Population Distribution or Structure II – Sex, Occupational and Geographical Distributions

Sex distribution

The sex distribution refers to the classification of a given population according to sex or gender (male or female). Sex distribution can easily be obtained from a population census of a given country which shows the total number of males and the total number of females.

A knowledge of the total number of makes and females in a country will assist the government to make the necessary plans to cater for the population. If, for example, the population of the female is higher than that of the males, it means government will have to plan to provide goods and services for more people because such a country will give rise to high population. Nature has, however tried to balance the number of males with that of the female in such a way that the differences in number between the two is usually very small.

Occupational distributions

Occupational distribution of a population refers to the classification of the working population into different types of work they engage in. The occupational distribution in any population is influenced by a number of factors. These include:

1. The level of education

2. Availability of natural resources

3. The level of technology

4. The types of productive activities.

The major types of productive activities are primary (extractive), manufacturing, construction, commercial, direct and indirect services. In west Africa for instance, majority of the occupationally distributed population are found in farming, mining fishing and lumbering.

Geographical distribution

Geographical distribution of a given population refers to the spread of people into separate geographical areas within a country. The distribution may be due to occupational, presence of mineral resources, historical factors, seat of government, availability of social amenities etc. Reasons for high population density due to geographical distribution are: favorable climate, fertile soil, natural attachment/historical factors, administrative headquarters, employment opportunities, presence of minerals, presence of industries, presence of social amenities and infrastructure, commercial activities and migration.

Economic Implications or Effects of Increase in the Population of Dependants

The Dependants are the population that are between 0-17 years, which include the infants, pupils in nursery, primary, secondary and those in tertiary institutions, and the old age (over 60 years that are not working) but depend on the working population (18-60 years) to cater for all their needs or requirement. If the population of the dependents is higher than that of the working class it has the following economic implications: high taxation, increase in prices, increase in government expenditures, low savings, low investment, fall in standard of living, increase in demand for goods and services, increase in imports, decrease in exports and low supply of labor.…

Telenursing Approach – Evidence Based Challenge

Introduction-The term “basic health services” is defined by UNICEF and WHO (1965) as a network of co-ordinated, peripheral and intermediate health units capable of performing effectively, a selected group of functions essential to the health of an area and assuring the availability of competent professional personnel to perform these functions. WHO has also proclaimed health as a fundamental right of every individual and society.

India is a developing country with a large and diverse geographical terrain, and a huge population with a great deal of ethnic and cultural variation. It has all kinds of health care providers ranging from well qualified doctors of allopathy, homeopathy, ayurveda, registered medical practitioners to untrained providers of medical aid, herbalists, and magico-religious practitioners. The importance of the involvement of practitioners belonging to different systems of medicine in the health care system has been noted by various committees and in various health related policy documents from time to time. The National Health Policy (2002) advocated expanding the pool of medical practitioners to include a cadre of licentiates of medical practice, practitioners of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy. It further recommended that different categories of medical manpower should be permitted medical practice after adequate training. The National Population Policy (2000) recommended the involvement of manpower from different health agencies to expand the body of effective health care providers. Shrivastva Committee (1975) recommended primary health care within the community through trained workers to keep the health in the hands of the people.

The governments of developing countries are unable to deliver free health services as the basic right of the citizen in a holistic manner.Accessibility of health agency is an important aspect of its availability; hence a vital factor affecting treatment seeking behaviour of consumers. To make provision for basic health care to all the people is a difficult task for administrators in a country like India. Thus, eliminating geographical barriers, and to help develop new strategies and services to appeal to consumers’ various needs and desires is a big challenge.In spite of a host of national health policies; the health care indices significantly lag behind those of the developed countries. The quantitative and qualitative demographic transition in the population and disease profile along with inadequate health care delivery infrastructure is a fundamental concern for the country. In India, government from time to time declared deadlines for achievement of goals in health and various related areas. At present, in addition to other time bound goals of current eleventh five year plan, some of the important goals to be achieved by 2000-2015 are to increase utilization of public health facilities, and to establish a system of surveillance, national health accounts and health statistics.

