law

The Ethical (Or Unethical) Issues in Government PR

More than any other organization, governments use public relations as a way to reach out to and share information with their citizens. “Public relations’ central value to government is its ability to engender a more informed society through ethical, transparent, and honest communications between the government and its citizens” (Corbett). Although the United States government does utilize public relations methods to make citizens aware of valuable services like Food Stamps, WIC, and services that protect victims of abuse, a good portion of tax payer funds that the government uses for public relations purposes is used unethically. As early as 1913, special interest groups have expressed concern over the appropriateness of government use of public relations. Political activists have promoted “vague and general fears that a government relations activity could be perverted into a propaganda machine that would manipulate public opinion” (Turney).

In November of 2008, the Albany Times Union reported that certain local government and law enforcement officials were using coded windshield stickers to avoid parking tickets. These stickers were also widely distributed amongst the officials’ personal relations. When Albany Police Chief James Tuffey was approached by the media to answer to the allegations, he gave a false statement, saying “There’s no policy here on that, I can tell you, that I know about. If there’s something out there that’s been abused, I’m going to deal with it.” (Walters). It was later revealed that Tuffey initiated the practice years before, while he was the head of the city’s police union.

This is a prime example of how even small departments within the government abuse power and mistreat public relations. Had Tuffey admitted to his wrong-doing when the story first broke, the scandal would probably have died down much faster and he might have actually gained some respect from the community for being honest and forthright. He also should have taken initiative to respond to the allegations as soon as the news story was released, rather than waiting for reporters to approach him for comments.

When a laptop went missing from a secured room inside a Veterans Affairs facility, in Birmingham, Alabama, officials acted quickly. Instead of waiting for reporters to discover the issue and break the news, the VA immediately distributed a press release which informed the population of the actions and steps that the VA was taking to protect the individuals whose person information was compromised. Their quick and thorough response earned the Veterans Affairs office positive media attention.

A similar situation happened in Virginia, when a government warehouse was robbed with the help of an employee “who basically looked the other way” (Walters). The governors office sent out a press release reporting that a variety of items, including guns, had been stolen from a state warehouse. This was a smart public relations move, as it allowed the governor’s office to control the story from the start while being honest with the public. “If the press senses they’re being snookered, it only makes them more interested. Then it’s a piranha feeding frenzy, and everyone is trying to get in on the story” (Walters).

Public relations professionals are often called upon by the government to create propaganda and sell the idea of war. Some techniques that are used by government employed PR professionals include paying off journalists, distorting or deliberately misrepresenting information, and feeding information to the media that is reported as news without providing legitimate sources,

The United States government used a lot of PR work to promote the Gulf War in Iraq. John Rendon, the founder of Washington-based PR firm, the Rendon Group, proclaimed himself to be a “perception manager” Pentagon planners define “perception management” as “actions that convey and (or) deny selected information and indicators to foreign audiences to influence their emotions, motives, and objective reasoning.” (Rampton & Stauber) Upon visiting the U.S. Air Force Academy, in 1996, Rendon reminded the cadets about the hundreds of Kuwaitis who were broadcast of television waving small American flags as U.S. Troops traveled through Kuwait City. He then admitted to the cadets that the United States government had hired him to stage that event in a plan to encourage U.S. citizens to support the war.

The 2003 war on Iraq produced similar forms of media manipulation. When it comes to propaganda for purposes of war when the reasons behind the war are unclear or questionable, PR firms who help sell the idea are indirectly contributing to the casualties.

References:

Corbett, Gerard F. (2012-3-15). “PRSA to Congress: Don’t Kill the PR Messenger”, PRSA Roll Call.

