Arabian Horse History – Domestic Bloodlines


“Domestic Arabians” is the name given to Arabian horses bred in the United States. The bloodline for Domestic Arabians, like that of most Americans themselves, is a melting pot of influences from all over the world. However, the single most important event in the history of purebred Domestic Arabians was held on American soil.


Forty Arabian horses were exported from the desert, along with their Bedouin handlers, to be part of the Ottoman Empire exhibit at the Chicago World’s Fair. They made a huge impact on the American horse breeders who witnessed them at the fair.


Abdul Hamid II was, from 1876 to 1909, the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and he maintained a stud of Arabian horses whose ancestry was well documented. The Arabian Horse Club of America registered two of his stallions, *Leopard and *Linden Tree, after he donated them to President Ulysses S. Grant. The Hamidie Hipppodrome Society was a group of wealthy Arab investors which took its name from the Sultan and in which he had an interest. The Hamidie Society sponsored the equestrian portion of the Ottoman Empire exhibit at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, and the Sultan contributed two of his prized horses. He later permitted the exportation of desert-bred Arabian mares to America as a favor to President Theodore Roosevelt.


Financial difficulties forced the Hamidie Society to sell all the horses from the Ottoman exhibit at the end of the World’s Fair. Many of the horses put up for sale were young stallions. One mare among the Hamidie horses was a grey beauty named Nejdme, who commanded $1200 at auction, an enormous price for a horse at the time. She was bought by J.A.P. Ramsdell, and went on to become the dam of eleven registered foals. Her blood is a common factor in many Domestic Arabians.


Homer Davenport was a journalist covering the World’s Fair for the Chicago Herald. He developed a fascination with the Arabian horses on display, and spent years after their auction tracking them down and studying their ancestry. He bought two of Nejdme’s foals and founded the Davenport Desert Arabian Studs. One of Davenport’s political cartoons had helped Theodore Roosevelt win the 1904 election. In return, Roosevelt lent his political clout to Davenport’s expedition to the desert in 1906. The result was that Davenport was able to not only bring back a quantity of stud colts, which were easy to obtain, but also eight purebred mares. Mares were illegal to export and required special permission from the Sultan. By 1910, Davenport had bought Nejdme, had imported Crabbet Park Arabians, and was well on his way to becoming one of the best-known breeders of Domestic Arabian horses. “Davenport Arabians” are direct descendants of his horses.


In 1908, Davenport and his colleagues formed the Arabian Horse Registry of America. Nejdme was the first horse listed, as AHR-1. The number of horses registered with the AHR was half a million by 1994. Today, the number of Arabian horses registered in North America exceeds that of all the rest of the world put together.


CMK is a working preservationist movement and trademark, the letters standing for Crabbet Maynesboro Kellogg. In 1982, the first CMK catalogue declared that it was listing stallions whose pedigree traced at least 75{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} to the foundation stock of the following breeders: Crabbet Park Stud in England and the Sheykh Obeyd Stud in Cairo; the Hamidie Society horses from the World’s Fair; Homer Davenport; Spencer Borden; W.R. Brown; Randolph Huntington; W.K. Kellogg; Roger Selby; William Randolph Hearst; and J.R. Dickinson.

A CMK Arabian must trace in tail female to a purebred family established before 1950 in North America, and to a CMK sire line in tail male.


Aside from the Crabbet Park Stud and the Sheikh Obeyd Stud, which were started by Lord and Lady Blunt of England, the other early breeders that would become the foundation of the CMK trademark were based in America:

o Homer Davenport, whose 1906 expedition to Arabia had as its goal to bring home exceptional purebreds in order to produce a line of unbeatable polo ponies. Peter B. Bradley financed the desert trek. He was a Boston industrialist who had bought many of the World’s Fair stallions, including Obeyran (AHR-2.) Upon Davenport’s death in 1912, his horses became the property of Bradley, who continued to breed Davenport Arabians up to the 1920’s.

o Spencer Borden traveled to Egypt soon after his exposure to the Arabian horses at the Chicago World’s Fair. He founded the Interlachen Stud with his importation of 20 horses between 1898 and 1911.

o William Robinson Brown was an early player on the Domestic Arabian scene, establishing the Maynesboro Stud in New Hampshire in 1912. The financial devastation of the great depression required him to sell his 33 horses, imported from Crabbet Park, Egypt and France, to the other major breeders of the time: Kellogg Ranch, William Randoph Hearst, Roger Selby and J.M. Dickinson, among others.

o Albert W. Harris was a Chicago banker whose Maynesboro-purchased horse won the first major endurance race held in the United States. Harris established the Kemah Arabian Farm with a Davenport import, and descendants of his farm are called “Harris Arabians.”

o Randolph Huntington of Oyster Bay, New York left his mark on the Domestic Arabian by breeding his imported desert-bred mare *Naomi to President Grant’s Leopard. They produced Anazeh, the sire of foals who still appear in the pedigrees of modern Domestic Arabians. Khaled 5 was another important sire bred by Huntington.

o W.K. Kellogg, the cereal magnate, founded the Kellogg Ranch in Pomona, California in 1925. He began with imports from Crabbet Park, and held weekend exhibitions of his highly schooled Arabian horses, spreading the popularity of the breed. Many of his horses sired champions.

o The Roger Selby Stud, based in Portsmouth Ohio, was just as important in the East. Many of Selby’s horses were well-known, prolific sires, especially Skowronek’s son *Raffles, a grey stallion imported from Crabbet in 1932. *Raffles was influential in the development of the Domestic Arabian, begetting 122 foals.

o An eclectic breeder was J.M. Dickinson, a Brigadier General who founded Traveler’s Rest Farm in 1930 on his family’s estate in Franklin, Tennessee. An accomplished horseman, General Dickinson blended Kellogg, Maynesboro, Crabbet and Harris stock, as well as direct imports from Egypt, Brazil and Poland. Along with Selby and Brown, General Dickinson meticulously catalogued his breeding herd.

o William Randolph Hearst, the storied newspaper magnate, established one of the largest herds of Arabians at San Simeon from the 1930’s until his death in 1951. His first horses were procured from Maynesboro and Traveler’s Rest.


Henry Babson saw his first purebred Arabians as a young man working at the Chicago World’s Fair. But it was not until he was 57 years old that he began his stud farm in Grand Detour, Illinois, with the purchase of seven purebred Arabian horses from Egypt. Babson imported Polish Arabians a few years later, but by 1960, he decided to adhere to Egyptian bloodlines exclusively, and sold off all of his non-Egyptian Arabian stock. The descendants from his Egyptian Arabian breeding program are known as “Babson Arabians.”

