NC Drug Laws Explained

North Carolina’s Drug crimes are harsh, and defense of these crimes requires a Raleigh, Apex, or Cary criminal lawyer familiar not only with the law, but with how the Wake County District Attorney Colon Willoughby and his staff enforce the law. The Wake County District Attorney has various office “policies” which govern how the various assistant district attorneys – the men and women who actually prosecute cases – can handle cases. Those policies change from time to time, but basically they govern whether the Raleigh prosecutor in your case has any discretion in how to handle your case.

North Carolina’s drug crimes are all statutory crimes in Chapter 90, Article 5, of the North Carolina General Statutes. North Carolina’s drug crimes can either be misdemeanors or felonies. Simple possession of less than a half ounce of marijuana is a class 3 misdemeanor, which is the least serious level crime in North Carolina.

Trafficking in 28 grams or more of heroin, which requires proof that the person “knowingly”, “sold, manufactured, delivered, transported, or possessed OR conspired to sell manufacture, deliver transport or possess” opium, including heroin, and the quantity is 28 grams or more, the defendant is eligible for a Class C felony with a mandatory minimum sentence of 225 months in prison. That’s nearly 19 years in prison for about 1 pound of heroin.

Given the stiff penalties for trafficking – and trafficking doesn’t mean you have to be flying around in a Colombian – and the fact that those penalties have mandatory minimums, it’s easy to see how defendants can really get astronomical sentences for drug charges in Wake County, North Carolina.

In fact, these penalties are shocking to many people who come from New York. As I understand it, New York City prosecutors can give defendants 30 or 60 days of jail time for charges that in North Carolina will mean years and years in prison. Simply saying, “But in New York they do it differently,” won’t help. You’re in North Carolina, where the drug laws are very strict.

The more common drug charges in North Carolina relate to obtaining prescription medication through forgery or fraud. That crime can be charged as a misdemeanor, or, if the prosecutor can prove “intent,” as a felony. Frequently the defendant will take a misdemeanor plea to such charges, because the Wake County prosecutor will otherwise say she will prosecute the crime as a felony. And since “intent” is not difficult to show in many cases, the defendant may lose at trial and be convicted of the Class I felony.

Another common drug charge is possession with intent to sell or deliver. In order to convict on this crime, the Wake County District Attorney must prove that the defendant possessed the controlled substance and intended to sell, manufacture, or deliver it. The prosecutor doesn’t have to prove that the person ever sold anything. Just that the person intended to sell, manufacture or deliver it.

“Intent” can be proven by showing that amount …

Cultural Relativism, Federalism and the Filipino People

The Philippines is an archipelagic nation-state, having 7,107 islands, which are geographically distributed in 17 political regions. The three main island groups where the 7,107 islands are situated are Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Living in those islands are different multi-lingual people, also known as ethnic groupings. Based on the data of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP), this country has 110 different ethnic societies. The NCIP calls them IP or indigenous people. Then, the major cultural segments are the Bisaya, the Kapampangan, the Ilokano, the Ilonggo and others.

Being a country with multiple and diversified people, the system of government is an issue. At present, the form of government being practiced is centralized or presidential, which is anchored on democracy. The main legal framework of governance is the Constitution of 1986.

However, this centralized form of government has been questioned. Its scope and efficiency have been debated. This issue has been surfacing these days as the year 2016 is about to start. The incoming year will be the time for the national elections to happen again, allowing the Filipino people to choose their preferred political leaders from top to bottom.

As the national elections is about to come next year, the debate on the form of government is on the hot seat again. Is the Centralized Form of Government really suitable for the Filipino people, knowing that this country caters different people, with different culture? If not the right form, what is then the better government system to address multiple ethnicities and cultural divergence?

Some academic and political experts have had suggested that the right form of government for the Filipino people is the so-called “Federalism.” This government system is being practiced already by many countries all over the world, like the United States of America. Under this system, generally speaking, there is still a central government (federal) but coupled by the recognition of the different states. Both the federal government and the states have their respective tasks and duties for the welfare of the constituents.

There are certain clear factors why there have been experts pushing for the shift from the presidential form of government to federalism. The intent of this article, however, is not to unfold ultimately the entire picture of Federalism, but only to cite the reasons why the Filipino people might really need a political transition.

