What Made Native American Peoples Vulnerable to Conquest by European Adventurers?

What made Native American peoples vulnerable to conquest by European adventurers?

There were several traits which made the Native American’s vulnerable to conquest by European adventurers. First, the people themselves were ill equipped to deal with the European invaders. Their numbers were quickly reduced as a result of famine, forced labor, epidemics involving contact with European diseases and wars.

They were unaccustomed to the economic, political and military aspects associated with the Europeans. They lacked the organization and political unity to resist the conquering people. The various tribes were frequently in conflict with one and other as they went about their daily lives competing with each other for land and food. As an example over the years the Aztecs accumulated many enemies especially within their own tribe. This conflict resulted from competition for territorial rights, acquisition of wealth and the practice of using their captive enemies as religious sacrifices. Cortés exploited this trait by forming alliances with the opposing tribes. In contrast to the Aztecs lack of unity the Spanish explorers were a highly unified society.

The Native Americans possessed the necessary skills to work with copper but failed to develop those needed to smelt iron thus they lacked sufficient technology to wage war upon the invaders. When the Europeans arrived in the New World they were welcomed by the Native Americans. The Indians regarded their visitors as wonderful warriors with their dress, beards, and their ships but more so for the technology they brought with them. The native population was amazed at this technology such as their steel knives and swords, the arquebus which is a sort of muzzle loader, the cannon, copper and brass kettles, mirrors, hawk bells and earrings which were used as trading goods, along with other items which were unusual to their way of life. This was rightfully so since the natives lacked the ability to create these amazing inventions used by the Europeans. Unfortunately the European visitors used their weapons of war inflicting great amounts of damage to the natives.

It did not take long before serious problems began to develop. Upon the arrival of the Europeans there were 7 million Native Americans in North America. Most lived in hunter-gather or agricultural types of communities. The largest problem encountered by the Native Americans was their lack of immunity toward European diseases. This lack of immunity in these communities towards the European diseases took their toll among the Indian tribes. Smallpox was a common threat frequently contracted by the Indians from the European people.

The Native Americans soon began to dislike the Europeans and their beliefs. They often viewed the white man as despicable and stingy with their wealth. This was something that the Indians had not previously encountered. In their social order things were freely shared. The explorers were deemed to be insatiable in their desire for furs and hides. They particularly disliked the European’s intolerance for their religious beliefs, eating habits, sexual and marital arrangements and other aspects of their customs.

The Native …

Factors Affecting Migration and Solutions to Rural-Urban Migration, Especially to Developing Nations

Migration is the movement of people from one geographical area to another, involving permanent or temporary residence or settlement. There must be a reason or reasons of migration-either something is chasing the individuals away from their present location or there is an attraction to where they are going to. What are these influencing factors?

1. Natural disasters: The occurrence of Natural disasters like floods, famines, drought, earthquakes etc, could make people to migrate out of place to another.

2. Physical conditions: The physical conditions of a place such as climate, soils, relief may also be responsible for the migration of people, especially when such conditions are unfavorable.

3. Insecurity: Fear of insecurity arising from war, political instability etc, could make people migrate.

4. Differences in economic opportunities: As a result of these, people tend to migrate to where there are more economic opportunities like jobs and business transactions.

5. Change in status: Changes in status, eg, high level of education and wealth, could make people to migrate, eg, from rural to urban centers.

6. Differences in social amenities: Owing to difference in the availability of water, roads, electricity etc. people tend to move to where these amenities are present.

Migration has great advantages as it reduces population pressure on agricultural land at the source region; reduces population pressure on social amenities at the source region; supplies migrant labor at the receiving region; ensures the flow of capital to the receiving region; leads to the development of social amenities at the receiving region; boosts markets at the receiving region and promotes cultural integration eg, inter-marriage at the receiving region. On the other hand, it could be disadvantageous as it breeds social vices like crime and drug dealing in the receiving region; increases high cost of living at the receiving region; leads to pressure on social amenities at the receiving region; leads to the loss of able-bodied men and youth at the source region; leads to congestion in housing and transportation at the receiving region; leads to decline in production at the source region and it leads to cultural disintegration at the destination region.

Solutions to rural-Urban migrations

One of the major forms of migration that tends to create problems in all developing countries is that of rural-Urban migration. Since we recognize that this form of migration is a major problem, solutions have to be provided in order to prevent the occurrence of over population at the receiving regions. The solutions to the problems of rural-Urban migration include:

1. Provision of social amenities: The provision of social amenities such as water, electricity, cinemas, roads and telephones in rural areas will go a long way in reducing the rate at which youth move to Urban areas.