Turney, Michael (2009). On-line Readings in Public Relations: Government Public Relations. http://www.nku.edu/~turney/prclass/readings/government.html

Walters, Jonathan (2010) Preventing Government PR Disasters: Agencies caught in the eye of a scandal need a pre-plan for defusing the storm of media attention. http://www.governing.com/topics/mgmt/Preventing-Government-PR-Disasters.html

Rampton, Sheldon and Stauber, John (2003-8-4). How to Sell a War. In These Times

List of Greek Gods Goddesses

Dionysus

The god of wine and the grapevine predates the Greeks with an origin covering Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, and even as far as Egypt. Firstly an agricultural god, this "deity of Mt. Nysa" was an early supreme being whose wild and riotous worship was famous all over the eastern sphere of the Mediterranean, the most notable form was the Thracian.

Apollo

Orignally a Thracian and Trojan deity who power and authority surpassed that of Zeus. Apollo stand for a multitude of classifications as: the god of prophecy; The beneficial god and protector from evil; The god of punishment and vengeance; The god of song and music; The god of flocks and cattle; The god of politics; The god of the Sun; And the god of the nether world.

Artemis (Diana)

The Greek goddess of the hunt hailed from the warlike regions of Asia Minor and in different versions depending on the locality she was worshiped. There was an Ephesian Artemis, the one identified in the Bible to Diana; A Taurian that received strangers thrown on the coast of Tauris as sacrifice; An Arcadian that hunted in the mountains with her nymphs; And the Trojan, as Apollo's twin sister.

Zeus (Jupiter)

The Greek father of gods and men was originally not Greek but a Cretan import. According to legend, he was told to have been deported away to Crete as an infant by his mother Rhea to escape being devoured by his father Cronos. Since his pre-Hellenic times, bulls and goats were offered to him in sacrifice.

Rhea

Like Zeus, she was a Minoan import. Later "Mother Goddess" cults entering Greece from Asia Minor, including one named Cybel, became identified with Rhean worship. In Greek mythology, she fled to Crete to give birth to Zeus for fear of the child being devoured by Cronos. Upon returning, to appease her hungry husband, she gave to him a stone inconspicuously wrapped up like the infant Zeus.

Poseidon

The second most powerful Greek god, ruler of the waters and earthquakes, was also not Greek. He was a principal Trojan deity who was said to have built the impregnable walls of Troy. The horses that naturally owned Troy earned him the Grecian impression as the god of horses.

Aphrodite

Her worship came from that of the Phoenician sea goddess Astarte, known in the Bible as Ashtoreth. She was the wife of Ares, another alien god, with who she bore the Amazons.

Ares

One of the most hated of the Greeks, Ares was a Thracian import. And like most Thracian import, he was savage and sanguinary: a character inherited by his descendants, the Amazons.

Cronos

He is the only pre-Hellenic deity that received human sacrifices. In analogy to his name, he was known to eat his own children: a characteristic of time that destroys whatever it has created. He was deposited by Zeus, prompting him to flee to Italy as Saturn where he begins an agricultural golden age.

Philosophical and Practical Approach for Balancing Issues

Introduction

Philosophy is the study of general and essential problems. For instance, problems associated with the mind, knowledge, language and values, reality, reason, and existence. Philosophy differs from reality in that it relies and focuses mostly on rational matters of argument. In other words, a person’s philosophy may refer to the several beliefs held by the person or the love for wisdom by the person. On the other hand, real situations appear more complicated than what philosophy reveals. Most of the time reality approaches issues in a rigid manner whereas philosophy approaches issues in an open manner. This suggests that reality or practical approaches to solving problems usually shows limitations in seeking solutions to issues by applying a provided set of rules whereas philosophical or argumentative approaches to problem solving normally shows exploration of probable options and alternatives to seeking solutions to problems.

There are many cases of people with good conscience contradicting on matters that pertain to the applicability of overriding force regarding broken rules. However, this does not suggest that philosophy is ineffective, instead it implies that moving from a philosophical viewpoint to a practical viewpoint gives a better understanding and background of problems regarding balancing issues. Therefore this means that in order to accomplish a balanced system of solving problems, one must consider both practical and philosophical approaches.