In 1945, the U.S. Army evacuated, to the Kellogg Ranch, a small group of Polish Arabians that had been held by the German army. Among the evacuees was *Witez II, who had been sired by Ofir out of Federacja. Although his parents were shipped off to found the Tersk stud in Russia, *Witez II found his fortune in America. He sired 223 foals in his lifetime, making a significant contribution to the bloodlines of the Domestic Arabian horse.

Bazy Tankersley imported 32 Crabbet Arabians in 1957, and became an important breeder of the CMK bloodlines.


Domestic Arabian breeders were first located in the Midwest, near the inciting incident that was the Chicago World’s fair. Interest then radiated out to the east coast. The center of activity next migrated to California. Today, Domestic Arabian breeders are located all across the United States. Early breeders were quite willing to cross bloodlines, adding to the melting pot of the gene pool. The primary goal was to create beautiful, useful horses with great endurance that were exceptional jumpers and polo players. Idle beauties had no role to play in the development of the Domestic Arabian horse.

Myers Briggs Personality Type and Political Affiliation

We’ve all come across people who just seem incapable of modifying their perspective based on new data being presented. Most of us still mouth the words that additional education (or indoctrination/propaganda as is often the case) is what is needed since surely this person will turn around if his/her consciousness is sufficiently expanded with additional data backing your perspective. However, all too often deep inside we know that some people are “hopeless”. This conclusion concerning failure of propaganda is reached from all over the political, cultural, and religious spectrum at one point or another. It thus becomes fashionable to outright dismiss “inconvertible” individuals and opposing zealots (on political and religious fringes of any given population) as nuts and crazies.

Personality theory in psychology allows us to better categorize individuals in society without resorting to name calling. Myers-Briggs typology in particular offers a better construct (compared to useless terms like conservative and liberal for example) to predict how an individual will act politically and socially. Myers-Briggs research combined with biology and brain scan techniques also offers us hints at understanding the underlining anatomical basis that predisposes a person to be either a disagreeable radical or a gentle follower.

There’s been little relative popular attempts to scientifically explain why the bulk of the population is always a warzone between the extreme fringes. It’s just assumed that it will always be this way just like there will always be criminals and extremely altruistic self-sacrificing givers. This assumption seems reasonable and obvious but gives rise to two other creeping and unsettling assumptions:

1) The human population is relatively fixed along a bell curve type continuum. Perhaps this is better visually represented by a sphere with a number of spikes extending from it. The moderate population is the bulk of the sphere and the zealous “radical” factions (whose opinions differ dramatically from the statistical average) are the spikes extending from the sphere’s surface (as well as into the interior to some degree which would represent silent sympathizers). It is irrelevant to label the spikes as extreme left, right, etc. All that is important is that a relatively fixed minority of the population (lets say 10-20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} range) will be:

a) prone to modes of thought that are tangibly different from majority’s

b) prone to action and lifestyle based on these thoughts

Authors like Friedrich Hayek for instance, observed that in 1920s Germany roughly a million workers swung their support between communists and Nazis based on who was winning. It was noted that the two seemingly opposing ideological parties clashed with one another the most because they were very often competing for recruits in the same psychological pool of young people. Considering how many overexcited Americans called both Bush and Obama the new “Hitler” in recent years, we can easily imagine how an aggressive drooling at the mouth anti-war protestor from a big city could have been an equally excitable protester at a teabag rally if only he was born in a small town and into a different culture.

2) Since the ratio of intensely active people (prone to being perceived by population at large as “wingnuts”or criminals or radicals or genuinely informed and committed activists, etc) to more relaxed apathetic majority seems to be roughly fixed across all societies and globally as a whole, the explanatory basis for such a dynamic can only be biological. Just like there exist (and can further be bred) aggressive dogs and peaceful friendly dogs, there exist aggressive people, natural Buddhist-esque peaceful people, etc. A person who is an aggressive pit bull equivalent (and who wants to impose his views of the world onto others the most) would differ in his relatively extreme ideology depending on what part of the world he was socialized in. Psychiatry has shown us that people are born with different ratios of neurotransmitter production and quantitative as well as qualitative differences in the types of chemicals that affect their mood and cognition. We now understand that people differ a lot more in terms of brain architecture than they differ in terms of things like body type, skin color, fast twitch/slow twitch muscle ratio, etc.

The reason why these assumptions are unsettling is not because there is a degree of fatalism involved (“he will be a radical of one stripe or another no matter what” or “he will be socially lazy, shallow, apathetic, and uninvolved no matter what). Obviously with modern socialization methods and pharmaceutical modification (with psychological genetic and cybernetic modification to follow in near future), an individual can be shaped more than ever before by society and by himself. The assumptions are unsettling because if the broad direction of our views, opinions, and political/cultural/religious affiliations are largely physiologically determined at birth, then societal progress becomes enormously more difficult. Societal progress can be defined here as one zealot faction (that is seen by majority as the most “correct” in its socioeconomic policy perspectives and formulations of what humans should do next) dragging everybody else along behind it as has always occurred throughout history.

Obviously people will disagree on what constitutes progress (some actually thought arrival of Reagan was progress) but if majority of people are physiologically predisposed towards the status quo, progress of any sort becomes a lot harder in a democratic society. In the past, one intense dedicated fringe of the aristocratic elites dragged the other nobility along behind it (since majority of nobility would also have a soft apathetic bulk) and thus dragged the rest of the population behind it as well. We also had scenarios of power vacuum developing and one intense fringe political faction overpowering the others (as in the case of Bolshevik and French revolutions) and filling the leadership position to then drag the rest of the serfs behind it.

In today’s democratic structure however, protection of the status quo is a lot more preserved since the moderate bulk of the population has a political voice and thus a way to provide the ruling elites with legitimacy. The moderate bulk of the elites now also has ever more sophisticated consent and perception manufacturing methods to influence the newfound voice of the majority. For a small number of dedicated activists, pushing society along towards desired version of progress against the forces of social inertia is now harder than ever. The powerful activists now need to sway both the fellow elites and the people simultaneously.

Let’s finally get to the Myers-Briggs part of the article to see what we are now dealing with.

