Victimology and the Victim

Victimology is the study of crime and its victims. The perpetrator or offender is at one end of the spectrum and the victim at the other. The criminal and the victim represent opposing sides in the war against right or wrong. The victim is typically perceived as the innocent person who became prey to the guilty person who was on the opposing side of morality. The criminal was the bad guy and the victim was the good guy.

In 1948, however, Hans von Hentig, a German criminologist, began to change the societal attitudes towards crime following his study of several homicide victims. Hentig is credited as being a founder of the theory of victimology and was the first to suggest that the victim himself is “one of the many causes of crime,” reports Stephen Schafer, The Criminal and his Victim. Hentig’s theory altered societal attitudes and influenced change by altering the focus of a homicide investigation from the criminal to the victim.

Hentig’s approach was considered brilliant in the late 1940s. It was a new concept that quickly evolved and expanded into a theory. The victims were categorized and labeled while the investigators searched for what we now call an “unknown suspect.”

Investigating the victim’s lifestyle through interviews of friends and family helped law enforcement agents focus their resources and efforts on the victim as an attempt to locate the unknown criminal. They tried to understand why and how one person became a victim when another person did not. It is similar to reverse psychology and the reason victimology is sometimes referred to as “reverse criminology.” These strategies and tactics are still used today. The homicide investigator investigates the victim in an effort to understand the psychological aspects of the criminal which may lead to further clues about the whys and wherefores that led to one person’s death.

Reciprocal Arrangement

As a result of Hentig’s analysis of victims, he further theorized that there is “reciprocality” between the criminal and victim. This means that the victim and the criminal somehow share in the crime by providing somewhat of a reciprocal agreement and, therefore, some shared satisfaction as a result of the crime. Hentig’s theory stated that the victim shapes and molds the criminal and his crime. The relationship between perpetrator and victim, Hentig believed, created an intricate relationship and reciprocal arrangement between the criminal and the victim.

Victim Precipitation

Then, in 1963, another criminologist, Benjamin Mendelsohn, refined Hentig’s theory by expanding on it. Mendelsolm developed a similar idea which he called “victim precipitation.” Victim precipitation is a term which suggests that the victim of a crime had “an aptitude, although unconsciously, of being victimized,” reports Karola Dillenburger, The International Journal of Behavioral Consultation and Therapy. Mendelshom concluded that victims “look, think, and act differently” than non-victims which increase their likelihood of becoming victims. There are as many types of victims as there are types of criminals.

Types of Victims

In 1948, when Hentig developed his theory about victimization and …

Na Akua Hawaii – Hawaiian Gods

Hawaiians are a deeply spiritual people. Their inspiration and mana (spiritual power, energy, and life force) come from the powerful forces of their natural world. This world was immense. It stretched beyond the eight main Hawaiian Islands and encompassed Kahiki, Aotearoa, Te Pito o te Henua and everything in-between. It spanned the breadth of earth’s largest ocean and included a sea of stars in an endless night sky. Based on the enormity of their world, it is no wonder why ancient Hawaiians were polytheistic.

There are over 400,000 different gods recognized in Hawaiian culture. These include the principal deities, demi-gods, ‘aumakua (ancestral gods), and many lesser akua (gods). Each had their own realm of influence over some aspect of Hawaiian society. In this pantheon of akua were those who had greater kuleana (responsibilities) such as war or politics and others with less important roles. Not all akua Hawai’i (Hawaiian gods) were worshiped by each individual. Gods varied from place to place and from island to island. Gods also differed according to a person’s area of expertise, for example, a canoe maker wouldn’t necessarily pray to the gods of hula (dance) for support and vice versa. There were, however, some deities and spiritual beliefs that all Hawaiians adhered to regardless of status or class.

Listed below are the major gods collectively known as Ka Ha (lit. the four) that influenced every aspect of the Hawaiian world. They were equally revered amongst all islands in ancient times and are recognized throughout Polynesia as some of the most powerful gods in Oceania.