Philosophy as well as approach for individual rights and public protection

The most common problems arising within the community today are problems concerning individual rights as well as public protection, conduct codes for criminal justice, and morality. When solving problems regarding individual rights and public protection, the practical method would be based on set rules. For example, the rule that says, every man owns their own property and no other person has a right to his property but himself. This means that the work from his hands has lawfully gifted him with the property. A person who takes property that is not lawfully theirs is a thief and should be judged in accordance with the law. This is the case because the law guarantees security of an individual’s property protection. Irrespective of their state, a thief is defenseless to accusations from the public according to the law, and so by judgment of law, the thief is also protected from the public.

A belief in fairness and justice is an important thing to present within a society. As, there is no inequality of human rights on the pretext of using individual traits for example: race, ethnicity, or gender. However, within a legal setting, these individual traits are considered serious issues regarding equality of human rights and have to be protected by the Government or Public. Despite the fact, that the independence declaration of 1776 underscored the conception of equality of all men regarding equality with some basic rights of life, happiness and liberty.

For this purpose, a choice was made for the creation of some equal but distinct laws and rules by the Court in 1896. The reasoning behind making the laws was to protect the Equal Clauses of African Americans in order for them to have access to the facilities that were being enjoyed by the whites. Such kinds of rules are created within society for weakening some segregation on the grounds of gender or race in order to protect all individual human right as it is a basic public responsibility.

Philosophy as well as approach for use of Reward and Punishment in Criminal Justice

The philosophical viewpoint would argue concerning the reasons behind a thief’s actions. An individual does not grab or steal another person’s property unless they have a need. Philosophically, society would grant a thief the chance to return stolen property whereas practically, a thief would be judged immediately. Humanity survives with reasoning and in order for humanity to accomplish success, they must use force to describe their capability in handle challenges. Society can opt to be grateful for the law of mutual protection or give the thief freedom to act and survive on their own genuine conditions. Either way, both thief as well as society will benefit from this kind of decision in that, a thief will get a second chance to have a new and sincere way of life should they apply the philosophical approach. On the other hand, society has the advantage of public protection via the law should it apply the practical approach.

Philosophy as well as approach for use of immoral means to achieve desirable ends.

When it comes to issues concerning codes of conduct regarding criminal justice, the use of reward as well as punishment that is applicable within criminal justice is immoral. For example, a large number of lawyers would use various ways of lying during interrogation in order to accomplish desired end results. In addition, moral rules, the criminal justice system as well as ethics are needed for daily operations because of the role of assisting in supporting ethical conduct within criminal justice issues. An individual right is a moral principle that sanctions and describes the freedoms of action within a social society. The most significant fundamental right is that of owning one’s own life. Rights are also called benefits or powers an individual can claim.

In addition, the reward can be used to set up innocent people as well as punish them while the guilty ones go free. From a practical approach viewpoint, rules indicate that when somebody is guilty of a crime, they must face trial and based on the evidence provided, they will face persecution. Practically, there is no other way of solving issues related to crime. From a philosophical approach viewpoint, investigations are required in order to have fair and just judgment. In cases where victims have no losses, criminals would have a second chance to right their wrongs as well as have a life change. In this regard, criminals have the chance to better themselves while the victims have the chance to make the lives of the criminals better by forgiving them and hence having a second go at life.

Recommended uses of ethics in decision making concerning issues in criminal justice

Ethics in criminal justice is used in decision making and may encompass moral as well as intelligent inquiry. Ethics has proven to be a central element in decision making that involves ethical dilemmas, and is concerned with codes of conduct, how to act, and the standards of conduct within different societies. Methods of setting standards range from cultural relativism to moral absolutism; a viewpoint that highlights moral diversity seems to offer the best hope for solving relativities problems. Investigating sources of ethical standards shows that natural law, religion, and other forms of law have an impact in shaping ethical standards. An ethical understanding is critical for capable decision making by professionals of criminal justice as well as a proper working system of the criminal justice.On the other hand, ethics in criminal justice offers a way of making moral decisions especially during periods of uncertainty that concern what is to be done in situations that require moral issues. During daily operations within the criminal justice system, ethics are highly required for the purpose of maintaining order.

