UK Has Become a Democracy by Evolution Rather Than Revolution

Introduction

In first century B.C. Roman Empire was spread through out whole Europe including Southern Britain which including modern England. Roman Empire prevails not only by military means but also their culture, law and political system. At that time Rome was ruled by Senate, with the principles of ancient Democracy. That was a legacy of Greece to Rome. While conquering the world these Roman donate Democracy all over its territory as well as England. After the collapse of Roman Empire in 3rd century A.D. British people enjoyed some kind of independence from outer world. After some time whole island scattered to a number of kingdoms. Then, there was nothing left something called Democracy anymore. Only monarchs were left there which relies on feudalism.

Various invasions and migrations made mixed nation in Britain. British history was intermingled with dozens of cultures like Celtic, Roman, Anglo Saxon, Jute, French, Dane, Norse and Norman.

The main turning point of British history is invasion of William of Normandy in 1066.He beat the Saxon King Harold at the battle of Hastings. William and his descendants over England with violent and totalitarian regime and there was no liberal democracy. Gradually Norman Knights and those Saxons, who had some land and money, secure great power over the Kings. They had their own army as well as taxation process. Therefore Kings couldn’t rule country without their help (both military and financially).Especially the reign of inept Kings. However, the main characteristic of the British Constitution is there is no book or archive in written form. We can figure it out as series of bills consent in parliament and customs evolved time to time. These Bills and Customs built up evolution rather than revolution. From here let us consider main archives to prove that.

Magna Carta

In the reign of such inept King John in 1215,the great barons of the land rose up in mutiny and forced the King to sign an agreement called “Magna Carta”(Great Charter). They were questioned whether the King really should have total power over the country. From signing Magna Carta “the king to renounce certain rights and respect certain legal procedures, and to accept that the will of the king could be bound by law. Magna Carta was the first step in a long historical process leading to the rule of constitutional law.”

This is a revolutionary moment in British history. Probably, the preamble to the British constitution. Actually, the incident is seems like a revolutionary one, though it didn’t change structure of Monarch or abolish it. Feudalism continues. Only change was Nobles and Pope gets some power rather than before and some human rights were accepted as inviolable. Below mention the most valuable clause in the Charter even modern constitutions also added as fundamental right of human beings. That was;

“No free man shall be arrested, or imprisoned, or deprived of his property, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way destroyed, nor shall we go against him or send against him, unless by …

Philippine Oil Deregulation – A Policy Research Analysis

I. INTRODUCTION

The Policy As An Output

Embodied in the Republic Act No. 8479, otherwise known as the “Downstream Oil Industry Deregulation Act of 1998,” is the policy of the state that deregulates the oil industry to “foster a truly competitive market which can better achieve the social policy objectives of fair prices and adequate, continuous supply of environmentally-clean and high quality petroleum products” (Congress 1998).

With deregulation, government allows market competition. That means government does not interfere with the pricing, exportation, and importation of oil products, even the establishment of retail outlets, storage depots, ocean-receiving facilities, and refineries.

It has been a decade ago since lawmakers made a proposition that deregulation would secure the Philippines from the vulnerability of oil price shocks due to its heavily dependent on imported oil. But it is now increasingly apparent that many are calling to scrap the law as six out of ten Filipinos favor the repeal of RA 8479 (Somosierra 2008).

The Policy As A Process

When President Fidel Ramos started his administration in 1992, the country had already started feeling the effects of power supply deficiencies, with major areas already experiencing power interruptions. The power crisis caused a slowdown in the national economy for nearly three years and prodded the government to initiate major reforms in order to rehabilitate the energy sector (Viray 1998, p.461-90). In response to a power supply crisis, Ramos revived the plans to liberalize the oil industry that were cut short during the Aquino administration due to Gulf crisis.

The government’s efforts to enact an oil deregulation law were also intensified in 1995 when the Oil Price Stabilization Fund (OPSF ) started to threaten the fiscal stability of the economy. Deregulation was thus seen as the solution to the recurring deficit.

The problem of the OPSF deficit was in part related to the highly political nature of oil prices, which encouraged government to defer price increases as much as possible in order to avoid public protest even at the expense of incurring a fiscal deficit. However, government mismanagement of the fund also included using it for non-oil purposes such as financing other government projects or the public sector deficit when it was in surplus (Pilapil 1996, p.12).

At the height of a strong lobbying effort for deregulation by oil companies and despite the loud opposition of militant groups, the industry was eventually deregulated in 1996 with the enactment of RA 8180 (the Downstream Oil Industry Deregulation Act of 1996) in Congress.