In this list, readers will find the common name for each god, along with their sphere of influence. Also included are some of the main kinolau belonging to each akua. Kinolau literally means “many forms.” They are the physical manifestations of an akua and even though they often take the form of a plant or animal, kinolau are not limited to only flora and fauna.

Common name:


Other names:

Kunuiakea, Kuka’ilimoku.

God of:

War, politics, sorcery, farming, fishing, bird catching, canoe building.


‘Ie’ie, ‘Ohi’a Lehua, Loulu, ‘Ulu, Niu, Pueo, Mano, ‘Io, Niuhi, ‘Ilio, Koa.

Common name:


Other names:

Lonoikaouali’i, Lonoikamakahiki.

God of:

Peace, fertility, agriculture, prosperity, sports, healing (medicinal herbs), love making.


Pua’a, Kukui, Hapu’u, Ipu, Humuhumunukunukuapua’a, ‘Ama’ama, ‘Ohua Palemo, thunder, clouds, lightning, rain.

Common name:


Other names:


God of:

Freshwater, life, procreation, canoe builders, increase of ‘o’opu, healing.


Wai, ‘Ohe, Ko, La’i, Wauke, Kalo, forests, sunrise.

Common name:


Other names:


God of:

Deep ocean, ocean winds, fishing, voyaging, healing.


Ocean, Mai’a, Muhe’e, He’e, ocean winds, sunset.…

The Impact of Marketing in the Society – Can We Really Make a Difference?


Marketing is generally thought of as the process of promoting goods and services to the end user. We can think of this as McDonald’s advertising its Big Mac in such a way that we feel that we really need one for lunch. This demonstrates the advertising piece of the marketing mix, and is the element that most people identify with marketing.

Society is generally defined as the condition in which members of a community live together for their mutual benefit. Societies are more than just the individual members that make up the group, but the sum of the collective. We are all members of a society, and interact with the other members in that community. So what is the impact of marketing in the society?

Negative Connotations of Marketing – They Made Me Do It

Ever since society passed from a Subsistence economy (I grow my own food, make my own clothes, and don’t need anyone else to help me) to a Trade economy (I’ll grow some food to sell to you, if you will make some clothes to sell to me) we have had the challenge of marketing our products and services to others (Uh-oh, now that there are two people making clothes in my town I’d better let people know why they should buy mine). And ever since that first sales pitch there have been criticisms of marketing; like deceptive practices, high prices, unsafe products, and high-pressure sales – to name a few.

But many critics go further and claim that marketing has created false wants, promoted materialism, produced cultural pollution, and allowed big companies to gain significant political power. And there is an element of truth to all of these claims. Companies that have not performed ethically have had a damaging effect in society that the ethical businesses must now work through.

And the Good?

But it is hard to deny the positives that marketing has brought upon society as well. The wealth of technology at our fingertips today is directly related to the sales of these items and the continued downward pricing caused by the promotion of computers, cell phones, GPS navigation systems, digital cameras, MP3 players, etc. Dozens and dozens of these types of products are commonplace today, but seemed like luxuries for the rich just a few years ago. In fact, most of the people below the poverty line in the US today live better than royalty did 200 years ago — with cars, heating and air conditioning, microwave ovens, cell phones, televisions, and other amenities now considered necessities.

More importantly, most medium to large companies now have significant charitable giving and service programs that donate large sums of money and time to needy organizations that make a difference in the lives of millions of people every year. Whether companies do this out of a pure heart or a need for positive publicity, the result is the same — and many of the neediest in society are better for it.

Doing the Right

Influence of Society in Marriage

Marriage can not be separated from the society. Society will always influence the marriage institution. When Greece emerged as a worldwide empire, the family was affected. Whenever an empire rises up, the thoughts, the culture, and the practices of the ruling empire normally affects the lifestyle of its empire. For example when the British Empire came to some parts of Africa, the life and the ideals of British people filtered into the African society. And so, Greek thoughts and ways of marriage also affected the family as an institution. Apart from Greek culture, Roman culture also influenced the society’s few of the family.