On Cultural Relativism

Cultural relativism is a theory that favors on the idea of cultural equality. Contrary to ethnocentrism, cultural relativism implies that there is no superior culture. Every cultural mark must be respected. Every cultural practice should not be condemned. Every human being has the right to his or her own cultural knowledge and practices.

This theory is lightly discussed here to serve as a strong foundation of federalism. This form of government can really be the system needed by Filipinos, considering that this country is serving multiple ethnicities and cultural identities. Regarding better and more efficient government services, federalism will …

The Paramounted Importance of Critical Analysis in International Trade Policies

International trade is largely based on the constant fluctuations in the world-wide economy, this resulting in constant changes with regards to tariffs, trade subsidies and unending amendments of regulations with regards to international trade. “Trade policy and economic Growth”, a paper by Keith Maskus, PhD, focuses on the relationship between trade policies and the growth of the economy or lack thereof, the main point of interest of the paper was to establish whether the variance of trade policies will affect the economic growth of any country. The conclusion reached was that open economies tend to grow faster than closed economies, ceteris paribus. therefore concluding that open competition is good in the sense that it improves resource distribution and the country gains in Investment and innovation.

An organisation that is involved in international trade has to pay special attention to such information. There might not be any countries with closed economies however there are countries that have low imports to the point that they are regarded as closed economies for instance Brazil. In 2011 Brazil recorded 13{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} as its import percentage which was quite low for a country of its stature. Is it not then imperative to constantly be up to date with changes in the trade policies of countries one is interested in pursuing trade relations with? since there is a proven positive relationship between the openness of an economy to competition (thus meaning the country is greatly involved in trade) and the growth of that country`s economy, this serves as an indication of how lucrative and profitable a business venture would be under such circumstances. The Critical analysis aspect then comes into play by determining how much gain or loss would result from substantial changes to the policies, which are measures and instruments that can influence export and imports, the objective being the policies influence the trade sector to the result of profit for the business venture. one might feel a degree in commercial management is then needed in order to fully understand all the kinks and edges of the international business, and they would be right, but the eventuality is that it will always boil down to intelligence and efficiency in the analysis of trends, calculation of potential profit/loss, predictions of future stability or fluctuations in the world economy prompting changes to prices in the trade sector.

There is one other important factor that can alter potential business plans, and that is the politics of the country in question, policies are easily influenced by the politics of the nation, and it is thus advisable that critical analysis be also engaged, this results in better understanding of the country and its stability thus reducing the chances of incurring a bad business eventuality. Nations are not governed by robots, unfortunately, but are governed by people with interests and human nature desires to differ from individual to individual making it difficult to maintain a constant effective system. if politicians are elected they tend to focus on altering policies for their own …

The Movie "Chocolat" and the Law of Attraction

“Chocolat” is a delightful movie set in “a quiet little village whose people believed in tranquility. If you lived in this village you understood what was expected of you and you knew your place in the scheme of things and if you happened to forget, someone would remind you.” These are the opening lines of this film. One immediately gets the impression that, while it is a quiet and tranquil village, it was because people either did what they were told or did not tell what they did.

“The village held fast to their tradition, until one winter day a sly wind blew in from the north.” In enters a mother and her daughter, who live a gypsy-like lifestyle. Vien, a strong talented woman, moves into the town with her daughter, Anook. Her desire is to open up a chocolaterie, that features everything in chocolate you can imagine. When she had her ‘chocolaterie’ up and running, people would come in and she would look at them and then suggest what they would like best in chocolates. Suggestions to awaken the passion in a person. Her chocolate recipes were derived from her father, who discovered ancient remedies using special cocoa recipes. One day her father discovers that his wife (Vien’s mother) has gotten up and run away with his daughter, little Vien. This is when her nomad existence of going from village to village dispensing ancient cocao remedies, began. Vien is repeating the same lifestyle now with her daughter, Anook.

Right away, one suspects that this lifestyle is not that satisfying for Vien but that fear keeps her on the run. So her desire is to find a place where she can live happily with her daughter for a long time. In her thoughts she has asked for this. And whenever someone asks for what they want, it is always given, this is the Law of Attraction.