Moreover, the increased need for health care has not been matched with a commensurate increase in resource, and the imbalance is growing. In developed countries telenursing applications are available in homes, home care agencies, hospital based telemedicine centres, hospices and rehabilitation centres whereas in Indian scenario, its need for implementation is being considered vis-a-vis …

Rare American Coins and the 1981 US Assay Silver Dollar

The US Assay Commission was formed by the Mint Act of 1792 and continued to function until 1971, when precious metals were no longer used in American circulated coinage.

In 1977, no members were appointed to the commission. Then in 1980, President Jimmy Carter signed legislation to abolish the Assay Commission completely.

These 1981 Assay one ounce silver dollars have become rare American coins, not produced by the US Mint.

The Assay Commission’s function was to supervise the annual testing of the gold, silver, and in its final year’s base metal coins produced by the United States Mint to ensure that they met specifications. Beginning in 1797, it met in most years at the Philadelphia Mint.

In the late 1960s, the Defense Logistics Agency had over 165 million ounces of silver in its stockpile. The Federal Government sold much of this silver on the open market in 1980 and 1981.

After the US Mint stopped using silver in circulating coinage, the US government felt compelled to sell portions of its reserves to the public in order to stabilize the high silver market partially created by the Hunt brothers hoarding large quantities of silver.

The Continental Coin Company of California purchased a great deal of this silver from the U.S. government Treasury reserves. They proceeded to mint 1oz rounds, as well as 10 oz and 100 oz bars in 1981.

They made sure that everyone knew it was made from silver that had been stored at the San Francisco Assay Office by boldly stating MINTED FROM US STOCKPILE SILVER and Formerly Stored at US ASSAY OFFICE SAN FRANCISCO. Many people who buy these bullion products continue to think they were minted by the U.S. Mint in San Francisco for the Assay Office.

The CC on the reverse stands for Continental Coin rather than Carson City, further adding to the confusion. These bullion rounds are even represented by sellers as being minted by the US Government for the purpose of public distribution.

The obverse features an American Bald Eagle flying in front of the U.S. flag. The legend above the eagle says “One Troy Ounce 31.1 Grams” and the legend below says “.999 Fine Silver Trade Unit” with olive branches between the words around the rim. The design is reminiscent of US Mint coins, but not as detailed.

The center of the reverse states “Formerly Stored at U.S. Assay Office San Francisco” with the CC logo beneath. The legend “Minted From U.S. Strategic Stockpile Silver” is around the border, and the date 1981 is flanked by 3 stars on each side.

These are only slightly more difficult to find than Engelhard Prospectors or other bullion silver rounds, but they aren’t exactly rare American coins. They are an example of American precious metal bullion history that preceded the Prospector by a year.

The 10 oz and 100 oz silver bullion bars have similar details stamped in them, but aren’t so easily confused for actual US Mint products. They look like standard bullion bars.…

Diamond Symbolism and Mythology

Nowadays, we all know a diamond engagement ring is the most important jewelry purchase in a man's life and the most significant to the woman who receives it. Diamond is the birthstone of people born in the month of April and is also used as the symbol of a sixty-year anniversary, such as a Diamond Jubliee.

However, the symbolism of diamonds goes beyond romance. Through centuries diamonds have been a symbol of love, excellence and purification. Diamond, because of its remarkable hardness and clarity, also still reigns supreme in its symbolism of power, strength, brilliance and unparallel beauty. Diamonds are enchanting treasures that have fascinated mankind through the centuries. Many regarded them as magical. Not only were they rare and beautiful, no tool could cut them and even the fiercest fire would leave the diamonds unscathed.

Diamonds have been used symbolically because of their extra physical properties. It was said that the Greeks believed diamonds were tears of the gods. Romans believed they were splinters of fallen stars. In Tibetan Buddhism, also known as Vajrayana (Diamond Vehicle), diamonds are an important symbol and the Diamond Sutra is one of the most popular texts.

