the Law of Attraction as presented in the Secret, without the realization of the Law of Supply it’s unlikely that most of us will be able to manifest the life we desire.

If you want to make the Law of Attraction work for you, you are going to need to become aware of the Law of Supply.

Ask, and it shall be given you; seek, and ye shall find; knock, and it shall be opened unto you.” Matt. 7:7.

This verse has been used to imply that all we need to do is ask. Actually, according to the 11 Forgotten Laws of the Universe that is true. But it is also true, according to the Law of Thinking, that what we believe in our innermost thoughts is what will show up in our lives. So if we ask, yet believe in a world or lack and scarcity, what do you think is going to happen?

Basically the Law of Supply boils down to the belief in abundance. Bob and Mary teach us specifically how to understand the Law of Supply, and how to implement the Law of Supply in our lives for astounding results.

The first thing that may need changing in our consciousness is the idea that we are not supposed to have abundance. The Law of Supply says the exact opposite. In this lesson of the 11 Forgotten Laws, The Law of Supply is a Truth stating that we were created to evolve, create, accomplish, move forward; in other words to succeed.

We also need to learn that in the Universe of Abundance that we live in, we were all created to have it all. Abundance and prosperity is not something that is reserved for a special few, though it often seems that way.

In order to use and understand the Law of Supply we first need to understand this concept. We are supposed to be happy every day and gratitude is another of the Universal Laws. But the nature of our very being is not to be satisfied. It is our spiritual nature to ever strive for more good, increasing supply and increasing fulfillment for ourselves and the world.

This spiritual law of supply is based on the concept that everything we need is already available to us; it is our inability to recognize the supply that causes the negative beliefs which in turn bring about negative effects.

We’ve all heard people say “I’ll believe it when I see it”. Maybe you’ve said that too. As we begin to study the Law of Supply, we start to recognize that we have it backwards. We are taught we will see it when we believe it.

This all may seem far out, but Bob Proctor and Mary Morrissey use examples to help us easily understand the 11 Forgotten Laws. The 11 Forgotten Laws are …

Doctrine of Accord and Satisfaction

Doctrine of Accord and Satisfaction

Accord and satisfaction is the purchase of the release from an obligation, whether arising under contract or tort by means of any valuable consideration not being the actual performance of the obligation itself. The accord is the agreement by which the obligation is discharged. The satisfaction is the consideration which makes the agreement operative. The consideration may be executory.

Under English law, an accord without satisfaction is of no effect. In Indian law, an accord is an agreement, there must be consensus ad idem; its validity liable to be judged by the general law of contract quite apart from the provisions of sections 62 and 63 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872.

A liability arising out of breach of contract may be discharged by the doctrine of accord and satisfaction. An accord is an agreement made after breach whereby some consideration other than the legal remedy is to be accepted by the party not in fault, followed by the performance of the substituted consideration.

The question is, whether an arbitration clause in a contract survived despite the purported satisfaction of the terms of the contract. Normally, an accord and satisfaction by itself would not affect the arbitration clause for even rights and obligations of the parties are worked out, the contract does not come to an end. If the dispute is that the contract itself does not subsist, the question of invoking the arbitration clause may not arise. But in the event it be held that the contract survives, recourse to the arbitration clause may be taken.

The doctrine of accord and satisfaction has many underlying principles, including the acceptance of a lesser sum and acceptance of any satisfaction. The Privy Council gave its views on the doctrine in Payan Reena Saminathan v. Puna Lana Palaniappa [41 IA 142]. The doctrine and its usage in India have been derived from the American Common Law.

BACKGROUND OF THE DOCTRINE

Section 63 of the Indian Contract Act allows a party to a contract to dispense with the performance of the contract by the other party, or to extend the time of performance or to accept any other satisfaction instead of the performance.

According to Section 62 of the Indian Contract Act, on the other hand, every person who accepts a proposal may dispense with or remit wholly or in part, the performance of the proposal made to him which he has accepted, or may extend the time for such performance or may accept instead of it any satisfaction which he thinks fit.

In accordance with section 62 and section 63 of the Indian Contract Act, 1872, the party who has the right to demand the performance may:

(i) dispense with or remit the performance; or

(ii) extend the time for performance; or

(iii) accept any other satisfaction instead of performance.

The sections 63 and 62 must be construed so as to not overlap with each other. This can be done by holding that agreements referred to in …

How Do Filipina Girls Celebrate Birthdays?

Birthdays are important to just about everyone. Don’t we all look forward to our birthdays? Somehow, we think that something’s good is bound to happen, and usually there really is.

In the Philippines, the need to relax on your birthday is being taken seriously. In fact, many agencies, both government and non-government alike, allow their employees to go on a birthday leave of absence so they can choose to spend their special day in any manner they want.

Despite it being recognized as important, birthdays are not normally celebrated with much fanfare by Filipinas, unless they are celebrating their milestone years. Grand celebrations are usually made when one reaches the age of 18 and the next big celebration comes at the age of 50. Celebrations for events like these are often done in hotels where guests wear formal dresses or long gowns and are treated to a sumptuous dinner and to-die-for deserts, and a whole night of dancing and fun.

In between those years, birthdays are celebrated more privately, almost insignificantly from the prying eyes of the public. But it does not mean that birthdays are being taken for granted. Not at all.

How Filipina girls celebrate their birthdays depend on several things like budget, mood, and availability of friends. With enough money, the Filipina celebrator might take this as an opportunity to pamper herself. She would go to a spa, to a salon, or she treat herself by shopping till she drops. She would then treat her friends to lunch or dinner, go barhopping or disco-dancing, or out-of-town. There are many beautiful sights in the Philippines, and driving to these places is a better way to celebrate one’s birthday. It gets you closer to nature, which is always a good thing.

On the other hand, if it’s not yet salary time and the Filipina has no extra money to spare, she will have a much simpler celebration. Perhaps, she will hear mass in the morning, go to work and then go home, bringing with her a few servings of the local noodles (locally known as pancit) for her family.

If you happen to have a Filipina girlfriend who happens to love surprises just like many other Filipina women, try to surprise her on her special day. Organize a surprise birthday party for her by coordinating with her best friends and then setting up the venue, the food, and the surprises. If you wish her to spend her birthday with just you, you can set it up that way, too, but of course, while there’s a good chance your Filipina girlfriend will agree to this, keep in mind that she might also want to spend her day with her family. So don’t monopolize her time. If she sees you are concerned that she spends her time with her family, she will be drawn even closer to you.

Regardless of how do Filipina girls celebrate birthdays, there are several things that will not be missing – pancit (or any other kind …