As well, it is clear that Anook would like to settle somewhere permanently. Her travels are not much fun anymore and so she too, is asking for stability.

Vien becomes very good friends with Armande, an elderly woman, who is estranged from Caroline, her daughter. Caroline does not allow her to see her grandson. Armande is yearning for connection with her grandson. Another request to the universe that is being given.

Vien is so WANTING or DESIRING of good relations to occur around her and she finds a way for Armande and her grandson to connect. It is a very sweet gesture of paying her grandson to draw his grandmother’s portrait. They find a way to do this when his mother, Caroline is not around. One day her daughter comes into the chocolaterie, when her son is there. Caroline is furious about this.

Josephine, one of Viens helpers says to the boys mother “he is happy here it is good for him,” which is the truth and Caroline responds by saying “I will decide what is good for him.” She is going against her …

Top 7 Similarities of Business and Politics

Politics and Business are so similar in many ways. Sure politics is much dirtier and generally played by less ethical individuals and yet the similarities are often uncanny. Perhaps a brief point-by-point comment on this subject will open a new perspective on this subject. Below are a few similarities to help the thinking juices flow and allow some conceptual thoughts.

1.) In politics you must canvas the area using data about the voters; in business you use demographic software to gather information about the customer.

2.) In politics you must get the voter to make a decision to vote for your candidate; in business you must get the consumer to choose your product or service over your competitor.

3.) In politics you must employ multiple methods to reach the voter; In business any good marketing program uses multiple media, mediums and methods to reach the consumer.

4.) In politics you must show how your candidate is better and different; In business you must show how your brand is best.

5.) In politics you must get those people to the polls to vote; in business you must get those customers in the door of your business to buy something.

6.) In politics you must win or you are forgotten; In business you must beat your competition and the customer must buy from you or you go out of business.

7.) In politics the customer decides with his or her vote; in business your voter buys your product or service with his or her dollar.

I hope this philosophical discussion allows you to see business from a different perspective and if you are in business and considering politics, forget it. Business is a much better game than politics and as a politician might say; You Can Trust Me on This in 2006.…

Why Do Nations Obey International Law?

Neither interest nor identity theory fully account for the normative transnational legal process. Participation in the transnational legal process assists institute the identity of the state is one that obeys the law, but what is critical is the interaction, not the label that purports to identify a state as liberal or not. In part, act as obey international law as a result of repeated interaction with other governmental and non-governmental actors in the international system. Estates violation of law creates inevitable frictions and contradictions that hinder its ingoing participation within a transnational legal process. When a developing nation defaults on the sovereign debt, connectivity impairs its ability to secure new lending. The nation's leaders may shift over time for a policy violation of international law to one of compliance to avoid such frictions in its continuing relations.

As transnational actors interact, they create patterns of behavior and generate norms of external conduct which they in turn internalise. Law-abiding states internalize international law by incorporating it into their domestic legal and political structures, executive action, legislation, and judicial decisions which take account of any corporate international norms. Nations also responds to other states reputations as law-abiding or not. Legal ideologies prevail among domestic decision-makers such that they are affected by perceptions that their actions are unlawful, or that domestic opponents or other nations in the global era also categorize them. Moreover, domestic decision-making becomes enmeshed with international legal norms, as institutional arrangements with the making and maintenance of an international commitment became entrenched in domestic legal and political processes. It is through this repeated process of interaction and internalization of international law that requires its stickiness as it is known, that nation states acquire their identity, and that nations to find promoting the rule of international law as part of a national self-interest. It is important to understand that although at times international law seems a weak, the reality is that nations use the rhetoric of international law for their own purposes at any particular time to justify their political position. …

Truths and Facts and History About Whether Sky Culture Is Deteriorating Social Values of Bangladesh

So, I experienced my first identity crisis on a playground. I remember my classmates coming up to me and saying, “Sameer”, what religion are you? Are you Christian or are you Jewish?” And I remember being very confused by that question. I’d just moved back from Bangladesh, I was living in the United States – and I remember thinking, I’m not Christian because I don’t get Christmas presents, therefore, if I had to choose between these two options, I must be Jewish. So I would look up and said, “John, I’m Jewish.” And that was that, and actually went on those few months thinking that I was Jewish – mind you, I was eight years old. That is until Hanukkah rolled around and I didn’t get any presents on Hanukkah either.