The most widely used way to get a glimpse of people’s underlining neural physiology has been the Myers-Briggs psychological questionnaire (one of the better versions found online for free can be found here). Over the past few decades, the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator has been utilized to collect enormous amounts of statistical data on personality types found within the human population. The statistical type breakdown (I am using a combination of 3 different sources on the {512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}. Don’t mind the catchy positive nicknames each type and group cluster has been given. What matters here is the number within a population.) so far has been as follows,

Protectors (SJ)

ESTJ – Overseer, supervisor = 11.8{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

ESFJ – Supporter, provider = 11.7{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

ISTJ – Examiner, inspector = 9.8{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

ISFJ – Defender, protector = 9.9{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

All SJs = 43.2{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

Creators (SP)

ESTP – Persuader, promoter = 8.4{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

ESFP – Entertainer, performer = 10.3{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

ISTP – Craftsman, mechanic = 6.4{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

ISFP – Artist, composer = 7.9{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

All SPs = 33{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

Intellectuals (NT)

ENTJ – Chief, fieldmarshal = 3.2{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

ENTP – Originator, inventor = 3.7{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

INTJ – Strategist, mastermind = 1.5{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

INTP – Engineer, architect = 2.2{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

All NTs = 10.6{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

Visionaries (NF)

ENFJ – Mentor, teacher = 3.4{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

ENFP – Advocate, idealist = 4.2{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

INFJ – Confidant, empath = 1.2{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

INFP – Dreamer, healer = 2.4{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

All NFs = 11.2{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}

Each of the personality types (the well defined strong ones at least who haven’t self reported to be a mutt of 2 or more different personalities) can be seen as a specific brain type. As mentioned above, the physiological neural difference between 2 people of vastly dissimilar brain types is a lot more significant than how a person looks on the outside. That is because the brain type determines a mental and emotional predisposition of a person for the rest of his life. People classified as “bipolar” or “anti-social/sociopathic” for instance, have neural structures that will make them lean towards some things more than others during their entire lives.

We can see from the statistical breakdown that SJ (left-brained people with parietal lobe strength) predominate in the overall population. The second biggest group are the SP (right-brained with parietal lobe strength). Together they are almost 80{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the population. The SJs tend to be conservative, authoritarian in outlook, conventional, focused on concrete “what is”, and protective of the general society. They don’t rock the boat too much and defer to tradition. The SPs tend to be fun loving, crafty, entertaining, and have uncanny ability to focus on “what is” (with their parietal lobe) in order to fix and modify it.

If you look at the cute nicknames given to different brain types, you can see that the human herd pretty much needs all of them if it is to evolve and survive. Some types are needed more than others in the great scheme of things. The SJ and SP groups for example are conveniently numerous. SJ population provides a great amount of soldiers, policemen, social workers, self sacrificing charity givers, accountants, and status quo protectors. In other words they keep the herd safe even if it means stagnating the herd through using their positions in the executive to slow down rapid change. SP group provides us with artisans who improve quality of life for the herd through provision of entertainers, artists, dancers, singers, and resourceful improvising mechanics. SPs can be said to exist to entertain SJs and keep them on their toes by having more fun than them.

It’s easy to see how SJs lean republican and SPs lean democrat overall. The jokes that democrats have better sex lives than republicans begin to acquire an element of truth (considering the different approach left and right sides of the brain take in deciding on how to deal with the here and now). However, the two large groups are united by their concern with all things as they are in the now. That makes the two groups friendly and status quo leaning by default. An ESTJ born in Brooklyn may identify as a traditionalist democrat whereas an ESTJ born in West Virginia may identify as a traditionalist republican, but both are more likely to seek similar professions and get along if they hang out together. Brain type identification provides a lot more material to predict a person’s behavior and views on the world than simple political identification.

The overall theme emerges that people with neural computers that predispose them to either protect the status quo or be apathetic about it (since they are busy pursuing hedonistic adventures) are the supermajority that are not as interested in “what can be” (as the less numerous NP and NJ groups tend to be). A point must be made here that not one group is more important than another and that even their numerical breakdowns seem amazingly appropriate. It would be turbulent for the herd to have for example, more ENTJs/INTJs than ISTJs/ESTJs since the problem with authority that NJs have (due to their desire to be the authority themselves) would create unsustainable infighting and not allow enough people who follow orders. Each brain type has a very key social niche and function and over thousands of years there evolved an intricate genetic balance and ratio. There are of course also multitudes of physiological “mutts” who are a hybrid of all and can’t be “pigeonholed” (the most common complaint brought against psychological typology in general).

Interestingly enough, the Hindus have spent thousands of years evolving classification of human beings into 4 broad psychological varnas or classes. Each was considered as important as the other (all parts of the same body) with their own particular temperaments and duties.

Some brain types are literally made to create new theoretical constructs on how society should be organized and which steps it should take next (INTPs, ENTPs,). When balanced by the emotional consideration and input of INFPs and ENFPs (since strong T theorists are prone to being too rigidly rational and thus not take into consideration the emotional impact of their constructs) new paths for society can be developed that would be acceptable to SJs and SPs combined. However, as explained above, these people will always be outvoted and marginalized by politicians who mobilize the other more numerous groups. “Think of the children!” is a call to arms for ESFJs and ISFJs for instance whereas being tough on crime, national strength, and defeating foreign enemies is the bread and butter of ESTJs and ISTJs.

This dynamic reinforces the need for proportional representation in our system of governance. Proportional representation is practiced in most European Union countries to great effect. This way each brain type cluster can get a political party of their own. The marginalized 20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the population can get representation and even serve as coalition kingmakers. New voices can be heard in the discourse. Today the 20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of population has to either join the big parties they don’t like and “radicalize” them (seen by the tail wagging the dog phenomenon of militants dominating today’s Republican party and driving moderates out of it) or abstain from the process thus depriving society of valuable input. In proportional representation, each batch of brain types seen as “radicals” can find a party to call home and really support. They would also have more political representation to vent out their frustration and to institutionalize their presence and views. Citizens can then pick and choose which vision of progress to support and which to leave behind.

NC Drug Laws Explained

North Carolina’s Drug crimes are harsh, and defense of these crimes requires a Raleigh, Apex, or Cary criminal lawyer familiar not only with the law, but with how the Wake County District Attorney Colon Willoughby and his staff enforce the law. The Wake County District Attorney has various office “policies” which govern how the various assistant district attorneys – the men and women who actually prosecute cases – can handle cases. Those policies change from time to time, but basically they govern whether the Raleigh prosecutor in your case has any discretion in how to handle your case.

North Carolina’s drug crimes are all statutory crimes in Chapter 90, Article 5, of the North Carolina General Statutes. North Carolina’s drug crimes can either be misdemeanors or felonies. Simple possession of less than a half ounce of marijuana is a class 3 misdemeanor, which is the least serious level crime in North Carolina.