Conclusion

In summary, philosophical as well as practical approaches are vital in solving problems in a balanced way within society. Although people may have their preferences concerning choosing approaches to solve their issues, it is necessary that people apply both approaches when solving issues in order to give a balanced solution to issues that come up. This way criminal justice does not only punish criminals but protects them as well in terms of them changing their lifestyles through a second chance of correcting their wrongs.

Impact of Fast Fashion on Society

Fast fashion refers to the clothing which makes its way straight from the catwalk to the store. Many leading designer brands including H&M, Zara and pioneer 21 have shifted to this mass productivity culture. Further, the quick response method and increased efficiency of the supply chain have helped customers remaining up to date with the recent trends in fashion technology. However, the apparel industry suffers from a few major drawbacks, including its massive share in the environment footprint.

According to Fisher, the CEO of Fisher 21, “fashion industry is the second biggest environment polluter after oil wells”. In the UK, every year around 35 tonnes of clothes are dumped in landfills most of them are made from nylon and polyester which are non-biodegradable in nature. 90{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the clothing is imported in the United States and the huge scale transportation is met by using low-grade bunker fuel driven ships which emit toxic nitrous oxide and is a major contributor to the greenhouse effect.

The other problem includes detrimental workmanship where workers are subjected to poor working conditions made to work on minimal wages due to lack of itemization of labor costs.

The children working in the Rana plaza factory said they were made to work all day long with no intervals in between and were paid less than a dollar a day. When asked for rest and a day off due to illness they were beaten severely and struck oilcloth in their mouths as a result of which many of them fell sick and died.

The story of pregnant women was no different they weren’t given maternity leave and were continuously threatened by abortion if they failed to do their work.

Apart from the shoddy workmanship fast fashion had a major impact on the designers of the world. On being asked about what he feels about fast fashion industry, Shivam a fashion designer from France replied:” Fast fashion has made us no better than the salesman, designers have no room for creativity, they have to copy designs from the other brands, because there is always a pressure from the marketing heads.”

One big step to sustainable fashion would be to unlearn that fashion democratizes style and has a role to play in global capitalism. Fast fashion would hit the roadblock with increasing customer awareness of its harmful effects, the importance given to the phrase “who made our clothes” and encouraging the reuse of old clothes either by selling or by donating to the needy.

Our clothes are so cheap that to raise wages, and consequently, prices would improve the lives of developing world workers but for this, we have to spend something from our wallets. retailers and distributors, as well as the federal government, should strive to enforce certain basic worker and environmental protections throughout the full length of the supply chains, wherever in the world these may extend.

Application of strict labor laws ensuring proper working conditions pay rates, educational and health services given to workers.

There should be a provision of recreation and suitable resting intervals between working hours, the establishment of rehabilitation programs and regular inspection by government officials of the working conditions of the factory. Stopping the “unauthorized production,” in which a contractor sub-contracts manufacturing to an unauthorized factory, potentially one that fails to meet internationally recognized or even company-required labor, production, or building standards.

We must remember if everyone is doing their bit than one small step can big a radical change to the society.

The Law of Replacement – What Is It?

The Law of Replacement is a universal law from the universe which allows you to extract positive energy from a person, place, or thing (thought) from within your atmosphere.

You then use what you recently extracted to replace the negative thought with the positive thought taken from your atmosphere. This is resulted from the energy delivered based on the extraction (from the sender) and mutually accepted (by the recipient).

Since the mind can only think one thought at-a-time, you can only replace one conceived thought at-a-time.