However, Supreme Court declared in 1997 the unconstitutionality of RA 8180. The Court decision stemmed from three provisions in the law that were deemed to inhibit free competition and therefore, violated the anti-trust mandate of the 1987 Constitution (Supreme Court 1997). But administration Congressmen quickly re-filed the oil deregulation bill leading to the new oil deregulation law. RA 8479 was then enacted to pave the way for the full deregulation of the oil industry. Since then, government has no longer control over the industry. What it …

Nature of Political Parties in the Philippines

No one likes to be judged by mere appearances. That said, we may as well say that we should not judge a candidate’s worth based on which political party he belongs to. After all, being affiliated to a party has its own curses and blessings.

In the political arena of the Philippines, history tells us that there are more negative aspects than positive ones on being affiliated to a political party.

The issue of party came to my mind following the departure of Chiz Escudero, a presidential aspirant in the 2010 elections, from the Nationalist People’s Coalition (NPC). Some pundits are quick to conclude that for Escudero leaving NPC he has just committed a “political suicide.”

It sounds logical to say that Escudero’s surprising decision was a political suicide. That is for people who surmise that winning an election depends on party affiliations. Or that one’s strength is defined by a party’s backing.

To my mind, political party is nothing but a nonsense group of opportunists. It is composed of fake acquaintances and pretentious friends. People are there because they want to get something out of the party, not because they want to be catalysts of the noble vision of the party.

It is difficult to recall when was the last time the Philippines truly had a genuine political party – I mean a party that really has a specific direction and a set of well-founded principles it adheres to.

Here are some existing political parties in the Philippines with names of corresponding leaders: Lakas-Kabalikat ng Malayang Pilipino-Christian Muslim Democrats (Gloria Arroyo); Nationalist People’s Coalition (Eduardo Cojuangco Jr.); Liberal Party (Manuel Roxas II), Nacionalista Party (Manny Villar), Bagong Alyansang Makabayan (Satur Ocampo); Partido Demokratiko Pilipino-Lakas ng Bayan (Aquilino Pimentel Jr.); Pwersa ng Masang Pilipino (Erap Estrada); United Opposition (Jejomar Binay); Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino (Edgardo Angara); Liberal Party (breakaway) (Lito Atienza); Partido Demokratiko Sosyalista ng Pilipinas (Norberto Gonzales); Kilusang Bagong Lipunan (Ferdinand Marcos Jr.); Lakas-Christian Muslim Democrats (breakaway) (Jose de Venecia Jr.); and People’s Reform Party (Miriam Defensor-Santiago). And there are nearly a hundred other regional, minor, or party-list groups whose names we only find in election forms.

We have too many parties – and it is not helping us as a nation. Whenever there is a conflict of interest within a party, we can expect that a new party (also called a breakaway party) will be formed. Thus, the number of party groups is on the rise.

More often than not, a new political party is formed by those who were left behind at the choosing of a party’s official candidate in an election, not that they wanted to make a difference in our society so they established their own group.

At the national level, the emergence of new political parties is a strong sign of a widespread dissatisfaction among members of the same group. Since there is no law that prohibits the creation of a new party and we are not a two-party system country, politicians are confident …

Short Introduction to Scientist Isaac Newton

Isaac Newton was a preeminent contributor to the fields of mathematics and physics. He was born in 1642 in Lincolnshire, England, and was described as a natural philosopher during his lifetime. His work guided the scientific revolution during the 17th century. Until today Newton is widely recognized as one of the most influential scientists of all time and a key figure in the scientific revolution.

As a child Newton attended The King's School in Grantham where he began to develop a foundational knowledge of mathematics. After being widowed for the second time Newton's mother tried to motivate him to become a farmer. He hated leaving school and was re-admitted after the headmaster convinced his mother to let him return. He repeatedly rose to be the highest-ranked pupil.

Newton began studying at Cambridge's Trinity College in 1661. It was there that he recorded his first theories about mechanics. His work was informed by his study of philosophy and astronomy. His discovery of a generalized binomial theorem in 1665 was the starting point from which he developed his theory of calculus.

After obtaining his degree from Trinity Newton spent two years at home studying. He made significant progress developing his theories of optics and calculus. His work impressed professor Isaac Barrow, and he was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1672.

The field of optics fascinated Newton. To prove his theories of color and dispersion of light he built a refracting telescope for the Royal Society in 1672. He published his notes of Colors in 1671, and they were later developed into the work Opticks .