My point is that identity matters. And not only does identity matter, your identity should be the story of you, and one that is fitting of your highest aspirations. So when I moved to Bangladesh two years ago, I was looking for an identity that would help me meaningfully express my connection to this land. So I began to do all of the things that I was really interested in: photography, travel, writing – and I began to find a common thread here. I began to see this vast diversity of this land – but not only that, but within that diversity laid the key to understanding what made Bengal so successful as a civilization. Here I can find an identity that I can be proud of, and it was an identity with a potential. So last year, I made a long awaited trip to Tibet. And when my Buddhist tour guide met me at the airport, he was so excited to meet a Bangladeshi. “Bangladeshi! Bangladeshi!”, he yelled out. And I couldn’t understand this, but it turns out that 1,000 years ago the Tibetan king was so taken by this Bengali monk, that he had a delegation sent down to Bengal to ask for him, to come up to Tibet and help reinvigorate and revive the practice of Buddhism there, after years of its decline and suppression. This was a tremendous task. And this Bengali monk took up this task, and he was so transformative and effective in his mission, that Buddhists today, and Tibetans all over Tibet regard him as Atisa, the super Lord, second only to the Buddha himself. And everywhere I went in Tibet, every monastery I visited, we see the statue of Atisa, a Bengali man, seated right next to the Buddha. In fact, if you go to Mongolia, Japan – even Australia and parts of the Buddhist world, you will still find centers, monasteries. and statues dedicated to Atisa – such was the profound influence. Now, how many of you here today have heard of this story? And how many of you here today know where Atisa was from? He was from right here, just a few miles outside Dhaka.

By the way …

Reasons Government is Necessary

A government is an organization in a community or political entity that has the power to enact and enforce laws and maintain the peace and order. A government is necessary since is it considered the leadership of an organization, community or political entity.

Laws are important since it defines the behavior of citizens. It defines which are legal or illegal. Without laws, an activity can not be known if it a crime or not. The law-making role of the government creates a code of conduct for individuals to follow.

Another role of the government is the maintenance of peace and order. The police and fire department ensures that crimes like murder, theft, arson, etc. are prevented or minimized. If a crime does happen, it is their role to look into how the crime happened and apprehend the perpetrators.

Government also promotes harmony though justice and equality. Once a crime is solved by the police, it is the duty of the judicial branch of the government to bring the perpetrator to court for fair trial and punishment. It makes sure that the right person gets into jail for the right reason.

It is also the role of the government to build roads, bridges, rail systems and other infrastructure. These are important since it makes moving about easier and more convenient. It also makes doing business a lot easier since goods and services can be moved faster from the source of production to the marketplace.

Another role of the government is to provide children with public access to basic education. It is essential that children learn how to read, write and count.

Another role of the government is to collect taxes and ensure that these taxes fund the right projects that are beneficial to society. Money is needed to build public schools, roads and bridges and provide services like welfare assistance, health care, unemployment benefits, etc. This is where taxes come in. The government collects taxes from individuals and business so that schools, roads and other infrastructure are built.

It is also important that the government protect its security from threats. It is the role of the government to have a military force to defend its territory from external threats like terrorism, war and invasion. The government’s police force protects the citizens against internal threats like civil disobedience, organized crime, lawlessness, insurrection.

Another role of the government is to have foster relations with other governments. In an era of globalization, it is important that governments work with each other to maintain world peace and prosperity.…

The Ethical (Or Unethical) Issues in Government PR

More than any other organization, governments use public relations as a way to reach out to and share information with their citizens. “Public relations’ central value to government is its ability to engender a more informed society through ethical, transparent, and honest communications between the government and its citizens” (Corbett). Although the United States government does utilize public relations methods to make citizens aware of valuable services like Food Stamps, WIC, and services that protect victims of abuse, a good portion of tax payer funds that the government uses for public relations purposes is used unethically. As early as 1913, special interest groups have expressed concern over the appropriateness of government use of public relations. Political activists have promoted “vague and general fears that a government relations activity could be perverted into a propaganda machine that would manipulate public opinion” (Turney).