We need to know all these because sometimes, too, the culture around us affects us very much. Often times, what we do as believers are dictated by the society. The culture and ideals of the Greek, who were mainly philosophers, affected marriages of their time. The culture the culture and thoughts of the roman affected all those who live within the territories of what constituted the then Roman empire.

We also have influences today. We have observed and we have grown within the system of marriage that is prevalent in our communities. Many of us have never sat down to think about the influence of the societal ideals and culture on our views on the family. Somehow we have accepted the Practice and views of people around us as the ideal. Thus we have tried to pattern our families and marriage after the dictates of the society. Those of us who have gone to school to school have been affected by the philosophy of the writer. When you study literature for example, you are studying the culture of a particular society at a particular time. Shakespeare’s, for example, reflects societal philosophy in his writings. Philosophy, being a way of life, can be subtly passed to you. When you read Shakespeare’s plays as well as other literature books you’re you are not just being entertained, you are being influenced.

Many marriages have also crumbled because we have idolized the media. It goes without saying that the media exerted an unwholesome influence on the family. A lot of people have foolishly swallowed whatever the media has projected hook, line and sinker. It is unfortunate however that media practitioner know that they are only actors and performers. They have never intended that we make all that they try to project our way of life. The print and the electronic media have been elevated at the expense of the family. A good proportion of what goes on , on television is nothing but mere entertainment.…

How to Be a Good Person in Society

How are some people more attractive than others? How are some people loved by everyone? Let me tell you it is not because of the physical beauty, but it’s because of their nature, because of their behavior. In fact if you have a good nature you start looking good to the people who admire you. More people will start to like you. Well this is not a one day process, no it is a process just to show people you are good but you should develop these habits from inside and you should never forget these. You should change yourself forever to be good.

First of all what you need is physical appearance, it does not mean that you should look like Brad Pitt or Tom Cruise, but it’s your dressing sense, the way you present yourself. In fact our whole life is a kind of self marketing, where we are the product and other people who look at us are the customers. So always wear a clean dress let it be formals or casuals.Keep your beard trim or a clean shave, keep your nails, teeth, mouth clean. Always look clean, so that people will at least try to know you, rather than running away from you just by seeing your look. Remember first impression you give to others will be the best and a long lasting one.

Always wear a smile on your face, what I mean by saying is smile at people at every casual meet. Greet them with a Good morning or Good evening depending on the time you meet. If you meet some one younger than you ask them if they had food etc.

One main reason by which people fail to create a good impression is that, they do not look into eyes while speaking, it shows their lack of confidence. So always look into peoples eye when you are speaking to them. If you meet some one whom you know through your profession then shake hand with them while you depart. To be kept in mind while giving a shake hand is that, give a firm shake hand, you should not hold their hand too loosely nor too tightly.

Do not boast about yourself in front of others, let others do that for you. People know it very well that the ones who give all credit to themselves are very low esteemed. So even if you get a gold medal in Olympics do not boast it. If you have really done a good job, then people will come to know anyways and they will ask about it by themselves.

Do not treat people according to their status or wealth, speak equally to all and naturally people will start respecting you. I am not saying that you should treat a beggar as well as a mayor the same, but treat equal people equally.

Never let a chance to make friendship with anyone, try to expand your contacts because you cannot tell when someone might come …

Don’t Buy Red Yeast Rice Until You Read This Article

If you learned about a natural product that could help lower your cholesterol, wouldn’t you want

to buy it? Of course you would. Well, guess what. There is such a product. Because of

government controls, however, you can’t get this product anymore, at least not in its original

cholesterol lowering form. Why would the government do that, you may ask. Here’s why.

Red yeast rice is a form of rice fermented using red yeast. The Chinese have used this rice for

years as a spice, food preservative and colorant, as well as a dietary supplement. For more than

1,000 years, these people have also used red yeast rice medicinally claiming it improved blood

circulation, and relieved indigestion and diarrhea.