Trafficking in 28 grams or more of heroin, which requires proof that the person “knowingly”, “sold, manufactured, delivered, transported, or possessed OR conspired to sell manufacture, deliver transport or possess” opium, including heroin, and the quantity is 28 grams or more, the defendant is eligible for a Class C felony with a mandatory minimum sentence of 225 months in prison. That’s nearly 19 years in prison for about 1 pound of heroin.

Given the stiff penalties for trafficking – and trafficking doesn’t mean you have to be flying around in a Colombian – and the fact that those penalties have mandatory minimums, it’s easy to see how defendants can really get astronomical sentences for drug charges in Wake County, North Carolina.

In fact, these penalties are shocking to many people who come from New York. As I understand it, New York City prosecutors can give defendants 30 or 60 days of jail time for charges that in North Carolina will mean years and years in prison. Simply saying, “But in New York they do it differently,” won’t help. You’re in North Carolina, where the drug laws are very strict.

The more common drug charges in North Carolina relate to obtaining prescription medication through forgery or fraud. That crime can be charged as a misdemeanor, or, if the prosecutor can prove “intent,” as a felony. Frequently the defendant will take a misdemeanor plea to such charges, because the Wake County prosecutor will otherwise say she will prosecute the crime as a felony. And since “intent” is not difficult to show in many cases, the defendant may lose at trial and be convicted of the Class I felony.

Another common drug charge is possession with intent to sell or deliver. In order to convict on this crime, the Wake County District Attorney must prove that the defendant possessed the controlled substance and intended to sell, manufacture, or deliver it. The prosecutor doesn’t have to prove that the person ever sold anything. Just that the person intended to sell, manufacture or deliver it.

“Intent” can be proven by showing that amount was too much for one person’s personal use, or that it was packaged in several baggies. Simply finding 10 rocks of crack cocaine was not enough to find intent to sell or deliver. However, having 10 rocks in 10 separate baggies may be enough to convict.

I’ve seen many cases where the person had recently bought a few baggies of drugs, maybe some pot or crack, and where the police stopped him immediately after, and found a few baggies of pot on him, and charged HIM with possession with intent to sell or deliver (PWISD). Those cases can be defended, so it’s not hopeless. But it’s important to remember that the more baggies the drugs are in, the more likely the police will accuse the defendant of PWISD and not a simple possession charge.

Finally, the most bizarre crime in North Carolina is the possession of counterfeit controlled substance with intent to sell or deliver. Here’s what happens. A snitch, CI, or “confidential informant” working for the Raleigh Police Department (RPD) or the Wake County Sheriff’s Office (WCSO) or some other police agency goes up to some guy on the street and asks him for a couple of rocks. The guy (who becomes my client!) has nothing on him, but he wants to make a quick $50. So he tells the person that he’ll go “around the corner” to his stash to get some. He goes around the corner, picks up a few white/yellowish tiny stones, and comes back. The snitch (CI) gives him $50 in exchange for the “rocks” which are literally stones picked up off the ground, not drugs at all.

RPD swoops in, arresting the guy for either “sale or delivery of a counterfeit controlled substance” or “possession with intent to sell or deliver a counterfeit substance.” Obviously this is a nonsense crime. This is a crime where one guy has perhaps, at most, cheated the other guy out of $50 in exchange for some pebbles. Maybe it’s a kind of fraud. But it is not a drug crime.

But in Wake County, North Carolina, it may be charged as at least a Class I felony.

Cultural Relativism, Federalism and the Filipino People

The Philippines is an archipelagic nation-state, having 7,107 islands, which are geographically distributed in 17 political regions. The three main island groups where the 7,107 islands are situated are Luzon, Visayas and Mindanao. Living in those islands are different multi-lingual people, also known as ethnic groupings. Based on the data of the National Commission on Indigenous Peoples (NCIP), this country has 110 different ethnic societies. The NCIP calls them IP or indigenous people. Then, the major cultural segments are the Bisaya, the Kapampangan, the Ilokano, the Ilonggo and others.

Being a country with multiple and diversified people, the system of government is an issue. At present, the form of government being practiced is centralized or presidential, which is anchored on democracy. The main legal framework of governance is the Constitution of 1986.

However, this centralized form of government has been questioned. Its scope and efficiency have been debated. This issue has been surfacing these days as the year 2016 is about to start. The incoming year will be the time for the national elections to happen again, allowing the Filipino people to choose their preferred political leaders from top to bottom.

As the national elections is about to come next year, the debate on the form of government is on the hot seat again. Is the Centralized Form of Government really suitable for the Filipino people, knowing that this country caters different people, with different culture? If not the right form, what is then the better government system to address multiple ethnicities and cultural divergence?

Some academic and political experts have had suggested that the right form of government for the Filipino people is the so-called “Federalism.” This government system is being practiced already by many countries all over the world, like the United States of America. Under this system, generally speaking, there is still a central government (federal) but coupled by the recognition of the different states. Both the federal government and the states have their respective tasks and duties for the welfare of the constituents.

There are certain clear factors why there have been experts pushing for the shift from the presidential form of government to federalism. The intent of this article, however, is not to unfold ultimately the entire picture of Federalism, but only to cite the reasons why the Filipino people might really need a political transition.

On Cultural Relativism

Cultural relativism is a theory that favors on the idea of cultural equality. Contrary to ethnocentrism, cultural relativism implies that there is no superior culture. Every cultural mark must be respected. Every cultural practice should not be condemned. Every human being has the right to his or her own cultural knowledge and practices.

This theory is lightly discussed here to serve as a strong foundation of federalism. This form of government can really be the system needed by Filipinos, considering that this country is serving multiple ethnicities and cultural identities. Regarding better and more efficient government services, federalism will tend to address the needed efficiency and suitability in the context of cultural sensitiveness.

Is the presidential form of government not sensitive enough in rendering the services all people need? Maybe. As time passes by, the Filipinos, particularly those in the far-flung areas of Visayas and Mindanao, are still clamoring for the just and equal services. There are experiential and empirical substantiation that might validate the lacking capacity of the present political system. Hence, the inference lies on the needed political shift or transition, so to speak.

Is Federalism Really Fit For Filipinos?

Citing cultural relativism as the initial ground in this context, federalism may really be fit for all Filipinos. People in Mindanao can have different perceptions and thoughts anchored to their culture from people in Visayas and Luzon. People in Visayas do also have different cultural needs from people in Luzon and Mindanao. And, people in Luzon may have divergent necessities from people in Mindanao and Visayas. The bottom line of cultural relativism is that every person has a distinct cultural identity where his or her needs are framed.

Further, in crafting policies and local laws, the presidential form of government may have inefficiencies in coming up with culture-sensitive approaches. The role of the states in a federal form can be the solution to such inefficiencies. In this respect, the more intensified community-based consultations among the local members in various states will happen. This can be a precursor for more refined and culture-sensitive legislation.