2. Transportation of traditional agriculture to modern agriculture: This will enable the youth to engage in agriculture as the system will make farming interesting.

3. Establishment of Industries: The establishment of industries, projects and businesses that will absorb the rural working population and reverse labor movement will …

A Thought While Translating a Korean Basic Certificate

I understand if you haven’t heard of ‘Basic Certificate.’ I was, too, totally unaware of its existence for the first thirty plus years of my life. Only after I was assigned to translate the document did I have to look up what it was and found out. This article will give a brief explanation of the document and a small lesson I learned from translating it.

It is a legal document issued by the government of Korea since 2008. The name of the document is self-explanatory. It displays the most basic information about the applicant, and, of course, certifies that he or she is a Korean citizen. It starts with the name of the applicant followed by the date of birth, ID number to which every Korean is assigned at birth, and sex. A bit more detail is listed below, such as the place of birth (often the name of the hospital), the date of registration, the person applying for registration, and a state government who accepted the registration. Up to this point it might sound very much like a birth certificate but it isn’t. Korea has its own form for birth certificate. It is what follows after the information mentioned above that separates itself from others. Depending on the purpose of the document, it can contain extra information such as change of name, change of nationality or else. It is not a complex form and is often done in a single sheet. The document replaces and improves another form of document which has been very familiar to Koreans for decades. Legality and complexity behind the reason as to why the country had to make such a big step on getting rid of the previous form which Koreans have been too accustomed to might be beyond the scope of this article. Instead, I would like to finish by sharing what I realized while translating this document.

Being Korean myself, I was reminded while doing a research on this basic certificate that I know very little about legal system of my own country. Quite frankly, why this document had to replace the old one was beyond my ken, and it is why I could not further elaborate above. Of course, as a translator I am not obligated to know the whole story. I just have to translate the words to appropriate English ones and I’m justified. It was, however, an opportunity for me to think about something: when it comes to something legal, how much is done in my life with full trust without having a slightest clue. It is quite a flimsy life.…

Secrets to Passing the California Insurance License Exam

Like most States, California requires that you pass a government administered license exam before you can hang your shingle to sell insurance. In addition, you must take up to 52 hours of pre-license training, which thankfully, can now be done online. Separate license exams and training courses are required to sell property and casualty insurance versus life and health policies. And, there is mandatory continuing education required every two year renewal period as well as additional, special training classes needed to sell specific insurance products like flood insurance, long term care insurance and/or annuity investment policies.

If your plan is to thoroughly study the State handbooks, read and read again all the materials from your license course and take a cram course on test-taking, I can almost guarantee you still won’t pass the California Insurance Exam. These exams can be tough, since they are riddled with confusing and convoluted questions . . . the trademark of most government or quasi-government license exams. So what does it take to pass? Well, that’s what we cover in this article. And, there is a method to the madness.

First Off, Be Wary of Advice and Crazy Tips

Here is just some of the “buzz” around taking the State Exam. For the most part, ignore these rants and tips:

“Taking a cram class is all you need to pass” (Not true. See cram courses below)

“I was told to skip every question on the state exam. That way, these same questions are locked in and the computer will not spit out more difficult ones.” (A crazy conspiracy theory).

“A live teacher is the only way to pass. They pinpoint the “buzz” words you need to pass. They tell you things that can’t be put in writing” (Bunk . . . classes are monitored by the State. And, you need more than buzz words to pass).

“Use common sense to answer the exam questions.” (It won’t work).

“By process of elimination, you can get to the right answer.” (Works sometimes, but you would have to know the subject to eliminate the wrong answers).

“I earned 90{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} on my online practice exams . . . I’m ready”. (A lot of these 90 percenters still fail. There are practice exams and there are practice exams. See below).

“People who take online courses always fail”. (Bunk . . . our online school has a very high passing ratio . . . it’s what you do with the material that counts).

“Study the course materials . . . you will pass” (There is a lot more to it. It may be a variation the material you learned that is being asked).

“Just look for certain “buzz” words for the answer.” (The State knows all the buzz words . . . you’ won’t beat them this way).

California Specific

It may seem obvious to many, but be sure that the courses and exam prep materials you are studying are California specific. There are a lot of generic practice exams and …

The Fantasticks: Plato’s Allegory of the Cave

In 2008, six years after the closing of Tom Jones and Harvey Schmidt’s Off-Broadway production of The Fantasticks, the beloved musical returned to New York City. Forty-two years, it seems, was not a long enough run after all for this record breaker, and furthermore, no one appeared unhappy with the decision.