If you look back into the origins of science, you will find statistical facts such as; matter cannot be destroyed, it can only be converted or transitioned into another state.

The exact same concept works and applies the same way with your thoughts and the transitioning of your thoughts. The more negatives you learn to replace with positives, the more positive energy you will invite into your life.

For example: transitioning negative into positive. The moment you entertain your negative thought is the very moment you must think of something or someone else that makes you feel good to bypass the negative energy and fill it with a better thought. After you experience your first positive feeling, you want to stay focused on that thought and feed off of it with other leading positives.

You do this until you’ve established a healthy relationship with your thoughts and the behavior attached to your thought. You want to create a lifestyle out of the habit called positive thinking. Positive thinking is a habit you either possess or choose not to learn and obtain its magnetic aura of enjoyable living. Make the choice to possess the habit.

Your positive thought has more authority over the negativity that is looking to seep into your mind and prevail over your life.

The more you practice exercising your thoughts, the probability of it becoming a positive habit increases until you’ve reached the point of achievement. It is more likely you will program your mind to think better and live a lifestyle as a leading result of your positive persistence.

One of the most important questions pertaining to The Law of Replacement is this…

When does the healing process actually take place inside negative thoughts?

The healing process takes place during the very moment you subconsciously make the decision to obey your conscious state by replacing one negative thought with one positive thought.

You must believe it to be true in order for it to be known to your reality. It is the exact point in time within the transition (healing occurrence) that coincides with the law of replacement. You then become delivered from your negative thought resulted from the positive energy released by your positive thought of reinforcement. The healing process actually takes place during the transition as a result of your decision to do so.

The Pros and Cons of a Minimalist Lifestyle

It is important to know why a minimalist chooses to live this lifestyle. There are misconceptions out there about minimalist living and that is why many societies believe that minimalism is only meant for the old fashioned. Nevertheless, there must be good reasons why people decide to live or not to live this lifestyle. Let us have a look at the pros and cons of minimalist living.

The Cons

The society is the most powerful constraint that debars people from living a minimalist life. We have been brought up with a lot of competition, starting from our homes, to our schools and consequently to our workplaces. The society has taught us that we should always continue to climb the ladder without compromising its height provided that we succeed. Life does not need more money, but we have seen people with more than enough and yet they seem not to be content. It reminds me of two friends who caught up with a bear, and guess what? The one who could outrun the other was possibly the victor.

According to Abrahams Maslow’s theory of needs, the highest point that an individual can reach after surpassing all other stages is the self actualization. However, this trend is beginning to change; people need more than just self actualization-they want more stages to be added in that theory so that they can even be more self-actualized. That is why the society will continue to educate their children without minding the high unemployment rate creeping in the economy. That is a dream of every parent-good education and the best job for my child.

On the other hand, minimalists have been accused of selfishness. People have labeled them as stingy because of they fear to spend even if they had the money. I personally believe a good portion of people hate minimalism. In fact, some have claimed to have too short lifespan and therefore won’t hesitate to capture any opportunity that will bring them happiness. Those who don’t intend to live a minimalist lifestyle always have a notion of doing what other successful people have done before. In other words, they usually strive to break the ‘record’ even for once. For example, many aspire to own descent homes in order to live lavish lifestyles or probably dine at the most expensive and reputable hotel.

The Pros

Minimalists live the way they do because they were brought up that way. For example, if you were brought up in a family of strictly vegetarians, it doesn’t mean that you are more than stingy that you can’t eat meat. You were brought up that way and there are no apologies to make for that.

Furthermore, minimalists love to see a clutter free environment. For example, a small home with a bigger family needs decluttering. Rather than adding more items in that smaller home, a minimalist will endeavor to have less that would provide happiness and in addition peace of mind. Apart from that, they are concerned in acquiring items that will last. Quality of item is not an issue provided that the item can last. You may ask why are they are doing this? They certainly don’t want to load their homes with stuff. Can imagine a home with too many worn out items filling out your space?