Newton published his first collection of work concerning gravitation and mechanics in 1687. Principia was an achievement that had been in development for many years, and defined three universal laws of motion. These laws would go on to create the basis of classical mechanics, and directly advance machinery during the Industrial Revolution. After publishing Principia Newton found himself receiving international recognition and acclaim.

In Newton's later life, when asked for an evaluation of his achievements, he answered, "I do not know what I may appear to the world; but to myself I seem to have been only like a boy playing on the seashore, and diverting myself Now and then in finding a smoother pebble or prettier shell than ordinary, while the great ocean of truth lay all undiscovered before me. "

Later in his life Newton would devote a great deal of time to the study of alchemy and biblical interpretation. He died in 1727 and was interrupted at Westminster Abbey. …

5 Myths Americans Believe About Vietnam

1. Religion is not tolerated in Vietnam.

Quite the contrary! Sometimes I read stories on the web about religious persecution in Vietnam, but what I see here in Ho Chi Minh City is a very religious people, far more religious in general than Americans. People here will nearly all say they are either Catholic or Buddhist; it’s hard to find anyone who would call themselves Agnostic or Atheistic- I haven’t met one yet.

The Catholic Church is one of the biggest property owners in Ho Chi Minh City. There are huge, newly built churches everywhere. I can see a gimongous church being built in the distance from the window where I’m sitting right now. In the evenings and on Sundays there are crowds of people at all the churches, often spilling out into the street and adding to the traffic mayhem. The most popular tourist attraction in Saigon is a cathedral- the Notre-Dame Cathedral in District 1.

There are also Buddhist temples in every neighborhood; many of them are huge. Thich Nhat Hanh, the rock star of Buddhist monks who was living in exile in France for many years, recently returned to tour Vietnam with an entourage of over 300 monks.

Granted, there are conflicts between the Vietnamese government and some religious leaders who get involved in politics. I don’t know the details of these conflicts but I’d venture to say they involve only a tiny minority of religious people. In the past, certainly there has been severe religious persecution in Vietnam, but things have changed a lot. The official government line is that religion is free and accessible to all, and I haven’t seen anything different.

2. The Vietnamese hate Americans because of “The American War.”

My own experience is only in the south, and it may be different in the north, but what I have experienced would actually be the opposite. Even when I first came to Vietnam as a tourist in 1996, I never heard or felt anything but tremendous love and respect for America and Americans.

To the Vietnamese, just like to people in developing countries everywhere, American is the promised land, the land of opportunity. Nearly every Vietnamese family has at least one member living in the USA, so America is the country that is taking care of their loved ones.

Unlike Americans, especially baby boomers, who will never get past the Vietnam war, the Vietnamese have gotten over it. The bulk of the Vietnamese population, it’s own baby boom, is only in their mid-20’s. Their parents have stories but most people are too young to remember the war.

Also consider Vietnamese history. Americans don’t have much of a history, but the Vietnamese collective memory goes back 5000 years. The Chinese occupied Vietnam for 1000 years. France occupied Vietnam for 100 years. America was here for all of 30 years, merely a small blip in Vietnamese history. Contrary to Americans’ sense of self-importance, the American episode isn’t all that significant. (I don’t know how accurate …

What is the Law of Attraction? Plato’s Got the Answer!

These days, you don’t have to look too far to find hoards of gurus ready to help you answer the question: What is the Law of Attraction?

Arguably, one of the most famous of these folks is Rhonda Byrne. Her hit book and movie The Secret, is currently the de facto standard in all things metaphysical. Although she credits century old New Thought writers like Wallace D. Wattles for her inspiration, it was actually Plato who may have first answered the question: “What is the Law of Attraction?”

If he were still alive today his response would be simply: “likes attract”. This great philosopher, was of course, speaking of his “first law of affinity” and the science of chemistry. However, starting in the middle of the 20th century, scientists actually started to apply this law to us ordinary folks.

So, into today’s lingo, this translates as “we become what we think about”. Self-help legend, Earl Nightingale, actually coined this phrase in the 1950’s.

Does this mean that if you repeat a few Law of Attraction affirmations that fame, money and wealth are yours for the taking? Ah, if life were that simple! Affirmations can act as a springboard to train your mind to think more positively, but you still have to work hard at this.

Consider this – if your thoughts are constantly focused on “wanting” or “getting” something, then what you are really focusing on is you “lack” of something and thus you attract more of that negative stuff into your life. It took me a while to really understand how profound this is!

Training you mind to concentrate on positive thoughts and truly believing in your own self-worth are fundamental to the Law of Attraction. When you are able to grasp this concept, the door to abundance will fling itself wide open!