When in the early 1960s the musical first came to fruition, the beat generation saw itself in the play’s tension of opposites–the ideology of the young versus the ideology of the over-30s–and the dissonance caused by the current political unrest of that time. The play reached out to the generational needs of the ’60s and continued even beyond. But today in 2012 we are undergoing a different kind of turbulance and much has changed since The Fantasticks was written. So why has this musical endured? Why can’t we get enough of its lines and lyrics? What is our connection? Why are we so in love with this play?

A Familiar Plot

The answer may lie in the underlying archetypal plot of the script. Act I opens in the sweet innocence of moonlight; Act II opens in the harsh reality of day. The boy Matt and the girl Luisa thrive on their illusions in the first act but encounter a painful awakening in the second. El Gallo, “the rooster” and professional abductor hired by Hucklebee, ushers in the light of day, literally but also symbolically. He has come to lead Matt and Luisa on separate journeys in which they will leave their innocence behind and become initiates into the world of experience.

In Moonlight

Matt’s and Luisa’s fathers construct a make believe feud and build a wall between their houses in order to encourage their children to fall in love, relying on the old temptation of the forbidden to do the job. It works, and when the two lovers meet in secret, in moonlight of course, they pledge their love to each other. To create the illusion of settling the feud, Matt’s father Hucklebee engages El Gallo to stage the abduction of Luisa, allowing his son Matt to rescue her heroically and end the ruse. Luisa’s father Bellomy agrees, but a happy ending in moonlight cannot be real.

In Daylight

“Their moon was cardboard,” El Gallo tells us. In the daylight, life takes on a less subtle tone and reality casts a harsh glare. All four sing, “What at night seems oh, so scenic may be cynic much too soon.” Suddenly dissatisfied, the boy and girl part ways to find a solution to their restlessness. Matt ventures off to drink and gamble and find a shining world full of adventure while Luisa longs to be kissed upon the eyes by El Gallo who will take her on a journey to see the world, dancing forever and forever. To do so, she must put up a mask to prevent her from seeing the truth. When Luisa refuses to accept this world as only an illusion, the trickery of smoke and …

Current Employment Outlook for Personal Injury Attorneys

One of the most lucrative fields for lawyers is the job of a personal injury attorney. They take care of physical and emotional factors when seeking compensation for injured victims. They are also known as trial lawyers and take up assignments when people who have suffered in a vehicle collision, assaults, work injuries or medical errors approach them for help. These types of settlements may be in thousands of dollars and the lawyers benefit because they get a percentage of the compensations as their fees.

Tort law or personal injury law helps people to claim compensations from the third party because they have suffered damages as a result of accidents or injuries. The third party could refer to an individual, medical institution, government agency or a large corporation. This also deals with assault chargers, negligence, battery and cases of trespassing. This type of law can be categorized as:

  • Negligent torts
  • Intention torts
  • Strict liability torts

Role and job description of the personal injury attorney:

The attorney has to conduct research before taking up the case. He will check all aspects to determine if the case they are representing for a particular client is advantageous to their law firm. He will begin the paperwork after interviewing the clients and researching and understanding the various strategies that will have to be adopted.

The personal injury attorney has to find concrete evidence based on facts that can be produced in courts. These include police records, medical records and so on. The lawyers work on preparing the case by obtaining testimonies and legal briefs. They have to advise their clients in large corporations and organizations about legal issues as these bodies are especially vulnerable when it comes to lawsuits.

Due to the increasing demand, many personal injury lawyers are now available and there is scope for others who wish to enter this field.

Assessing the employment outlook:

These personal injury attorneys may work with a firm or independently as they would if they take up other streams in law. They may initially work as an associate but once they gain experience they may rise to the position of a partner in the firm. Some lawyers prefer to work on their own and take up cases where they charge lower fees. Studies on the subject indicate that the employment outlook proves positive as a growth of 13{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} in this field is expected by the year 2018.

Depending on the size of the firm where they are employed, the personal injury lawyers will be paid an average salary. This may be in the range of $51,700 to nearly $90,000. The cities that offer high compensation packages are Los Angeles, Chicago and New York. California State has the best ranking followed closely by Florida and New York.

The employment outlook therefore is positive and the average salaries that are paid are good incentives for budding personal injury lawyers. These types of lawyers are also sought as the rate of accidents, work related accidents and bankruptcy cases are …

Population Distribution or Structure II – Sex, Occupational and Geographical Distributions

Sex distribution

The sex distribution refers to the classification of a given population according to sex or gender (male or female). Sex distribution can easily be obtained from a population census of a given country which shows the total number of males and the total number of females.