Finally minimalists want to have fewer manageable items. There is no need to have six cars in your parking lot when you would actually use one.

Legal Recruiting: How to Explain Bad Grades

As a practicing attorney who volunteers regularly at a couple of local law schools, I spend a fair amount of time mentoring students. One question I get frequently during the recruiting season is, “How can I explain to interviewers why my grades aren’t very good?” While it’s true that you can’t change your grades, how you explain less-than-stellar grades can be the difference between a call-back interview and, well, nothing at all.

It should first be noted that grades are, as most people assume, the factor most interviewers assign the greatest weight. However, grades often serve as a cut-off rather than a system of rank. That is, a firm may as a policy consider only students in the top 25{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of their class, but a student ranked in the 87th percentile of his class is not necessarily in a much better position to receive an offer than a student ranked in the 77th.

If, however, you believe that your grades put you outside most employers’ target range, a compelling explanation can give your interviewer a reason to give you full consideration, and perhaps a call-back interview.

As a threshold matter, I believe that poor grades should be addressed in an interview. Some students (and even some career service advisers) believe it’s better not to draw attention to bad grades, and instead focus on leaving a positive impression during an interview. Whether a student decides to address or ignore grades, though, the interviewer is going to consider them. Not talking about a C+ isn’t going to change it into an A-. In my experience, a student who is able to speak candidly and thoughtfully about his or her bad grades leaves a much better impression than one who simply ignores the issue. An explanation that is honest and well-thought-out suggests a student who is self-aware, confident, analytic, and keen on self-improvement. All traits important in a new attorney. A student who does not address his poor grades, on the other hand, may simply be assumed to be a bad student.

For 1Ls: If you’re a 1L interviewing in the spring for your first summer job as a law student, then you only have one semester of grades to be evaluated on. If those grades aren’t as good as you would have liked, your explanation should:

  1. Discuss what you learned from taking exams
  2. Provide a few concise details as to why your exam didn’t earn as many points as others
  3. Emphasize what you did right
  4. Explain how you intend to improve your performance in the current (spring) semester

For example: “My grades aren’t where I expected them to be. However, when I went back and compared my essays to the model essay, I noticed a few areas where I was leaving points on the table. In the issue-spotter questions, I was able to identify all of the major issues, but my analysis was too in-depth, which didn’t leave me as much time to discuss the minor secondary issues in the issue-spotter. For example, one of our Criminal Law issue-spotters involved a kidnapping, false imprisonment, and murder that took place in a barn. In my answer, I thoroughly analyzed each of the elements of the major crimes. The professor’s model answer, however, included just a cursory analysis of the elements, but then also addressed other minor crimes that I didn’t, such as how the murderer committed larceny when he took a wheelbarrow that wasn’t his to move the body out of the barn. For this semester, I’ve already begun to work through my current professors’ past exams to get a feel for the balance of breadth and depth that my professors prefer, and I’m going to tailor my essay responses to each professor’s preferences.”

An explanation that includes a plan for how to improve grades going forward may sway an interviewer towards giving you the benefit of the doubt. However, 2Ls and 3Ls who have two or more semesters of poor grades will have a harder time convincing interviewers that their poor showing on exams was a fluke.

For 2Ls and 3Ls: Poor grades over two or more semesters suggests to interviewers that the candidate is simply not a good student. However, there are still things that 2Ls and 3Ls can do to mitigate the impact of poor grades.

First, every other component of your file needs to be perfect. Make particularly sure that the writing sample shines. A great writing sample demonstrates to the interviewer that you have strong analytic skills, and that your writing is clear, concise, and organized.

