China Internet Censorship in the Age of Globalization

China internet censorship has a major impact on the political and economic industries affecting the information and communication technologies for the Chinese society. The economic development, bureaucratic politics, civil and political liberties, international relations and security is also affected by the China internet censorship. This also includes the aspirations of Chinese policy makers for using the internet for attaining virtual leap for economic development.

There has been much advancement after putting China online, as China has made immense progress in the virtual world including the nature of one party state, lack of visibility of the legal structure in China. There has been a wide digital divide within China and there have been many problems of bureaucracy on china internet censorship and this has lead to a technological time lag, throwing China behind the advanced industrial economies.

The China internet censorship includes normative issues such as the state’s ability, to maintain control over the flow of information on the internet. It also stifles political dissent and the impact of the china on the formation of national and regional virtual identities. It also affects the impact information and communication technologies on international security. Today experts are exploring the methodological and theoretical problems arising from issues regarding the reliability of data, to the nature of relationship between technological and social change.

Thus, the Chinese censorship covers many areas including social impact of the internet and information and communication technologies, from academia to business and public policy making. There is huge cultural and political diversification of the internet for the Chinese society. There is a rapid growth of the internet that has been enthusiastically embraced by the Chinese government, but the government is making a giant leap ahead in order to seize control of the virtual world. China has witnessed many individual responses in the form of impassioned campaigns against the China internet censorship by the government.

The question is not whether the internet will democratize China, but it focuses on what way the internet is democratizing communication in China. It also has an impact on the interplay between civil society and the internet in China. There is an increased need to nurture a brand new type of social space for Chinese individuals and social groups in China. It is about redefining existing social relations and propelling existing civil forces into new possibilities. Today the Chinese government explains its internet censorship policies and asserts that it promotes free communication while it adheres to the set of laws and regulations that prohibit the spread of information that contains contents subverting state power.…

The Pentateuch, Law of Moses or Torah

Introduction

It is believed that the name Pentateuch “the first five books of the Old Testament, the book of the Law” (The Columbia Viking Desk Encyclopaedia, 1964, p.1402) was first found in the letter of Elora of a second century Gnostic, Ptolemy and passed into Christian use. These books are called The Law (Torah) or the Law of Moses by the Jews. (Everyman’s Encyclopedia, 1978). It would be difficult to overestimate the role that the Pentateuch has played in the course of biblical scholarship. In all likelihood, these first five books in the Bible – Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy- have been subjected to scrutiny more than any single block, with the sole possible exception of the Gospels (Knight and Tucker, 1985).

Origin

The word Pentateuch derives from the Greek pentateuchos “five-volumed (book)”, following the Jewish designation “the five-fifths of the law”. Jews call it the Torah, that is instruction, often rendered in English Law as it is called in the New Testament (Greek nomon; example, Matt. 5:17; Luke 16:17; Acts 7:53; 1 Cor. 9:8). According to Lasor, Hubbard and Bush (1982), the Pentateuch was “the most important division of the Jewish canon, with an authority and sanctity far exceeding that attributed to the prophets and writing” (p.54). They observe that the books of the Pentateuch are not ‘books’ in the modern sense of independent self-contained entries, but were purposefully structured and intended as part of a larger unity; therefore the term Pentateuch is not only convenient but necessary. However, granted this fact of the unity of the larger corpus, the conventional five-fold division is important not simply as a convenient means of reference to the material, but because there is clear editorial evidence establishing just these five books as genuine subdivisions of the material. Despite marks of real disparity and complexity in structure and origins, far more primary and important is the overarching unity which the Pentateuch evidences. A careful reading of the Pentateuch will reveal, beside a definite unity of purpose, plan and arrangement, a diversity – a complexity – that is equally striking.

Authorship

The traditional view according to Halley (1962) is that “Moses wrote the Pentateuch substantially…with the exception of the few verses at the close which give an account of his death, and occasional interpolations made by copyists for explanatory purposes” (p.56). This is in consonance with the view of Childs (1979). A modern critical view is that of a composite work of various scholars of priests made about the eighth century B.C., for partisan purposes, based on oral traditions, the principal redactors of which are called J (for Jahweh/Yahweh, the personal name of God), E (for Elohim, a generic name for God), D (for Deuteronomic) and P (for priestly). Each is claimed to be unique. However, “this view is not supported by conclusive research or evidence, and intensive archaeological and literary research has tended to undercut many of the arguments used to challenge Mosaic authorship” (The NIV Study Bible, 1984, p.2). Jews and …

Classification Of Human Rights

Human rights are great as they ensure that you are protected and safe as a human being. The rights are classified into five bases: civil, political, economic, developmental and social and cultural.