Active Ingredients

More recently, scientists have found that one of the active ingredients naturally produced when

rice is fermented by red yeast is Monacolin K, or Lovastatin. For those of you not familiar,

Lovastatin is the generic equivalent of one of the statin drugs; a class of the strongest, most

effective cholesterol lowering prescription medications. Unlike prescription Lovastatin which

contains 10 mg or more of this active ingredient, red yeast rice contains less than 2.5 mg of the

cholesterol lowering medication per 600 mg capsule. Red yeast rice has been marketed as a

dietary supplement under the names Cholestin and HypoCol.

Until 1999, red yeast rice was readily available as a dietary supplement. However, it was in that

year that clinical studies confirmed the effectiveness of red yeast rice with Lovastatin as one of

its ingredients in lowering cholesterol. When the Food and Drug Administration caught wind

there was a dietary supplement being sold that included a prescription medicine, they decided to

pull the supplement from the market. They defended their decision by claiming that since the

supplement contained a drug that normally required a doctor’s prescription; the red yeast rice

could not be sold over-the-counter in an unregulated form.

The Big Stick of the FDA

The FDA’s decision met with some controversy and was actually overturned later that year by the

court of the District of Utah. In 2000, however, the FDA triumphed when the 10th U.S. Circuit

Court of Appeals ruled that since red yeast rice does contain the prescription medicine

Lovastatin, even though it does occur naturally, it is subject to FDA rules.

After that time, most forms of red yeast rice disappeared from the shelves of pharmacies and

health food stores, in its original form anyway. You can still buy the supplement but because of

the FDA order red yeast rice is made using a different fermentation process which does not

produce Lovastatin.

So, that is the story of red yeast rice. Used by the Chinese for hundreds of years as a way to

increase blood circulation, federal government regulations forced vendors to clear this natural

supplement from their shelves. You can still buy red yeast rice, but don’t expect it to have any

big effect on your blood pressure. To have the benefits of the cholesterol …

The Top Five Ways to Cheat the Government -and How They Will Catch You Doing It


There is no such thing as a free lunch. There is a vein of gold in that old saying. And yet, that doesn’t stop many from trying to get something for nothing. Entire generations have grown up now trained to depend on the government for support whether it be through food stamps, skewed tax credit laws or welfare. The price they pay in dignity, respect and freedom is barely noticed by many of them. And yet, even with those who are truly in need or who truly deserve the help there are many more who look for ways to scam the government for funds.

Each one of them is convinced they have found the fool-proof way to scheme Uncle Sam and in many cases they get away with it temporarily. Though there are many variations on the overall themes, each will generally fall within one of five categories.

1. EIC Fraud

2. “Under the Table” Payroll

3. Falsifying of W-2 or 1099 information

4. Clustered Nest

5. Multi-Level Marketing Tax Evasion Methods


Earned Income Credit is a refundable tax credit meant to help working single parents. Normally, the way a tax credit works (nonrefundable) is that if an individual has paid $5000 in taxes for the year and qualifies for the $10,000 tax credit, they can only receive the $5000 they paid in taxes. If the individual paid $0 in taxes, the tax credit could be as much as $50,000 or more and they would get $0. With the refundable tax credit, the individual isn’t required to have paid taxes to get the earned income credit added to his or her refund amount.

It works on a sliding scale where the EIC climbs up to it’s maximum (usually around $15000 in earned income) and as the income climbs above $15,000 the EIC slides down. Maximum EIC is usually around $5500. Finally at about $28,000, the EIC has decreased to $0. As someone who spent several years preparing taxes in the lower income bracket neighborhoods, let me tell you that there are those whose whole year is planned around receiving this huge check of taxes taken from those who pay them and given to those who won’t. EIC is given only for your first two children from birth to age 17.