In November of 2008, the Albany Times Union reported that certain local government and law enforcement officials were using coded windshield stickers to avoid parking tickets. These stickers were also widely distributed amongst the officials’ personal relations. When Albany Police Chief James Tuffey was approached by the media to answer to the allegations, he gave a false statement, saying “There’s no policy here on that, I can tell you, that I know about. If there’s something out there that’s been abused, I’m going to deal with it.” (Walters). It was later revealed that Tuffey initiated the practice years before, while he was the head of the city’s police union.

This is a prime example of how even small departments within the government abuse power and mistreat public relations. Had Tuffey admitted to his wrong-doing when the story first broke, the scandal would probably have died down much faster and he might have actually gained some respect from the community for being honest and forthright. He also should have taken initiative to respond to the allegations as soon as the news story was released, rather than waiting for reporters to approach him for comments.

When a laptop went missing from a secured room inside a Veterans Affairs facility, in Birmingham, Alabama, officials acted quickly. Instead of waiting for reporters to discover the issue and break the news, the VA immediately distributed a press release which informed the population of the actions and steps that the VA was taking to protect the individuals whose person information was compromised. Their quick and thorough response earned the Veterans Affairs office positive media attention.

A similar situation happened in Virginia, when a government warehouse was robbed with the help of an employee “who basically looked the other way” (Walters). The governors office sent out a press release reporting that a variety of items, including guns, had been stolen from a state warehouse. This was a smart public relations move, as it allowed the governor’s office to control the story from the start while being honest with the public. “If the press senses they’re being snookered, it only makes them more interested. Then it’s a …

List of Greek Gods Goddesses


The god of wine and the grapevine predates the Greeks with an origin covering Thrace, Asia Minor, Syria, and even as far as Egypt. Firstly an agricultural god, this "deity of Mt. Nysa" was an early supreme being whose wild and riotous worship was famous all over the eastern sphere of the Mediterranean, the most notable form was the Thracian.


Orignally a Thracian and Trojan deity who power and authority surpassed that of Zeus. Apollo stand for a multitude of classifications as: the god of prophecy; The beneficial god and protector from evil; The god of punishment and vengeance; The god of song and music; The god of flocks and cattle; The god of politics; The god of the Sun; And the god of the nether world.

Artemis (Diana)

The Greek goddess of the hunt hailed from the warlike regions of Asia Minor and in different versions depending on the locality she was worshiped. There was an Ephesian Artemis, the one identified in the Bible to Diana; A Taurian that received strangers thrown on the coast of Tauris as sacrifice; An Arcadian that hunted in the mountains with her nymphs; And the Trojan, as Apollo's twin sister.

Zeus (Jupiter)

The Greek father of gods and men was originally not Greek but a Cretan import. According to legend, he was told to have been deported away to Crete as an infant by his mother Rhea to escape being devoured by his father Cronos. Since his pre-Hellenic times, bulls and goats were offered to him in sacrifice.


Like Zeus, she was a Minoan import. Later "Mother Goddess" cults entering Greece from Asia Minor, including one named Cybel, became identified with Rhean worship. In Greek mythology, she fled to Crete to give birth to Zeus for fear of the child being devoured by Cronos. Upon returning, to appease her hungry husband, she gave to him a stone inconspicuously wrapped up like the infant Zeus.


The second most powerful Greek god, ruler of the waters and earthquakes, was also not Greek. He was a principal Trojan deity who was said to have built the impregnable walls of Troy. The horses that naturally owned Troy earned him the Grecian impression as the god of horses.


Her worship came from that of the Phoenician sea goddess Astarte, known in the Bible as Ashtoreth. She was the wife of Ares, another alien god, with who she bore the Amazons.


One of the most hated of the Greeks, Ares was a Thracian import. And like most Thracian import, he was savage and sanguinary: a character inherited by his descendants, the Amazons.


He is the only pre-Hellenic deity that received human sacrifices. In analogy to his name, he was known to eat his own children: a characteristic of time that destroys whatever it has created. He was deposited by Zeus, prompting him to flee to Italy as Saturn where he begins an agricultural golden age. …