A knowledge of the total number of makes and females in a country will assist the government to make the necessary plans to cater for the population. If, for example, the population of the female is higher than that of the males, it means government will have to plan to provide goods and services for more people because such a country will give rise to high population. Nature has, however tried to balance the number of males with that of the female in such a way that the differences in number between the two is usually very small.

Occupational distributions

Occupational distribution of a population refers to the classification of the working population into different types of work they engage in. The occupational distribution in any population is influenced by a number of factors. These include:

1. The level of education

2. Availability of natural resources

3. The level of technology

4. The types of productive activities.

The major types of productive activities are primary (extractive), manufacturing, construction, commercial, direct and indirect services. In west Africa for instance, majority of the occupationally distributed population are found in farming, mining fishing and lumbering.

Geographical distribution

Geographical distribution of a given population refers to the spread of people into separate geographical areas within a country. The distribution may be due to occupational, presence of mineral resources, historical factors, seat of government, availability of social amenities etc. Reasons for high population density due to geographical distribution are: favorable climate, fertile soil, natural attachment/historical factors, administrative headquarters, employment opportunities, presence of minerals, presence of industries, presence of social amenities and infrastructure, commercial activities and migration.

Economic Implications or Effects of Increase in the Population of Dependants

The Dependants are the population that are between 0-17 years, which include the infants, pupils in nursery, primary, secondary and those in tertiary institutions, and the old age (over 60 years that are not working) but depend on the working population (18-60 years) to cater for all their needs or requirement. If the population of the dependents is higher than that of the working class it has the following economic implications: high taxation, increase in prices, increase in government expenditures, low savings, low investment, fall in standard of living, increase in demand for goods and services, increase in imports, decrease in exports and low supply of labor.…

Telenursing Approach – Evidence Based Challenge

Introduction-The term “basic health services” is defined by UNICEF and WHO (1965) as a network of co-ordinated, peripheral and intermediate health units capable of performing effectively, a selected group of functions essential to the health of an area and assuring the availability of competent professional personnel to perform these functions. WHO has also proclaimed health as a fundamental right of every individual and society.

India is a developing country with a large and diverse geographical terrain, and a huge population with a great deal of ethnic and cultural variation. It has all kinds of health care providers ranging from well qualified doctors of allopathy, homeopathy, ayurveda, registered medical practitioners to untrained providers of medical aid, herbalists, and magico-religious practitioners. The importance of the involvement of practitioners belonging to different systems of medicine in the health care system has been noted by various committees and in various health related policy documents from time to time. The National Health Policy (2002) advocated expanding the pool of medical practitioners to include a cadre of licentiates of medical practice, practitioners of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy. It further recommended that different categories of medical manpower should be permitted medical practice after adequate training. The National Population Policy (2000) recommended the involvement of manpower from different health agencies to expand the body of effective health care providers. Shrivastva Committee (1975) recommended primary health care within the community through trained workers to keep the health in the hands of the people.

The governments of developing countries are unable to deliver free health services as the basic right of the citizen in a holistic manner.Accessibility of health agency is an important aspect of its availability; hence a vital factor affecting treatment seeking behaviour of consumers. To make provision for basic health care to all the people is a difficult task for administrators in a country like India. Thus, eliminating geographical barriers, and to help develop new strategies and services to appeal to consumers’ various needs and desires is a big challenge.In spite of a host of national health policies; the health care indices significantly lag behind those of the developed countries. The quantitative and qualitative demographic transition in the population and disease profile along with inadequate health care delivery infrastructure is a fundamental concern for the country. In India, government from time to time declared deadlines for achievement of goals in health and various related areas. At present, in addition to other time bound goals of current eleventh five year plan, some of the important goals to be achieved by 2000-2015 are to increase utilization of public health facilities, and to establish a system of surveillance, national health accounts and health statistics.

Moreover, the increased need for health care has not been matched with a commensurate increase in resource, and the imbalance is growing. In developed countries telenursing applications are available in homes, home care agencies, hospital based telemedicine centres, hospices and rehabilitation centres whereas in Indian scenario, its need for implementation is being considered vis-a-vis …

Rare American Coins and the 1981 US Assay Silver Dollar

The US Assay Commission was formed by the Mint Act of 1792 and continued to function until 1971, when precious metals were no longer used in American circulated coinage.

In 1977, no members were appointed to the commission. Then in 1980, President Jimmy Carter signed legislation to abolish the Assay Commission completely.

These 1981 Assay one ounce silver dollars have become rare American coins, not produced by the US Mint.

The Assay Commission’s function was to supervise the annual testing of the gold, silver, and in its final year’s base metal coins produced by the United States Mint to ensure that they met specifications. Beginning in 1797, it met in most years at the Philadelphia Mint.