The issues on budget allocation and rendering of government services will also be remedied through a federal form of government. The taxes to be levied in every locality, where the summed-up national government income is derived in the present system, will be divided and allocated more justifiably to every state (LGUs) where the taxes are collected. There have already been facts that in the present political system, the government fails to allocate the budget fairly, in which rendering of government services is attached. The sharing of the pie is unjust.

Historically, the present centralized system is just a borrowed system from the colonizers, like the Spaniards. Why don’t we revisit our past identity as Filipino people prior to the arrival of the colonizers and re-examine again our true and individual cultural mark?

In conclusion, the cultural differences and identities of the Filipino people serve as the main reason why federalism should be reconsidered. This can be the fittest government form for all Filipinos. Federalism does not intend to disintegrate the Filipinos in this country nor spoil democracy, but it aims only to provide more efficient and better services parallel to cultural multiplicity and distinctions.

The Paramounted Importance of Critical Analysis in International Trade Policies

International trade is largely based on the constant fluctuations in the world-wide economy, this resulting in constant changes with regards to tariffs, trade subsidies and unending amendments of regulations with regards to international trade. “Trade policy and economic Growth”, a paper by Keith Maskus, PhD, focuses on the relationship between trade policies and the growth of the economy or lack thereof, the main point of interest of the paper was to establish whether the variance of trade policies will affect the economic growth of any country. The conclusion reached was that open economies tend to grow faster than closed economies, ceteris paribus. therefore concluding that open competition is good in the sense that it improves resource distribution and the country gains in Investment and innovation.

An organisation that is involved in international trade has to pay special attention to such information. There might not be any countries with closed economies however there are countries that have low imports to the point that they are regarded as closed economies for instance Brazil. In 2011 Brazil recorded 13{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} as its import percentage which was quite low for a country of its stature. Is it not then imperative to constantly be up to date with changes in the trade policies of countries one is interested in pursuing trade relations with? since there is a proven positive relationship between the openness of an economy to competition (thus meaning the country is greatly involved in trade) and the growth of that country`s economy, this serves as an indication of how lucrative and profitable a business venture would be under such circumstances. The Critical analysis aspect then comes into play by determining how much gain or loss would result from substantial changes to the policies, which are measures and instruments that can influence export and imports, the objective being the policies influence the trade sector to the result of profit for the business venture. one might feel a degree in commercial management is then needed in order to fully understand all the kinks and edges of the international business, and they would be right, but the eventuality is that it will always boil down to intelligence and efficiency in the analysis of trends, calculation of potential profit/loss, predictions of future stability or fluctuations in the world economy prompting changes to prices in the trade sector.

There is one other important factor that can alter potential business plans, and that is the politics of the country in question, policies are easily influenced by the politics of the nation, and it is thus advisable that critical analysis be also engaged, this results in better understanding of the country and its stability thus reducing the chances of incurring a bad business eventuality. Nations are not governed by robots, unfortunately, but are governed by people with interests and human nature desires to differ from individual to individual making it difficult to maintain a constant effective system. if politicians are elected they tend to focus on altering policies for their own benefit, and the benefit of those they promised (if there are still honest politician available) from that point it is important that international business consider such factors before pursuing business. Prime examples being, whenever there are strikes in South Africa investors tend to shy away, and most of the strikes are birthed from political influence, thus deeming South Africa an Unstable nation to invest in, or Zimbabwe a nation sanctioned, due to political infringements, making the country undesirable for investment irregardless of the profitability of the business idea. It is thus an excellent idea to firstly research in-depth to the politics of the country before hand and invest with,much-needed information, guiding the innovative decision made.

The Movie "Chocolat" and the Law of Attraction

“Chocolat” is a delightful movie set in “a quiet little village whose people believed in tranquility. If you lived in this village you understood what was expected of you and you knew your place in the scheme of things and if you happened to forget, someone would remind you.” These are the opening lines of this film. One immediately gets the impression that, while it is a quiet and tranquil village, it was because people either did what they were told or did not tell what they did.

“The village held fast to their tradition, until one winter day a sly wind blew in from the north.” In enters a mother and her daughter, who live a gypsy-like lifestyle. Vien, a strong talented woman, moves into the town with her daughter, Anook. Her desire is to open up a chocolaterie, that features everything in chocolate you can imagine. When she had her ‘chocolaterie’ up and running, people would come in and she would look at them and then suggest what they would like best in chocolates. Suggestions to awaken the passion in a person. Her chocolate recipes were derived from her father, who discovered ancient remedies using special cocoa recipes. One day her father discovers that his wife (Vien’s mother) has gotten up and run away with his daughter, little Vien. This is when her nomad existence of going from village to village dispensing ancient cocao remedies, began. Vien is repeating the same lifestyle now with her daughter, Anook.

Right away, one suspects that this lifestyle is not that satisfying for Vien but that fear keeps her on the run. So her desire is to find a place where she can live happily with her daughter for a long time. In her thoughts she has asked for this. And whenever someone asks for what they want, it is always given, this is the Law of Attraction.

As well, it is clear that Anook would like to settle somewhere permanently. Her travels are not much fun anymore and so she too, is asking for stability.

Vien becomes very good friends with Armande, an elderly woman, who is estranged from Caroline, her daughter. Caroline does not allow her to see her grandson. Armande is yearning for connection with her grandson. Another request to the universe that is being given.

Vien is so WANTING or DESIRING of good relations to occur around her and she finds a way for Armande and her grandson to connect. It is a very sweet gesture of paying her grandson to draw his grandmother’s portrait. They find a way to do this when his mother, Caroline is not around. One day her daughter comes into the chocolaterie, when her son is there. Caroline is furious about this.

Josephine, one of Viens helpers says to the boys mother “he is happy here it is good for him,” which is the truth and Caroline responds by saying “I will decide what is good for him.” She is going against her own sons happiness here because clearly he wants to be with his grandmother.

Caroline also gets upset with Vien for feeding her mother sweets because Armande has diabetics and is very ill. After Caroline leaves, Armande says to Vien “don’t you dare pity me.” This is an indication that she does not want her freedom to eat what she wants, to be suppressed, because of her illness. Her freedom is important to her first and foremost, even at the expense of her health. In a moment, when Vien is discouraged she asks Armande what she can do. Armande says “throw me a party” and after the party I will go and get the medical help I need.