In ancient India, diamonds were not cut for fear that they would lose its magical properties. During the Middle Ages, it was believed that diamonds would grow darker in the face of guilt and shine brightly for the innocent. Another belief is that in the presence of poison, diamond would also change color. The rainbow colors of the prism were thought to give one magical power over Evil Eyes.

According to occultist myths, it was believed that diamonds possess several supernatural powers, eg a diamond's hardiness can only be broken by smearing it with fresh goat's blood. Or a diamond gives victory to he who carries it bound on his left arm, no matter the number of enemies.

It was also believed to have been used as a healing stone. Such as a way of detecting and detoxifying poison, opening spirituality channels and assisting calming creatures.

Today, diamonds are used to symbolize eternity and love. The first diamond engagement ring can be traced to the XV century, when the Archduke Maximilian of Austria gave the first diamond ring engagement to Mary of Burgundy in 1477. At that time, the diamond was used in its natural crystalline structure. The octahedral or eight-sided formation, like 2 pyramid joined at the base, was mounted with the lower pyramid completely hidden in the ring setting and the upper half rising out of it. Light would be reflected from all four sides of this exposed upper point. The structure of this diamond mirrors the symbolism of the Egyptian pyramids. The union in 1477 was celebrated by the exchange of a diamond betrothal ring which would have been an early example and sometimes the first royal one.

Other early example of betrothal jewels incorporating diamonds include the Bridal Crown of Blanche (ca. 1370-80) and the Heftlein brooch of Vienna (ca. 1430-40), a pictorial …

Eastern Culture or Western Culture, Which is Better

As we see the changing of the guard of the Worlds greatest civilizations from the United States to China or India we see history repeating itself as it has so many times in the human endeavors written history. It was not much more than 200 years ago when Great Britain was the greatest nation in the World. They kept the Great in their name but the United States clearly carried the choice after that. Next it appears due to our own follies and lake of forward progression we will be passing the torch again and in doing so taking our place as a footnote on the page in the annals of mankind’s history.

As we pass are on the apex of the hand off, which is clearly a choice having drown our nation in bureaucracy, over regulation and disdain for change, innovation or progress; we see a difference in cultures which is vast indeed. It is obvious that Western Culture has its advantages, whether we take advantage of them or not. It is equally as obvious for anyone who studies culture that Eastern Culture has its own advantages. Some of these advantages are in conflict, while much is similar. Which is better?

Should we assume that since Eastern Culture is next up to bat with the bases loaded that Eastern lifestyle is more fulfilling than the Western Lifestyle? We know from our own short 200-year history in the United States that western worlds; capitalism and western culture lifts people up, who put in. We have seen in recent history how Socialism and Communism have tended to push people down and over run civilizations in debt and inefficiency. Yet all in all most of human history and the government structures they have chosen share many things. All these scenarios and all the hybrids of each or all, seem to involve people who are of the ruling class who are motivated by those things humans are motivated by, similarly to those they rule, who are equally motivated by such things.

So when we ask which is better; one government structure or one culture over another, it appears that one could indeed argue both sides of the point or be right no matter which side they argue. And indeed in such abstract thought it seems we are all of the same genes and all one in that regard. The only difference between you neighbor in the United States and one of Asian Ancestry is probably not more than 3000-4000 years and certainly not more than 10,000 to 15,000. We all have similar needs to fulfill self and although have been pre-conditioned to believe one culture is better than the other is more nurture than nature isn’t it? Have you thought here yet? You might next time someone says it is us against them, as that is more similar to punching yourself in the eye really? We all belong to a fairly successful species which has come quite a ways and whose future is …

Raul Castro Ruz – Interesting Facts!

Raul Castro- Cuba’s Dictator since 2008

An anti-American Leader

Did you know- Historically, Raul Castro is one of the most anti-American leaders in the Third World, along with Fidel, Mao Zedong, Enver Hoxha and Mengistu Haile Mariam. Following the American embargo on Cuba in late1960,Castro said: “My dream is to drop three atomic bombs on New York”. In the 1960s, he also was famous for his slogan: “Hit the Yankees hard”.