Civil Human liberties

Great advances in these liberties were made in the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries. During this time great amendments were made. The rights were combined with political liberties and they were collectively known as “liberty oriented human rights.”

They aid in providing, protecting and guaranteeing you liberty against the state and its agencies. According to human right experts these are the first generation of human rights.

Economic Human Liberties

Major strides in these liberties were made in the 20th century. During this time the social and cultural liberties were also strengthened. The rights aid in promotion of economic and social security through economic and social upliftment of the weaker sections of the society.

The liberties are essential for the dignity of personhood. They are also essential for the full and free development of human personality. The cool thing with the rights is that they ensure that there is a minimum of economic welfare.

When the economic, social and cultural rights are combined together they are known as “security oriented human rights.” This is because they collectively provide you with the security that you need in your life. Human right experts refer to them as second generation of human liberties.

Developmental Oriented Human Rights

They were developed in the late 20th century and serve an important role of ensuring that you are able to participate in the developmental activities in the society. The rights include the environmental rights that allow you to enjoy the free gifts of nature such as air, water, food, and natural resources. You should note that you should enjoy the gifts that are free from contamination.

They are known as third generation of human liberties or the Green Rights. They are also known as solidarity rights as their implementation depends on the international cooperation. According to experts, these rights are most important in the developing countries. This is because the countries are still developing and are still trying to gain international order.

Conclusion

This is how human liberties are classified. Remember that no one should violate your rights. If you feel that your rights have been violated you should contact the human rights tribunal in your country or state. It’s also wise that you contact an advisor.…

The Pros and Cons of Indian Media

The role of media has always created a deep impact on the lives of the common man. While on the one hand it has updated people about the situations around the world, there again it has also created panic when half baked news has come out in the open. In India, the growing popularity of the media is having varied effects on the lives of people.

It has been quite a few years now that the Indian media has advanced from newspapers and radio and made its way into the television industry. There are several news channels that run 24×7 and keep people updated about all the incidents not only in the country but also across the world. The greatest benefit of this system is that people sitting in India get updated about the accidents that are occurring in the USA within a matter of minutes. Unlike the old days, there is no need to wait till the next day when the newspapers arrive to be updated about the other side of the world. These channels also have sites on the internet that are updated every minute, so that even those who are on the move can remain up to date via internet on their mobile phones. Say for example the day when the World Trade Center came down, it was a matter of moments that people all over the world became aware of it.

Or even when the trains in London were bombed, the whole world became aware of it, thanks to the media. This immediate update enabled people from across the world to connect with their near and dear ones to ensure their safety.

However, it can not be ignored that where on the one hand immediately knowledge about incidents help people, there again the media can be a menace at times. Media in India at times became repetitive and they keep playing the same news tape over and over again. At time those news items which are not at all important get a lot of hype, sidelining the occurrences that could be of real importance. Indian media paid too much attention to events like the wedding of a star son and a leading heroine, the kiss that a Hollywood star planted on the cheek of a Bollywood heroine, the coming to light of the clandestine relationship of a Pakistan cricketer with a lady , And also the pregnancy of a Hindi film heroine. These incidents are of least importance to the life of a common man and so much importance only takes away the light from those accidents that can really affect people in their daily lives.

Media in India is very strong and it is up to the journalists as to how they bring forth the news from across the world. …

Consumer Price Index (CPI): Does It Measure Inflation?

What is Inflation?

Before we discuss the CPI and government economic data, we much first fully understand the concept of inflation. Inflation, in the most general terms, is a RISE in price levels of goods and services measured over a period of time. When price levels rise, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Inflation also measures the erosion in purchasing power of money, the loss of REAL value in the medium of exchange. Inflation impacts everyone in society, rich or poor, young or old, working or unemployed. Anyone that has to buy food, goods, and services, pay bills, or transact in the economy is directly affected by inflation.

The CPI – official measure of inflation.

The government’s key measurement for inflation is known as the CPI (Consumer Price Index). It has been around since 1913 and traditionally measured a basket of goods, which consumers would purchase. Then the price the basket of goods was compared on a year-over-year basis.