If you were given the chance to sit down with Plato and ask “What is the Law of Attraction?”, his response might sound something like this:

“Believe in yourself! You are a truly magnificent and deserving person! When you abandon the cycle of negative thinking, prosperity will follow.”

Now get to work!…

Masonic Secrets Exposed! Freemason Simon Gray Receives Death Threats for Revealing Freemason Secrets

Are you contemplating joining a Freemason Lodge? Perhaps you’re tantalized by the secret Freemason handshakes, or the ancient Masonic rituals. Maybe you’re just being pressured by your relatives because you’re from a traditionally Mason family. Or perhaps you’re just interested in the pursuit of Truth.

Does large-scale organized secrecy among powerful individuals unsettle you?

It should.

Enter Simon Gray. Why should this man be important to you, you might ask? Simon was a Freemason who did something extremely dangerous and deviant under Mason Law. For the first time, a Freemason has made available to the general public the most closely guarded secrets of Freemasonry.

Shortly after Simon released his collection of 120 out-of-print books and rare documents on Freemasonry (many of which were written by Masons themselves), he was immediately expelled from his Masonic Temple. Shortly after his expulsion from his Freemason Lodge he received official death threats from the highest levels of the Masonic Order.

Any book you can find on Freemasonry worth its salt focuses almost always on the history of the Masons and its possible origin relating to the Knights Templar, drawing on primary sources such as news articles and other stories in the past, but there have never been primary sources written by Masons themselves… Until Now.

The biggest reason why the Freemasons continue to receive so much attention in popular culture and the minds of conspiracy theorists throughout the years is due to the abundance of high-profile politicians and businessmen that the Freemason Order has kept on its roster for hundreds of years.

On top of that, they’re a secret society, and certainly the oldest known of today that operates on a global level.

I do not envy Simon Gray. This brave ex-Freemason stands alone, delivering Masonic Secrets to the masses, with a shadow looming over him. That shadow is an exceptionally powerful and old secret society that has a history of influence in government and law enforcement.

Due to the excessive death threats and pressure from Masonic Temples around the world, Simon in all probability will be forced to take his site down very soon.

I can tell you right now that there has never been a larger collection of top-notch information on Freemasonry revealed before this, nor will there be anything like this released ever again.

Simon has released 120 out-of-print books, manuscripts and journals, many written by actual high-ranking Masons of modern and ancient descent. That’s over 25,000 pages of exclusive content that you’re not going to find anywhere else (even if you’re a Mason).

That’s right, almost all of the knowledge that Simon has released will never be known to 99{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of all Freemasons, and will probably not be available to the public for much longer.

If you have any interest in Freemasonry or secret societies ancient and modern, you absolutely can’t afford not to see what Simon Gray has to say; get invaluable rare information on the Freemasons, direct from the source.

Gender Bias, Gender Discrimination, Gender Equality

From Looking for a Better World: One of my major interests is in the equality of women in all societies. Gender bias is as hurtful and destructive as any other bias. Though I am not particularly liberal, I have for my lifetime been opposed to the macho philosophy, the Islamic plunder of womanhood, the gender distinctions in the professions and the entire “woman driver” and, yes, even “blonde joke” phenomena.

Women and men are not created equal. They each have their God given strengths, focused on their responsibilities for procreation and family viability. Those differences are not easily dismissed … however those differences do not condone gender discrimination in society and certainly not in the workplace. In fact, because of the glass ceiling and gender discrimination, professional women need to be better than their male counterparts to succeed! That makes them better choices … and, in fact, I have made those choices! My physician, ophthalmologist, podiatrist and a recent surgeon are all female. Obviously, female clergy are welcome in my world.

I attended a lecture given by an oil minister from an Islamic state. He was asked when women would gain equality … and he jokingly replied “When the sands of the Sahara turn to Jello.” I cannot accept the gender inequality issue and I certainly am opposed to the current Islamic extremism.

Plunder and disrespect of women among the Muslim extremists are but a cursor of their disregard for life. It is just a clue, albeit a significant one, towards the larger issues of suicide bombings and indiscriminate slaughter. If the gender issue was gentler, their other more acceptable behaviors could follow.

“Looking for a Better World” deals with this and other issues of ethics. The book teaches that we can all make this a better world. If you want to read more, see:…

The Vindication of Harold Norman

Harold Norman was only twenty six years old on November 22, 1963, the day President John F. Kennedy was shot. The young African-American was an amiable fellow with a ready smile. An order-filler for the Texas School Book Depository, Harold routinely shared a myriad of jokes with fellow employees to help the day go by.