Birthdate

Did you know-Raul Modesto Castro Ruz was born on June 3, 1931, in Biran (Cuba), one of Spain’s last colonies on the American mainland. He was the fifth child born to Angel Castro, a Spanish immigrant, and Lina Ruz Gonzalez de Castro. He married Vilma Espin Guillois (1959) and they produced three daughters (Deborah, Mariela and Nilsa) and one son (Alejandro).

Human Rights

Did you know-The Venezuelan-backed government of Cuban leader Castro is one of the most dictatorial regimes on Earth. Cuba currently has one of the largest number of political prisoners and refugees in the world.

President-for-Life

Did you know- Currently Raul Castro is Head of State of one of the last five Communist nations in the world. On February 24, 2008, Fidel Castro, who had held power for 49 years, was succeeded by his brother, Raul Castro.Before becoming President of Cuba, Castro was first vice President of the Council of State and vice President of the Council of Ministers, as well as maximum general of the armed forces and vice Secretary of the Politburo and the Central Committee of Communist Party.

Raul Castro’s Wife

Did you know–Vilma Espin Guillois, known as “Deborah” in the 1950s, was Castro’s wife. Like Haiti’s Michele Bennett Duvalier (Jean-Claude Duvalier’s wife) and Argentina’s Eva Duarte de Peron (Juan Domingo Peron’s wife), she was one of the most tyrannical women in the Western Hemisphere in the 20th century. She, on the other hand, studied abroad and in Cuba. With the start of the Cuban Revolution, Ms Espin was named President of the Cuban Women’s Federation. Her accession was due to the determination of Cuba’s then- dictator Fidel Castro that a female of the Castros should head the Federation. Like President of the Federation of Cuban Women, she had worked to change the country’s image as a totalitarian regime. Between 1975 and 1995, she spoke out in favor of the Cuban dictatorship during the UN conferences and summits. Ms Espin was also known as the First Lady of the Cuban Revolution.

Salvador Allende

Did you know- From 1959 to 1973, Castro and Vilma Espin had a close friendship with Salvador Allende Gossens, Chile’s first Marxist Head of State (1970-1973) and the world’s only freely elected Marxist leader.

USSR

Did you know-Since the 1960s, R. Castro took special interest in relations with the USSR (present-day Russia). Under his leadership, Cuba became one of the first Latin American countries to re-establish diplomatic ties with Moscow. He visited the Soviet Union in 1960.…

What Are the Strengths and Weaknesses of These Two Law of Attraction Teachers and Who is Better?

The Law of Attraction. The Secret. As you think, so it is done onto you. These three phrases have been spoken very often in the last few years. What is the reason for that? It is the explosion of interest in the Law of Attraction caused by the hit movie "The Secret." This explosion of interest has also led to a great increase in the number of teachers teaching the Law.

Anyone who has tried the Law of Attraction for long enough has understood that you need proper instruction if you were to succeed in manifesting the object of your desires. There is just too much at stake to stick to free information and thus deprive oneself of the secret strategies that the top teachers can reveal for you. But again, with the availability of so many teachers, which should you choose? How can you make sure that your time is not wasted with below par teachers?

The above two are valid concerns and they are the major reasons that many followers of the Law of Attraction kind of give up on the idea after playing with it only a short while. This article, however, will present you the top two teachers and then give you a recommendation as to what of the two you should choose based on your needs and expectations.

So enough waiting, the two top teachers are Bob Proctor and Robert Anthony. The reason that these two were not only their long years of experience with the Law of Attraction, although that is certainly helped. The profundity of their message, as well as their charismatic and appealing personalities, coupled with their clarity of expression and vision, clearly separate them from the other teachers and make them the best two.