For instance you price a steak, a loaf of bread, a gallon of milk, etc. The following year you price the same products, look at the price change, and you are able to determine the rate of inflation. How much have items increased in price. That is (was) the purpose of the CPI, the rate of change on a fixed basket of goods (with a modicum of replacements when a product is no longer serving its core use, such a computer for a typewriter).

The CPI is very important data point for a couple of key reasons:

  1. Used to adjust Social Security benefits.
  2. The Federal Reserve uses it as their key measure of inflation to adjust monetary policy.

Obviously a lower CPI would be beneficial for both those key reasons.

The Cost of Living?

When the CPI came about it was used to strictly measure INFLATION, as described above. It did so for 70 years without any major changes. More recently in the last few decades, the model used for calculating the CPI has changed drastically. In fact, it no longer measures inflation, but rather the “cost of living”.

The Cost of Living measures the CHOICES a consumer has made based on price changes. In fact INFLATION directly impacts those choices. Many of the changes that have been made to the CPI over recent years have been argued based on the Cost of Living and the freedom of choice. It would seem a sound argument if we forget the purpose of the CPI to measure inflation.

The “Cost of Living” is not synonymous with inflation, yet politicians and the media frequently use the words “inflation” and “cost of living” interchangeably.

The philosophy behind the changes.

The first big change was made in the mid 1980s, it removed housing from the CPI and replaced it with a “rental equivalent”. It was argued that not everyone buys a house and some that do buy also rent homes, thus we should measure the inflation of rent rather than the inflation of …

I Shall Not Hear The Nightingale – Khushwant Singh: A Story Of Baptism In Blood

Sher Singh killed a crane. He wanted to be a terrorist. But there was baptism in his blood. He felt for the crane. If one crane is killed, the other dies of grief. His instigator is Madan. Madan feels if there is baptism in blood that blood should be shed. Sher Singh and Madan were training to shoot Englishmen. This short novel by Khushwant Singh is about the Sikh community who created a military brotherhood to fight against the British. The Sikhs were defeated by the British in six successive battles. Having been defeated the Sikhs however were recruited in the British army for their valour and honour. The Sikhs believed that ‘God is truth’.

The story is ultimately about love, kindness and peace in spite of terrorism, revolt and militancy. This is depicted by the symbol of the angry crane who loses its mate. Even as Sher Singh stuffs up hand grenades and rifles he thinks of the wounded bird. So the story is ultimately about the inefficacy of terrorism and violence and the message of peace.

Sher Singh was the son of a senior magistrate as well as the head of a band of terrorists. He had so long reveled in both identities but now he had to make a choice. The concern was what to choose, security or terrorism.

Sher Singh’s home was a haven of comfort and security. His mother and sister represented feelings of comfort and security. But Sher Singh was policywise at odds with his father Buta Singh. They differ in their opinions regarding the British. Buta Singh is basically a supporter of the British. He believes in mutual help between British and Sikhs. On the other hand Sher Singh thinks there are plenty of Gandhis and Nehrus whom they should follow, not the British. Buta Singh cannot change his loyalties at his age. But he is realizing that the nationalists need to be supported. In fact his loyalty to the British was being taken as servility. He was being accused of double facedness.

The story is thus basically about the tension between the British and Sikhs which the author has brought out through a vivid charting of conversations, revolutionary speeches, meetings and such. It emerges that there are two parties, the anti-British and the Pro-British. The old generation of Sikhs are pro-British. The younger generation are trying to do away with the British. There were Hindus like Madan who were instigators of terrorism. Young aspirants for leadership were dancing to the songs of Madan and bundling up handgrenades.

Along with the general background of politics the story charts very simplistically the private lives of Sher Singh, Beena, Champak and Madan. Sher Singh being a failure at his marital relationship tries to please his wife by aspiring a high position in politics, by becoming a political leader, a hero and a terrorist. Bina his sister is passionately in love with the tall, handsome, charming Madan from whom she gets a stinker. Madan a married …

The Five Main Elements of Civilization

Although the elements of civilization and the emergence of civilization have been studied extensively, I never gave the topic much thought. That is, until I was tasked with finding at least five elements that are characteristics of a civilization that make it different from non-civilized peoples. Initially, this seemed like a daunting task, but upon viewing the video “Iraq: The Cradle of Civilization” (Wood) and reading the assigned portion of “Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society, 1” (Perry), it was apparent that there are a number of distinct elements which characterize every civilization. Namely, large population centers in cities, writing, ceremonial buildings, or ritual centers, continuity, and the arts. Each of these characteristics of civilization works synergistically, making civilized societies stand out in stark contrast from those non-civilized societies which preceded them. A brief overview of some of these vital components will demonstrate their importance.