Vien agrees reluctantly, she thinks that no one will show up because the mayor does not like that she has opened up her ‘chocolaterie’ during the lenten season. She sends out invitations to many of her friends and realizes that while the mayor may not like her delicious creations, others do. Vien comes into her power, her confidence, when she confronts the ‘Count/Mayor’ telling him that she has a right to be here and is doing nothing wrong.

To her party, she invites Rue, a drifter gypsey, who comes to town by boat with his friends. The mayor and others are quite prejudice towards them but Vien quite likes Rue. They develop a beautiful friendship. At one point Rue asks her “why do you care what these narrow-minded people think? Vien just ignores him and she begins the food preparation for the party.

One gets the impression that Rue, while saying he is content, would very much like to settle down and meet someone lovely to be with. So both Rue and Vien, have been asking, with their thoughts, for love to come forth and when they meet the viewer can see that this is a sweet match. The universe is reponding to their desires by bringing them together. The Law of Attraction in action.

Josephine, a woman who has been battered by her abusive husband, comes into the shop and steals a box of chocolates. Vien does not notice but she does notice that Josephine does not take the box of chocolates she wants to offer her. When Vien goes to visit her at her home, she finds her terrified and living at the mercy of her abusive and controlling husband. Later, Josephine eventually comes into Viens shop and pays for the box of chocolates she stole and they become fast friends. As Josephine speaks of her unhappiness, she confesses that she feels weak and does not love her husband because she feels too afraid to leave. Vien comforts and uplifts her, thus giving her the strength to do what she wants, to leave her husband. She escapes one night after being beaten. Josephine arrives at her door beaten and hysterical, saying “I did it, I did it. He woke up and he tried to come after me and I had already tied his feet with his belt.” This that she had asked for, the strength to leave, happened, again the Law of Attraction in action.

Vien sees the bruises on Josephine’s face and invites her to live with her. She teaches Josephine how to make the chocolate treats and she becomes a part of her business. One gets the impression that Josephine wants more meaning in her life and this request is answered from the universe.

The chocolates are erotic, ie. Nipples of Venice and the business begins to flourish once Josephine arrives. They both uplift and bringing happiness to the town people through their kindness and tasty treats.

The church demands that during the lentin season, people stay away from sweets but with the ‘chocolatier’ in town so many people are going to confession because they cannot resist these strong desires for chocolate. This is an example of how when we do not go with our desires it creates resistance and discomfort and it also questions these church rituals.

Vien confronts the Count one day, saying “if you expect me to just shrivel up and blow away, you will be disappointed”. And he replys, “let me put this into perspective for you, you and your trifles provide less of a challenge for me and you will be out of business by Easter.” Vien is furious. The Count is unhappy that Vien has opened up a partisserie during the Lenten season and he spends time letting others know that he is unhappy about this, seeing the eating of chocolates as a weakness. He is a rigid and unhappy man, whose wife has just left him, One gets the idea that he is taking out his frustration and anger on Vien.

When he sees that he is losing control of the people in the village because they are all WANTING and buying chocolate, he pushes against her even harder, thus making it even more likely that people will buy these delicious treats. What you fight you actually expand, another part of the Law of Attraction. It is also clear that the people in this village are wanting more fun and pleasure.

It all comes to a head, when one night he goes to the chocolaterie to destroy it and he ends up in the window tasting all of the goodies and becoming drunk in the delight of the chocolates. It is a sweet metaphor for the triumph of what is good and pleasurable. In the morning Vien is there with a drink to sooth him, letting him know she will tell no one. At last his kindness is unfolded, he softens and apologizes profusely.

The young priest, who has been influenced by the Count, sees the Count in the ‘chocolatier’ window, drunk on chocolate. He realizes what has happened and he is inspired to speak at his homily on Easter Sunday. He says, ” I want to speak of Jesus’ humanity, his kindness, his tolerance. We cannot go around measuring our goodness by what we don’t do, by what we deny ourselves, what we resist and who we exclude, instead, we have to measure our goodness by what we embrace, what we create and who we include.” The parishioners felt a new sensation that day, a lightening of the spirit, a freedom from the old stoic tranquility. What this means is all of the resistance of the old rigid ways are being lifted so people can feel their freedom.

There is a section in the movie where the Count has people put up signs in the town that say “boycott immorality” meaning the gypsys or ‘river rats’ as some call these people. Vien ignores that signs and becomes friends with Rue. It is clear the Rue does not like to be treated this way, he is a dignified man and has asked vibrationally, without words, to be treated with respect and kindness. The Law of Attractions promise is whenever we ask, it is always given. Our job is to get into a good feeling about it all and that which we ask for is given. Rue and Vien become dear friends and you can see throughout that they are drawn romantically to one another.

The chocolate scenes are a metaphor for all the good things in life and how lovely they are……..all the desires of us all. And the food at Armandes party is succulent, delicious, mellowing. In a way, it is kind of like slapping the rigid restrictions of the church in the face. The music at the party is soothing and relaxing. They end up going for dessert on Rue’s boat, at Vien request, once again slapping the rigid narrow-minded rules of Lenten season in the face. The party opens people up to their true desires, including the first sexual encounter between Vien and Rue. On the boat, in a conversation with Rue, Vien comes to a deeper truth about how her gypsy lifestyle has affected her daughter, Anook, and how Anook hates the traveling around. Armond’s final words after this glorious party are “Thank you.” She and Vien hug each other for the final time, then, Armond’s grandson walks his grandmother home and she dies peacefully in her sleep. This is such a beautiful example of someone who has lived her life fully, is at peace after reconciliation with her grandson and dies in peace at her chosen time.

The rigidity of the church is so palpable, so oppressive and it gets shown in this movie so well. One can see the forces that Vien is up against. And yet she is such a freedom seeker and she acts on her deep KNOWING of what makes her happy. Her perseverance, her strength and desire to uplift and offer joy (in the form of sweets) is so strong. She holds fast to her vision and only falters once, when she decides to leave again and go to another town. The strength and inspiration she has evoked in others is so strong that they go ahead without her to prepare for the big festival that Vien had originally planned. Now, they will not be stopped. Josephine is so empowered she gathers several people to help in the preparation.

In her preparation to leave, Anook gets very upset. She does not want to be uprooted again and in her frustration drops the pottery bowl with her grandmother’s ashes in it. The ashes are all over the ground. This provides a shock effect for Vien. She gets shocked back into her truth, she goes into the kitchen and sees her friends preparing the treats for the party. In this moment she realizes she is home and begins to help out.

The Easter Sunday party demonstrates the freeing of the spirit for them all, the Count, Josephine, Vien everyone, and of course her desire to have Rue return is manifested in the last scene. All is well.