First, let us start with Dr. Robert Anthony. Who is Dr. Robert Anthony, you might ask, and I would not blame you. He would have been much more famous now had he not turned down the offer of Rhonda Byrnes to take part in her movie "The Secret." Anyways, he did not take part, which kept him to the side of the mainstream Law of Attraction movement. This, however, also helped to strengthen his image as the most profound and kind of unique teacher. He is not just one of the teachers of "The Secret." Instead, he is the teacher who has his own secret – "The Secret of Deliberate Creation." Therefore, he is recommended for those who are looking for a little more philosophical and not so mainstream approach to the Law of Attraction teachings.

Bob Proctor, on the other hand, certainly benefited from his participation in "The Secret." Arguably, he was the main protagonist in the movie, and this claimed in an increase in his popularity, which makes me absolutely certain that you know who he is. So what is so special about Bob and why is he so popular? What is so attractive about him is the unique mix between profundity and simplicity. He …

Humility – One of the Most Powerful Allies of the Law of Attraction

When approaching any new learning endeavor in life there is a mindset that trumps all others. With the Law of Attraction the same applies and even more so than usual.

Here’s an interesting question!

Do you believe monks, presidents, CEOs and other elite people in high stations still value learning? An even better question is: Do you believe that they are humble in their approach to learning?

The simple and undoubted answer is a resounding YES.

Men such as the ones we see who have succeeded, achieved and made a name for themselves are the most ferocious learners. They learn, read, study and meditate on their fields of endeavors all of the time. You can call it their obsession. Don’t believe me? Just read Napoleon Hills work and closely monitor the men he observed – how they behaved and operated on a daily basis.

The ability to be a humble student is the key to approaching the Law of Attraction successfully.

Why?

The quality of humility is often viewed in this age of raw and hard hitting competition as a weakness. This could not be further from the truth.

Let’s use an example. The only way a parachute can operate and actually perform its function properly is when it is open. When a parachute is not fully open it can put the user’s life in danger.

The same goes for our minds. When our minds approach any subject in a full and honest hearted state of humility: this is when the mind is most open. The mind is ready to receive and soak up knowledge. This is the state when the mind dissects and processes information at an optimum level. In this state of total humility the mind becomes relaxed and open like the parachute working effortlessly as the winds of knowledge rush into it.

When this occurs several things begin to happen. With taking in of new information our current beliefs may be challenged and pushed into an uncomfortable place. In a spirit of humility your sub conscious mind does not view new material as attack on current beliefs, rather it sees the information as raw materials fit to build better and stronger beliefs.

It can be the hardest situation at times to realize that for the past say 20 years, our beliefs have been incorrect. This can hurt both our feelings and the ego. That is absolutely fine and in all honesty we have in some way all been in this situation.

When our humility toward learning is high and strong, this situation becomes effortless and rather pleasant. We instantly begin to move from an uncomfortable feeling to exciting betterment and a change for the future.

Hold on a second you might think this article was about the Law of Attraction and not a lesson from your mother. The truth is the quality of HUMILITY cannot be over emphasized enough. Do you believe men such as Donald Trump, Warren Buffet, Bill Gates and etc are still humble students? …

UK Has Become a Democracy by Evolution Rather Than Revolution

Introduction

In first century B.C. Roman Empire was spread through out whole Europe including Southern Britain which including modern England. Roman Empire prevails not only by military means but also their culture, law and political system. At that time Rome was ruled by Senate, with the principles of ancient Democracy. That was a legacy of Greece to Rome. While conquering the world these Roman donate Democracy all over its territory as well as England. After the collapse of Roman Empire in 3rd century A.D. British people enjoyed some kind of independence from outer world. After some time whole island scattered to a number of kingdoms. Then, there was nothing left something called Democracy anymore. Only monarchs were left there which relies on feudalism.

Various invasions and migrations made mixed nation in Britain. British history was intermingled with dozens of cultures like Celtic, Roman, Anglo Saxon, Jute, French, Dane, Norse and Norman.