Firstly, large population centers in cities are one of the elements of civilization. The word civilization, itself, can be most easily expressed as life in cities. The area of Suma, or Mesopotamia, in southern Iraq, was birthplace of the first city, Uruch (Ur). The vast lands, made fertile by the constant flow of life from the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers were the ideal place to farm and sustain the hordes of people drawn to this city. Naturally, people congregated in increasing numbers to this prototype city.

Secondly, writing is another one of the elements of civilizations. In fact, some would argue that writing was invented in Uruch. The obvious advantage of which, was the ability to transmit and pass down to posterity important cultural, spiritual truths and stories. Though the oral legend of the people of this era is well documented, the story of this people was now being preserved and disseminated through the written word.

Equally important were the ceremonial buildings and ritual centers which peppered the landscape of Ur. Shrines, alters, and temples served a central role in ancient civilization, as they also do today. Tied to the religious and cultural fabric of the society was ritualistic worship and ceremonies. These ritual centers were considered holy places and like the fertile land itself, served as a people magnet.

Continuity is another characteristic of civilization. Unlike nomadic peoples, civil societies, by definition were sedentary societies. Of course, people and ideas flowed in and out of the first civilizations, but there was the element of perpetual inhabitants. No doubt, ownership and private property rights were natural products of this continuity as people opted to settle in the cities.

Lastly, the arts are another one of the essential elements of civilization. As legend has it, the arts were sent down by Enki, the God of Wisdom, through the Goddess Innana, known today as Ishtar. Decorative arts, pottery, jewelry, ‘fancy’ clothing and ritual ornaments were increasingly popular commodities during this time. As the people’s standard of living improved in the first cities, there was more time (relatively speaking) for the leisure indulgences that the arts afforded.

Clearly, …

Coastline Law Leaves Thousands Of Spanish Property Investors Without Right Of Title

The current legislation was passed by the Socialist government of Felipe González in 1988, but it has only been widely implemented in the last few years, under another Socialist (PSOE) administration, with far-reaching consequences.

The difference is that the Ministry for the Rural and Marine Environment, formerly known as the Ministry for the Environment, has begun to mark out the boundaries of these so-called designated areas, thereby categorising areas occupied by private individuals as public land. All these areas are now considered Areas of Public Maritime Land. (Dominio Publico Marítimo-Terrestre DPMT).

Loss of Rights

This has meant that perfectly legal, private sector constructions have found themselves in this public space, with the property owners concerned losing their right to ownership of the property.

The state informs those concerned of their new status – or will do so in the future. From that moment, all those affected can appeal to the local Department for Coastlines found within every regional government, and to the relevant courts of law. To date, however, the government has won 98{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the cases.

Just where do the waves reach?

What is an Area of Public Maritime Land (DPMT)? The Coastline Law includes in this section all sand dunes, cliffs and marshes. It even refers literally to the “strip of land which can be reached by the water from the sea (waves) during the heaviest storms ever known”. Therefore in many areas, it extends to points much further inland than normally reached by the tide.

Included in this categorisation are any humid or marshy areas, inland lagoons, and, of course, the beach. The beach is defined as the coastal area with sand, pebbles, or sand dunes, with or without vegetation. It also includes non-private islands or land reclaimed from the sea by natural or artificial means.

A team of biologists, geologists and judges coordinated by the Department for Coastlines decides which areas of land meet the above mentioned specifications. All land which does is marked out and included in the area of public land.

Use without Ownership

What happens to the owners of properties in this designated Area of Public Maritime Land (DPMT)? If they can demonstrate that the construction is legal, they lose their right of ownership, but not their right to use the property.

The Ministry concedes them the right to mortgage their residency rights and pass them on to their heirs. This concession is renewable every 30 years with no payment required.