So much transformation in this movie. The universe is answering all of the requests of the people because they are relaxing and doing what feels good to them. The Law of Attraction with each character is at play and each person in this film becomes transformed.

Top 7 Similarities of Business and Politics

Politics and Business are so similar in many ways. Sure politics is much dirtier and generally played by less ethical individuals and yet the similarities are often uncanny. Perhaps a brief point-by-point comment on this subject will open a new perspective on this subject. Below are a few similarities to help the thinking juices flow and allow some conceptual thoughts.

1.) In politics you must canvas the area using data about the voters; in business you use demographic software to gather information about the customer.

2.) In politics you must get the voter to make a decision to vote for your candidate; in business you must get the consumer to choose your product or service over your competitor.

3.) In politics you must employ multiple methods to reach the voter; In business any good marketing program uses multiple media, mediums and methods to reach the consumer.

4.) In politics you must show how your candidate is better and different; In business you must show how your brand is best.

5.) In politics you must get those people to the polls to vote; in business you must get those customers in the door of your business to buy something.

6.) In politics you must win or you are forgotten; In business you must beat your competition and the customer must buy from you or you go out of business.

7.) In politics the customer decides with his or her vote; in business your voter buys your product or service with his or her dollar.

I hope this philosophical discussion allows you to see business from a different perspective and if you are in business and considering politics, forget it. Business is a much better game than politics and as a politician might say; You Can Trust Me on This in 2006.

Why Do Nations Obey International Law?

Neither interest nor identity theory fully account for the normative transnational legal process. Participation in the transnational legal process assists institute the identity of the state is one that obeys the law, but what is critical is the interaction, not the label that purports to identify a state as liberal or not. In part, act as obey international law as a result of repeated interaction with other governmental and non-governmental actors in the international system. Estates violation of law creates inevitable frictions and contradictions that hinder its ingoing participation within a transnational legal process. When a developing nation defaults on the sovereign debt, connectivity impairs its ability to secure new lending. The nation's leaders may shift over time for a policy violation of international law to one of compliance to avoid such frictions in its continuing relations.

As transnational actors interact, they create patterns of behavior and generate norms of external conduct which they in turn internalise. Law-abiding states internalize international law by incorporating it into their domestic legal and political structures, executive action, legislation, and judicial decisions which take account of any corporate international norms. Nations also responds to other states reputations as law-abiding or not. Legal ideologies prevail among domestic decision-makers such that they are affected by perceptions that their actions are unlawful, or that domestic opponents or other nations in the global era also categorize them. Moreover, domestic decision-making becomes enmeshed with international legal norms, as institutional arrangements with the making and maintenance of an international commitment became entrenched in domestic legal and political processes. It is through this repeated process of interaction and internalization of international law that requires its stickiness as it is known, that nation states acquire their identity, and that nations to find promoting the rule of international law as part of a national self-interest. It is important to understand that although at times international law seems a weak, the reality is that nations use the rhetoric of international law for their own purposes at any particular time to justify their political position.

Truths and Facts and History About Whether Sky Culture Is Deteriorating Social Values of Bangladesh

So, I experienced my first identity crisis on a playground. I remember my classmates coming up to me and saying, “Sameer”, what religion are you? Are you Christian or are you Jewish?” And I remember being very confused by that question. I’d just moved back from Bangladesh, I was living in the United States – and I remember thinking, I’m not Christian because I don’t get Christmas presents, therefore, if I had to choose between these two options, I must be Jewish. So I would look up and said, “John, I’m Jewish.” And that was that, and actually went on those few months thinking that I was Jewish – mind you, I was eight years old. That is until Hanukkah rolled around and I didn’t get any presents on Hanukkah either.

My point is that identity matters. And not only does identity matter, your identity should be the story of you, and one that is fitting of your highest aspirations. So when I moved to Bangladesh two years ago, I was looking for an identity that would help me meaningfully express my connection to this land. So I began to do all of the things that I was really interested in: photography, travel, writing – and I began to find a common thread here. I began to see this vast diversity of this land – but not only that, but within that diversity laid the key to understanding what made Bengal so successful as a civilization. Here I can find an identity that I can be proud of, and it was an identity with a potential. So last year, I made a long awaited trip to Tibet. And when my Buddhist tour guide met me at the airport, he was so excited to meet a Bangladeshi. “Bangladeshi! Bangladeshi!”, he yelled out. And I couldn’t understand this, but it turns out that 1,000 years ago the Tibetan king was so taken by this Bengali monk, that he had a delegation sent down to Bengal to ask for him, to come up to Tibet and help reinvigorate and revive the practice of Buddhism there, after years of its decline and suppression. This was a tremendous task. And this Bengali monk took up this task, and he was so transformative and effective in his mission, that Buddhists today, and Tibetans all over Tibet regard him as Atisa, the super Lord, second only to the Buddha himself. And everywhere I went in Tibet, every monastery I visited, we see the statue of Atisa, a Bengali man, seated right next to the Buddha. In fact, if you go to Mongolia, Japan – even Australia and parts of the Buddhist world, you will still find centers, monasteries. and statues dedicated to Atisa – such was the profound influence. Now, how many of you here today have heard of this story? And how many of you here today know where Atisa was from? He was from right here, just a few miles outside Dhaka.

By the way this story is not mine rather one of my friends’.

And if you’re like me and you’re wondering, what kind of society gave birth to such a man – Well, 1,000 years ago, Bengal was an international powerhouse. It had an empire that extended as far west as Afghanistan, it dominated the Indian Ocean trade, and it built monastery university complexes like this at Paharpur. This would have drawn in scholars from all around the region to study at this prestigious campus. See the then version of Sky Culture was so much so prevalent in our society even in 1000 A.D.

Now, if we think of our identity in terms of the nation-state construct, then we have no option but to place so much emphasis on 1971. And in doing so, we risk losing sight of a much grander narrative of what it means to be Bangladeshi equipped with Our very own Bengali tradition and culture and values we adhere to.

See, when 1971 explains why we fought for our cultural identity, it doesn’t explain where our culture and identity came from. And the ‘where’ is critical because it gives us that critical insight into how we became such a civilization force in the first place. See, whether you believe it or not, Bengal was once known for its international prestige, its economic prosperity, and intellectual sophistication. And, so we see a pattern here that begins to emerge – that it takes an open, inclusive and pluralistic society to build the foundations for security, stability and wealth generation that we saw in Bengal. And the early rulers of Bengal seemed to have figured out this winning balance. So we see Bengal as this great diverse place and the rulers and the leaders are able to channel this great diversity towards productive means, openness, inclusiveness, and pluralism. So, if you’re wondering, where does this great diversity in Bengal come from – I’m a big fan of maps and maps can help explain a lot. So, if you see the map you notice the rivers that are coming down from the Himalayas, how they’re all coming right into the Bengal Delta – These rivers, of course, in the ancient time would’ve been early roadway systems. So, perhaps this map is a little bit clearer – you see, from China, India, Bhutan, Nepal… all over South Asia, all these rivers are going straight into Bengal. So you have, from a very early age, Bengal teeming with people, teeming with different ethnicity and cultures.