Likewise, labor over your resume until you’re sure that it will make an interviewer pay attention to you. If you don’t have an eye for design, ask a friend who does to help you with the design and layout of the resume. Ask for assistance from your Career Services office, and any mentors you may have. Get as much feedback as possible. And most importantly, be sure that the descriptions of your previous jobs and experience are clear, concise, accurate, and well-written. People don’t often realize that a resume is actually a writing sample. A poorly-written resume (wordy descriptions, tense shifts, typos) is often the only reason an interviewer needs to reject a candidate. If a student isn’t willing to put forth the effort to craft a perfect resume, interviewers will reason, then what’s the likelihood that he or she will be willing to put forth the effort required of the job?

Finally, once your sure that your candidate package is perfect, prepare and rehearse an explanation for your underwhelming transcript. Be honest. Draw attention to any academic achievements. Remind the interviewer of your stellar writing sample or other work-product. Focus on positive reviews you received in internships or clerkships. In other words, explain that your grades don’t reflect your true abilities as an attorney.

Remember, your goal is to get employed. Prove to the employer that you’re best candidate for the job.

The Impact of Advertising on Society

The impact of the advertising company on the society at large has been enormous. Unprecedented sales have been made the world over by listing products and services on TV. The American society belongs to the Television age that loves to just sit and watch all sorts of things on television.

In a world that’s increasingly becoming one small global village, companies cannot help but take advantage of the various mediums created to advertise their goods and services.

Research has shown that immense profit has been recorded by most companies who have invested hugely in advertising. Although no one knows the origin of advertising, time has proven that people’s opinion to buy have been greatly influenced by the impact of advertising.

Show a product over and over again as extremely good for acne, coupled with dazzling pictures of women with clear and bright skin and you will notice the increased demand for the product in the coming weeks and months. The art of advertising has often been criticized by its detractors as a form of deceptive propaganda.

Critics has accused advertising companies of falsely using the power of sound and visual to convince unsuspecting buyers to purchase products that don’t offer what they promise. However you look at this, this is business and companies will use any market strategy that is available to them to sell their product.

Why then do advertising companies spend millions of dollar on marketing their products and services to prospective buyers? The answer is not farfetched! People all over the world want to see results. People need to be convinced all the time that they are actually paying for a good or service that works.

If it’s a cleaning product, people want to visualize the results this product will produce and if it’s a meal they also want to see it cooked and served. There’s power in visualization. It triggers off the imagination which in turn helps to convince the mind.

For some reason, People who watch most commercials on televisions never stop to think for once that this could be all make-believe. As soon as they see a commercial, they begin to actually dream of acquiring the actual product. That’s the power of advertising that has been utilized by some good companies to sell their products and also been used as a medium by some other companies to actually take advantage of potential buyers.

Television commercial/advertising has been in the forefront of the creative industry for over two decades now. The number of advertising companies that have sprang up during this time cannot be numbered.

Needless to say that advertising companies now form a major part of the development economy of many nations. They have created numerous forms of employment for artists, computer scientist, graphic artists, public relations personnel, modelling agencies and models to mention but a few.

Almost all listed fortune 500 companies owe a part of their success to their utilization of efficient advertising companies. In this regards, there are various types of advertising companies. Like in any other industry, there are leaders and there are toddlers.

Certain advertising companies have clearly defined themselves as leaders in business with strong competitors coming fast behind. Others however have however barely managed to make a success of their career and are just merely existing and on the verge of extinction.

Like every other business out there, only the persistent and strong willed will win. Advertising is a serious business. It is not some sort of joke. To be better explained, it is a business that is cut out for the witty. The world of advertising is witty, fast and fiercely competitive. In other words, it’s a world where only the fittest survive.

All said and done, it cannot be denied that advertising has it cons, however its pros outweigh the former. It is indeed a dynamic innovation both in television and in the Arts. It has triggered off imagination and creativity. The advent of the computer and the internet has greatly expanded the mediums and forms of advertising in the world today. No longer is advertising limited to television now but also to other forms of media and multimedia.