In the late 1960s, the Defense Logistics Agency had over 165 million ounces of silver in its stockpile. The Federal Government sold much of this silver on the open market in 1980 and 1981.

After the US Mint stopped using silver in circulating coinage, the US government felt compelled to sell portions of its reserves to the public in order to stabilize the high silver market partially created by the Hunt brothers hoarding large quantities of silver.

The Continental Coin Company of California purchased a great deal of this silver from the U.S. government Treasury reserves. They proceeded to mint 1oz rounds, as well as 10 oz and 100 oz bars in 1981.

They made sure that everyone knew it was made from silver that had been stored at the San Francisco Assay Office by boldly stating MINTED FROM US STOCKPILE SILVER and Formerly Stored at US ASSAY OFFICE SAN FRANCISCO. Many people who buy these bullion products continue to think they were minted by the U.S. Mint in San Francisco for the Assay Office.

The CC on the reverse stands for Continental Coin rather than Carson City, further adding to the confusion. These bullion rounds are even represented by sellers as being minted by the US Government for the purpose of public distribution.

The obverse features an American Bald Eagle flying in front of the U.S. flag. The legend above the eagle says “One Troy Ounce 31.1 Grams” and the legend below says “.999 Fine Silver Trade Unit” with olive branches between the words around the rim. The design is reminiscent of US Mint coins, but not as detailed.

The center of the reverse states “Formerly Stored at U.S. Assay Office San Francisco” with the CC logo beneath. The legend “Minted From U.S. Strategic Stockpile Silver” is around the border, and the date 1981 is flanked by 3 stars on each side.

These are only slightly more difficult to find than Engelhard Prospectors or other bullion silver rounds, but they aren’t exactly rare American coins. They are an example of American precious metal bullion history that preceded the Prospector by a year.

The 10 oz and 100 oz silver bullion bars have similar details stamped in them, but aren’t so easily confused for actual US Mint products. They look like standard bullion bars.…

Diamond Symbolism and Mythology

Nowadays, we all know a diamond engagement ring is the most important jewelry purchase in a man's life and the most significant to the woman who receives it. Diamond is the birthstone of people born in the month of April and is also used as the symbol of a sixty-year anniversary, such as a Diamond Jubliee.

However, the symbolism of diamonds goes beyond romance. Through centuries diamonds have been a symbol of love, excellence and purification. Diamond, because of its remarkable hardness and clarity, also still reigns supreme in its symbolism of power, strength, brilliance and unparallel beauty. Diamonds are enchanting treasures that have fascinated mankind through the centuries. Many regarded them as magical. Not only were they rare and beautiful, no tool could cut them and even the fiercest fire would leave the diamonds unscathed.

Diamonds have been used symbolically because of their extra physical properties. It was said that the Greeks believed diamonds were tears of the gods. Romans believed they were splinters of fallen stars. In Tibetan Buddhism, also known as Vajrayana (Diamond Vehicle), diamonds are an important symbol and the Diamond Sutra is one of the most popular texts.

In ancient India, diamonds were not cut for fear that they would lose its magical properties. During the Middle Ages, it was believed that diamonds would grow darker in the face of guilt and shine brightly for the innocent. Another belief is that in the presence of poison, diamond would also change color. The rainbow colors of the prism were thought to give one magical power over Evil Eyes.

According to occultist myths, it was believed that diamonds possess several supernatural powers, eg a diamond's hardiness can only be broken by smearing it with fresh goat's blood. Or a diamond gives victory to he who carries it bound on his left arm, no matter the number of enemies.

It was also believed to have been used as a healing stone. Such as a way of detecting and detoxifying poison, opening spirituality channels and assisting calming creatures.

Today, diamonds are used to symbolize eternity and love. The first diamond engagement ring can be traced to the XV century, when the Archduke Maximilian of Austria gave the first diamond ring engagement to Mary of Burgundy in 1477. At that time, the diamond was used in its natural crystalline structure. The octahedral or eight-sided formation, like 2 pyramid joined at the base, was mounted with the lower pyramid completely hidden in the ring setting and the upper half rising out of it. Light would be reflected from all four sides of this exposed upper point. The structure of this diamond mirrors the symbolism of the Egyptian pyramids. The union in 1477 was celebrated by the exchange of a diamond betrothal ring which would have been an early example and sometimes the first royal one.

Other early example of betrothal jewels incorporating diamonds include the Bridal Crown of Blanche (ca. 1370-80) and the Heftlein brooch of Vienna (ca. 1430-40), a pictorial …