Right to Reclaim

Nevertheless, the government reserves the right to reclaim the property, if it believes it is in the general interest – as described in the legislation. In such cases, the owner concerned is evicted and the property demolished. To reassure property owners, however, the government has been quick to state that this action has only been taken in a few instances in the past 20 years, and always after an agreement has been reached with the owners of the condemned property and compensation paid prior to the demolition.

If, however, …

The Effects of Computer Hacking

Computer hacking is a term that is used to refer to the unscrupulous use of technology to obtain illegal access to delicate data that is stored and computer, which obstructs the security and confidentiality of the computer user. It is a method which is employed by a lot of identity thieves to steal valuable personal information. Most hackers focus on hacking personal computer of individuals who are connected online while other’s focus their hacking energy into accessing company computers.

How does hacking affect its individual victims? Read on if you want to know more.

1. Hacking is a clear breach of the security of the computer. It renders important user data exposed and risks the user into various threats like identity theft. Various hacking activities are directed mainly towards exposing or stealing confidential user information like social security numbers, credit card numbers, bank account information and individual photographs. These important personal information, when in the hands of computer hackers, can be very vulnerable to illegitimate use and manipulation like that of identity theft’s.

2. When your computer is hacked, the criminals may delete valuable information and sensitive data inside your computer. They can deliberately or unwittingly manipulate sensitive data for their own personal gain. This gain can be both financial, as with the cases of credit card identity theft, or medical, like that of medical identity theft.

3. Denial of service attack is another consequence of attacking. This is typically known as the DOS attack, which simply makes various computer resources unavailable to its authorized users. For instance, hackers may change your log in username and password which thereby blocks you totally out of the entire computer system. More often than not, websites are the ones who fell prey to these DOS attacks, which makes the entire website unusable to all its members.

4. Hacking can also lead to theft of essential business information like client’s database as well as customer’s record can be either lost of maneuvered by computer hacker’s. These databases can be sold to identity theft sites where personal information is being posted for sale to other individuals who might otherwise have other purposes for this information.

5. Information that is crucial to national security, confidential government data, data regarding national defense, security and crimes, can be exposed through computer hacking and these can have very serious consequences to the welfare of the entire society. It can create total panic among the people especially if exaggerated information is posted and issues are blown out of proportion.

These are among the various effects of computer hacking. If you want to keep yourself protected, you need a reliable antivirus program as well as an anti-spyware program. You also need to closely monitor the various programs that you download online as some of them come with a free virus that can be very destructive to your computer.

Hacking is a real threat, just like identity theft. You need to keep yourself protected and secure against any attacks from the outside.…

How a Positive Aura Helps Leaders

How many times has it happened that a leader enters the room and you can feel a burst of positive energy floating around him, touching each and everyone standing or sitting near him? Even before he says a single word, you know that he means business and knows how to get the job done. Even before your first interaction with him, you have become his admirer; you want to follow him, observe him and work with him. How is all that possible? It is all about the aura a person carries with him. As much as it used in regular conversations, it is hard to define aura. Some call it a luminous radiation surrounding a person while others term it as a positive energy carried by a person that influences individuals and things nearby.

Who has an aura?

Character associated with great leaders of all generations; be it the religious ones or the political ones. For instance, people believe that Lord Buddha’s aura had a radius of 3,500 km from where he sat. Indira Gandhi’s aura covered a range of over 1,000 km easily. Their aura boosted their personality and made them stand out in more ways than more. Today, the same aura is needed by any corporate leader to steer his organisation during tough times and get the people to rally behind him when the going gets tough.

How to develop a positive aura

The first step is to understand that people are not born with an aura of leadership; it needs to be drawn up over time. With that said, you cannot just jump out of bed and decide that today be the day when I would start building my aura. If you have not given a thought to it till now, you need an executive coach to help you with the process and bring out your leadership aura. While leaders are usually good with their skill sets, they also need improvement in certain areas which they may not realise intuitively. These shortcomings may be playing the hindrance role in the establishment of a positive leadership aura. These can be picked out by the executive coach and worked. Some of the most important requirements for development of a positive atmosphere are giving attention to minute details and being open to sharing experiences. While for normal people, details are a time-consuming aspect of work that ideally avoided, leaders dig deeper into it and reach the point that matters the most.

Changing your personality to develop an aura that leaves others in awe is a tough task, which is even tougher when tried achieving alone. So while you are at it, take the help of your executive coach to make sure you are on the correct path.…