The main turning point of British history is invasion of William of Normandy in 1066.He beat the Saxon King Harold at the battle of Hastings. William and his descendants over England with violent and totalitarian regime and there was no liberal democracy. Gradually Norman Knights and those Saxons, who had some land and money, secure great power over the Kings. They had their own army as well as taxation process. Therefore Kings couldn’t rule country without their help (both military and financially).Especially the reign of inept Kings. However, the main characteristic of the British Constitution is there is no book or archive in written form. We can figure it out as series of bills consent in parliament and customs evolved time to time. These Bills and Customs built up evolution rather than revolution. From here let us consider main archives to prove that.

Magna Carta

In the reign of such inept King John in 1215,the great barons of the land rose up in mutiny and forced the King to sign an agreement called “Magna Carta”(Great Charter). They were questioned whether the King really should have total power over the country. From signing Magna Carta “the king to renounce certain rights and respect certain legal procedures, and to accept that the will of the king could be bound by law. Magna Carta was the first step in a long historical process leading to the rule of constitutional law.”

This is a revolutionary moment in British history. Probably, the preamble to the British constitution. Actually, the incident is seems like a revolutionary one, though it didn’t change structure of Monarch or abolish it. Feudalism continues. Only change was Nobles and Pope gets some power rather than before and some human rights were accepted as inviolable. Below mention the most valuable clause in the Charter even modern constitutions also added as fundamental right of human beings. That was;

“No free man shall be arrested, or imprisoned, or deprived of his property, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way destroyed, nor shall we go against him or send against him, unless by …

Philippine Oil Deregulation – A Policy Research Analysis

I. INTRODUCTION

The Policy As An Output

Embodied in the Republic Act No. 8479, otherwise known as the “Downstream Oil Industry Deregulation Act of 1998,” is the policy of the state that deregulates the oil industry to “foster a truly competitive market which can better achieve the social policy objectives of fair prices and adequate, continuous supply of environmentally-clean and high quality petroleum products” (Congress 1998).

With deregulation, government allows market competition. That means government does not interfere with the pricing, exportation, and importation of oil products, even the establishment of retail outlets, storage depots, ocean-receiving facilities, and refineries.

It has been a decade ago since lawmakers made a proposition that deregulation would secure the Philippines from the vulnerability of oil price shocks due to its heavily dependent on imported oil. But it is now increasingly apparent that many are calling to scrap the law as six out of ten Filipinos favor the repeal of RA 8479 (Somosierra 2008).

The Policy As A Process

When President Fidel Ramos started his administration in 1992, the country had already started feeling the effects of power supply deficiencies, with major areas already experiencing power interruptions. The power crisis caused a slowdown in the national economy for nearly three years and prodded the government to initiate major reforms in order to rehabilitate the energy sector (Viray 1998, p.461-90). In response to a power supply crisis, Ramos revived the plans to liberalize the oil industry that were cut short during the Aquino administration due to Gulf crisis.

The government’s efforts to enact an oil deregulation law were also intensified in 1995 when the Oil Price Stabilization Fund (OPSF ) started to threaten the fiscal stability of the economy. Deregulation was thus seen as the solution to the recurring deficit.

The problem of the OPSF deficit was in part related to the highly political nature of oil prices, which encouraged government to defer price increases as much as possible in order to avoid public protest even at the expense of incurring a fiscal deficit. However, government mismanagement of the fund also included using it for non-oil purposes such as financing other government projects or the public sector deficit when it was in surplus (Pilapil 1996, p.12).

At the height of a strong lobbying effort for deregulation by oil companies and despite the loud opposition of militant groups, the industry was eventually deregulated in 1996 with the enactment of RA 8180 (the Downstream Oil Industry Deregulation Act of 1996) in Congress.

However, Supreme Court declared in 1997 the unconstitutionality of RA 8180. The Court decision stemmed from three provisions in the law that were deemed to inhibit free competition and therefore, violated the anti-trust mandate of the 1987 Constitution (Supreme Court 1997). But administration Congressmen quickly re-filed the oil deregulation bill leading to the new oil deregulation law. RA 8479 was then enacted to pave the way for the full deregulation of the oil industry. Since then, government has no longer control over the industry. What it …