As JFK’s motorcade was scheduled to approach the Depository, located at the intersection of Elm and Houston Streets, Harold was joined by co-workers James “Junior” Jarman and Bonnie Ray Williams, all of whom planned on viewing the passing procession from open fifth-floor windows at the southeast corner of the building. In a crouched position, Harold stationed himself at the corner window, while Williams and Jarman knelt at the windows immediately right of him. It was the lunch hour and the three men had the choice of either standing with other employees who had congregated downstairs at the Depository’s main entrance, or having the entire upper floor to themselves. The latter option was a way to avoid the crowds below and, as JFK’s driver would be required to make a sharp turn from Houston to Elm Street beneath them, the commanding, bird’s-eye view each anticipated having of President and Mrs. Kennedy seemed ideal.

The motorcade finally reached Dealey Plaza. Sure enough, Harold, Bonnie Ray, and Junior were exhilarated with the panoramic sight of the handsome JFK and Jackie seated in an open blue Lincoln Continental, smiling and waving to the crowds at curbside.

“The weather,” Harold recalled decades later, “was picture-perfect; and I was surprised at how sandy-colored President Kennedy’s hair was.”

The presidential limousine had no sooner negotiated a slow turn onto Elm Street when, suddenly, three shots rang out!

The Texas School Book Depository had been built as a warehouse in 1901. The ribs in its antiquated wooden floors were wide enough in some areas to detect conversations from co-workers on stories above and below.

The first report was loud – too loud — followed closely by a second burst, then a brief delay, and finally a third explosion, all approximately ten seconds in duration. The windows trembled with the reverberations. Stunned, Harold was certain someone was shooting directly above him. The upper floors of the building shook as motes of white powdery-like dust descended upon Bonnie Ray’s head. What the three men heard overhead was unmistakable. Gunfire! –accompanied by the click-click sounds of a rifle’s bolt action. Ejected shell hulls were heard bouncing on the floor above with a ping. To Harold, who was experienced at firing a rifle, the ear-splitting resonance briefly reminded him of a segment from the popular ABC-TV television series “Combat!” He excitedly pointed upward and exclaimed, “Listen!” Bonnie Ray gasped, “No bullshit!” “I can hear the shells being ejected!” Harold urgently shouted.

The trio’s senses fired on all cylinders; their pulses, and minds, racing. What villain is on the sixth floor? Why would he want to harm President Kennedy? This can’t be happening! Harold, Junior, and Bonnie Ray, …

Women Empowerment in India

Women empowerment in India is a challenging task as we need to acknowledge the fact that gender based discrimination is a deep rooted social malice practiced in India in many forms since thousands of years. The malice is not going to go away in a few years or for that matter by attempting to work at it through half-hearted attempts. Formulating laws and policies are not enough as it is seen that most of the times these laws and policies just remain on paper. The ground situation on the other hand just remains the same and in many instances worsens further. Addressing the malice of gender discrimination and women empowerment in India is long drawn battle against powerful structural forces of the society which are against women’s growth and development.

Women empowerment in India: The need for ground level actions

We have to accept the fact that things are not going to change overnight but because of this we cannot stop taking action either. At this juncture the most important step is to initiate ground level actions however small it might seem. The ground level actions should be focussed towards changing the social attitude and practices prevalent in the society which are highly biased against women. This can be initiated by working with the women at the root level and focusing on increasing women’s access and control over resources and increasing their control over decision making. Further working on the aspect of enhanced mobility and social interaction of women in the society would positively influence all round development and empowerment of women in India.

Women empowerment in India: Reality check at the ground level

Today there are lot of things that is happening in the name of women empowerment in India and lot of resources are spent in this direction. Keeping this in mind it is crucial to have a reality check on what is happening on paper and what is the actual ground situation. It is worthwhile to ponder on the fact that we are one of the worst in terms of worldwide gender equality rankings. In India women are discriminated and marginalized at every level of the society whether it is social participation, economic opportunity and economic participation, political participation, access to education or access to nutrition and reproductive health care. A significant few in the society still consider women as sex objects. Gender disparity is high, crimes against women are increasing and violence against women is all time high and in most cases go unreported. Dowry related problems and death is increasing and is profoundly manifesting in the urban population. Workplace harassment of women is another phenomenon which is rapidly increasing as more women join the workforce. Early age marriages are still taking place in large numbers and the number of girls going to school is abysmally low. Moreover majority of the girls who join the school drop out by the age of puberty to get married and live a life of drudgery. Female feticide and infanticide …