US President and Congress: Conflicts and Controversies

Although the president of the United States is called in the world’s media “the world’s most powerful man”, this is not something to happen in America. According to the constitution and the separation of the Legislative and the Executive branches, they are literally two separate bodies. The American form of government was founded on the key principle of checks and balances. By separating powers between the president and Congress, the founding fathers hoped that each would control and check the power of the other. However, there has always been a kind of conflict between these two US powers. This piece of writing seeks to find the main sources of these conflicts using historical cases of US president and Congress conflicts.

One of the most important conflicts between the US President and the Congress is when a war happened. If we think of the Korean War and go back to the historical reports and documents, we can easily get that the declaration of war on the North Korea was not permitted by the US Congress. According to the US Constitution the president can declare war on a country as Commander-in-Chief but before sending troops the Congress must approve it. In 1950, President Harry Truman saw communist North Korea’s invasion of South Korea as a threat to the US but it was not a congressional vote that brought the U.S. into the Korean War. It was a United Nations resolution that condemned North Korea’s invasion of South Korea. This is what President Truman used in his decision to send troops to Korea. In this case the Congress not only exercised its power to declare war, but also it did not vote for the president’s decision to declare war on North Korea.

In another part of the American history, when Richard Nixon became the president of the United States he said that the North Vietnam was using neighboring Cambodia as a safe place for its troops. Then Nixon ordered an invasion of that country. In an April 30, 1970 TV speech, he said that the US had respected Cambodia’s neutrality. That was a lie. The president had ordered secret bombings of that country for several months. Now he announced that sending in U.S. troops was necessary to win the war against North Vietnam. This time the Congress rebelled against the president’s actions using its constitutional power. The congress had not been consulted about either the Cambodia bombings or the decision to send in troops. In December 1970, Congress prohibited the use of funds to finance introducing troops into Cambodia or to provide U.S. advisers to Cambodia. In June 1973, Congress set August 15, 1974, as the date for the end of all funding for combat activities in Southeast Asia. In April 1975 the last U.S. troops left Cambodia and Vietnam.

Another example of US Congress and president conflict could be the US president support for the Contras in Nicaragua. The Contras were the enemies of the Sandinista revolutionaries who had overthrown Anastasia Somoza, a brutal dictator in the Central American nation of Nicaragua. President Ronald Reagan started supplying weapons and training to the Contras. A disapproving Congress passed legislation barring this support in December 1982. The president said that interfered with his authority to conduct foreign affairs. Legislators argued that the president acted unconstitutionally if he involved the country in a war, even if the soldiers were not American.

President Bush announced in January 2007 that he was sending an additional 21,500 troops to Iraq. He said that he knew Congress could vote against it, “but I’ve made my decision and we’re going forward.” The president has said repeatedly, that he is “the decider” on issues of war. While, according the US Constitution the president needs the Congress approval on issues of war. During a hearing on congressional war powers, Senator Spector, said that he would suggest respectfully to the president that he is not the only decider. The decider is a shared responsibility.

There have been many other conflicts between the two branches of power in the United States, the president and the Congress, during the American history. But the main question that comes to mind is that why these kinds of conflicts have always existed during the American history? Usually the majority of the Congress is made up of the party opposed to one of the president. However, in cases which both the president and the Congress were from the same party, conflicts existed. Although it has some effects, we can conclude that the origin of these conflicts very much of the party affiliation.

Historically, Republican presidents have always had more success in dealing with a Democrat dominated Congress than a Democrat president with a Republican dominated Congress. Democrat presidents have had real problems with Democrat dominated Congress. Therefore a simple same-party majority between the president and Congress does not guarantee that the president will see his recommendations accepted. This would show that the ideologies held by American politicians are not simply linked to one party. Cross-party support for a certain issue can and does happen.

But what are the sources of these conflicts? I think several factors can cause conflict in US system of separated institutions sharing power. Among them are constitutional ambiguities, different constituencies, varying terms of office, divided party control of the different branches, and fluctuating support of a president or the Congress.