How do you harmonize this? Pluralism doesn’t just happen. You don’t just become a lovey-dovey utopia, just because you have diversity. Pluralism requires active policies that are designed to engage that diversity, and funnel that diversity towards socially progressive outcomes. It’s an active effort. So to avail more from Sky Culture we need an effective effort not to be the subjects of prejudice and not to become the victims of cultural imperialism of those

So we have, for example, during the Mauryan Empire, 2,300 years ago, King Ashoka – I’m sure many of you are familiar with him, he’s tasked with the enormous responsibility of ruling over a population of 50 million people, including the borders of present day Bangladesh — How does he do this? He would turn to what it would become one of history’s first examples of pluralistic ethic officiated as state doctrine when he inscribed this profound message on rock pillars and have them placed throughout his empire. “The faiths of all others ought to be honored for one reason or another. By honoring them, one honor one’s own faith and at the same time performs a service to the faiths of others – So concord alone is commendable.” And Ashoka – he received great points for this inspired vision. Not only do we regard him as one of South Asia’s most benevolent and greatest kings, but the Greeks and the Romans wrote about Bengal during this period, they wrote about our prosperous ports, they wrote about its quality merchandise, they wrote about our fine quality pearls and muslin, and not only that, but outside Dhaka recently a coin was found dating 300 B.C. – precisely this time period, and it was traced to Greece, so you get a sense of this early cosmopolitanism that Bengal engendered as a result of this pluralistic rule. And we see the same kind of pluralistic ethic embodied throughout the various rulers, throughout the ages of Bengal. But in the 20th century a dangerous myth began to emerge.

— Sky Culture is deteriorating our social values. Irony is in this 21st century we’re still blaming that myth to avoid facts and thus further deteriorating our moral values, significantly harming our social security.

However historically, these narrow identifications did not exist in Bengal, in fact, Bengal was converted as a majority to Islam under the rule of the secular Mogul regime – a regime who could care less about what religion you belong to. So we see during the Bengal sultanate, when Muslims ruled over Bengal, poets described, for example, in the 1,500s how there were a Mahabharata in every home, how whether or not you were Hindu or Muslim, it didn’t matter – you read it. We also hear great stories from that same century from another poet, who talks about Muslims weeping when they heard about Rahma’s loss of his beloved Sita in readings from the Ramayana. These Bengali sultans also patronized Hindu works, so the Mahabharata and the Ramayana were translated into Bengali for the first time in this period. Also, Hindu humanist movements were supported by these Bengali sultans. And we see these Bengali sultans during public ceremonies using water – holy water from the Ganges, to purify themselves. So in essence, while these Muslims came to the region as foreigners, with the foreign religion in the 12th century, they essentially became Bengali Rajas as they were known affectionately by their subjects. So you see this great source of strength and unity that comes from this religious synthesis of the history of Bengal.

So when the British in 1905 wanted to partition Bengal in two based on religious lines in the first time in its history, you see people like Tagore taking a stand for unity – for religious and political unity, and you know what his response was when he first heard about this plan? He composed the words that would become, 65 years later, Bangladesh’s National Anthem, “Amar Shonar Bangla” – My Golden Bengal, How could you divide us? And he went out to the street and he tied a rakhi, a hindu band symbolizing kinship and fraternity, on the hands of every Muslim he came across on the streets. And then in the 1940s, when we had this partition of India, we see an existential threat to the Bengali culture come in the form of replacing the Bengali language with the Urdu language. And it was also proposed that the Bengali script would be changed to the Arabic script over time. And this began to rouse the masses, all of the sudden, Bengalis began to see the issue that comes with narrow religious identifications. It was an existential threat to the Bengali culture. So you see at this time – the Language Movement emerged. And one of the heads and founders of this Language Movement was Muhammad Shahidullah, who took a stand at Dhaka University and declared the ancient and syncretic origins of the Bengali language as a confluence of Hindu, Buddhist, Muslim and Christian influences throughout the ages. And in the similar spirit, you see Kazi Nazrul Islam echoed the national consensus of Bengal when he sang the song – “I sing the song of equality, where all barriers have crumbled, all differences have faded, and Hindus, Buddhists, Muslims and Christians have come together and merged.” And you see posters like this posted throughout Bengal during the revolutionary wars. Once again, Bengal was driving its strength and unity from this great pluralistic history. So when we finally gained our independence in 1971 – sure it was about economic differences, sure it was about political differences, but really it was the culmination of a 2,500-year-history of pluralism that was crying out, that was refusing to be ignored any longer. And now, once again, we are in charge of our own destiny.

And while loving thy neighbor may seem like good ethics, good moral ethics, it”s also good business, especially when you consider the rising opportunities that have come up all around us with this new Asian century. For example, you have India surrounding us on three sides and its meteoric rise. You see China to our north and the east, the world’s second largest economy, to the south, you have the Bay of Bengal and the Indian Ocean – the Indian Ocean being the world’s largest hub of international trade.

And this opportunity is further described by Robert Kaplan when he said, “This ocean is once again at the heart of the world, just as it was in antique and medieval times… ” So, what’s our excuse for not tapping into this dynamic growth? We know the solution, and we have a profound history that serves as a precedent that we can live up to. And if you look around yourselves today, and you see this devastating reality of poverty that we’re surrounded by, know too that that poverty is a recent phenomenon. See, in the history, the grand history of Bengal, Bengal was always being written about in terms of its immense wealth, its grandeur, its beauty – So please, think about that, as you go out there, and you become those ambassadors of change.

What you’re seeing here is actually all the civilizations and all the peoples that Bengal has touched throughout its long history – and in turn, been touched by. So again, as you go out there and become those ambassadors of change for a more open, inclusive and globally engaged Bangladesh, know that history is on your side because the history of Bengal is the history of plurality and prosperity and that there’s no reason why our future does not hold that same promise.

My point- it’s the lack of conviction, not having a vision, and failure to take bold and subtle action may be the causes.

Education and Knowledge of one’s identity of oneself as a Bangladeshi Muslim/Hindu, above all as the part of The Holy Divine, must to be the core…