The ‘married or unmarried’ couple with four kids will go in to a tax prep office, separate ones if they are experienced at this. And though each lives in the same house, each one claims the Head of Household status, which increases the amount they can deduct off of their taxable income and with each of them claiming EIC they can receive a checks totaling up to $10,000 for end of year tax filing season. The Head of Household is supposed to be for those who are receiving no other support from anywhere else. The Head of Household must be providing for that Household, so if there is a boyfriend, girlfriend, spouse, parent etc living there, they …

Legal Age To Get A Tattoo – Do Not Break Any Law!

“What is the legal age to get a tattoo?” If you’re thinking of getting your first tattoo, you might have been looking around to try to find out the answers to this question. More often than not, people who ask this question are the younger ones who have barely reached 18, and would like to know if there is any place that allows them to get their first ink before 18 years old. Allow me to answer your burning question.

First of all, the legal age to get a tattoo is 18 years old. There’s no argument about this. In all countries and states that regulates the tattoo industry, the official legal age is 18 years old. However, does this mean that if you’re below 18 full years of age and you get a tattoo, you would be breaking the law? Not quite.

People below the age of 18 (I refrain from calling you children) are known as minors.

In some places, minors who are above 16 years old may be allowed to get a tattoo with parental consent. Where are these places?

You would have to find out for yourself if your state allows it or not. 5 states out the 50 allows you to do so, provided you bring along your REAL parent and have them sign the parental consent form. Bringing just any fellow to pass off as your parents is illegal and would definitely get you into a whole lot of trouble, so steer clear if your parents do not allow you to get one. You also cannot simply walk into a shop and tell the artist that your parents allow you to have one, because the proper procedures would have to be followed to indemnify the artists in case they get sued by your parents after that.

However, you have to bear in mind that even if your state and your parents allow you to get inked when you’re yet not of the legal age to get a tattoo, many tattoo artists would still refuse to help you simply because of the many implications of helping a minor get inked.

Moving on, the remaining 45 of the 50 states require you to be 18, with or without parental permission. To get inked, simply show your tattoo artist your government issued photo ID if you look too young.

It is interesting to note that there are some places that strictly require you to be 18 and above. Two examples are Denmark and Germany.

Now, the next question to ask is that, if it is illegal to get inked in your state if you’re a minor, but you’ve found an artist who is willing to risk his licence for a quick buck, should you do it?

Good question, and i believe you do know the answer to it is a resounding No. Why? A tattoo artist who would even dare to break the legal age for inking his customers is scary to say the least. No reputable …

Arabian Horse History – Domestic Bloodlines


“Domestic Arabians” is the name given to Arabian horses bred in the United States. The bloodline for Domestic Arabians, like that of most Americans themselves, is a melting pot of influences from all over the world. However, the single most important event in the history of purebred Domestic Arabians was held on American soil.


Forty Arabian horses were exported from the desert, along with their Bedouin handlers, to be part of the Ottoman Empire exhibit at the Chicago World’s Fair. They made a huge impact on the American horse breeders who witnessed them at the fair.


Abdul Hamid II was, from 1876 to 1909, the sultan of the Ottoman Empire, and he maintained a stud of Arabian horses whose ancestry was well documented. The Arabian Horse Club of America registered two of his stallions, *Leopard and *Linden Tree, after he donated them to President Ulysses S. Grant. The Hamidie Hipppodrome Society was a group of wealthy Arab investors which took its name from the Sultan and in which he had an interest. The Hamidie Society sponsored the equestrian portion of the Ottoman Empire exhibit at the 1893 Chicago World’s Fair, and the Sultan contributed two of his prized horses. He later permitted the exportation of desert-bred Arabian mares to America as a favor to President Theodore Roosevelt.


Financial difficulties forced the Hamidie Society to sell all the horses from the Ottoman exhibit at the end of the World’s Fair. Many of the horses put up for sale were young stallions. One mare among the Hamidie horses was a grey beauty named Nejdme, who commanded $1200 at auction, an enormous price for a horse at the time. She was bought by J.A.P. Ramsdell, and went on to become the dam of eleven registered foals. Her blood is a common factor in many Domestic Arabians.


Homer Davenport was a journalist covering the World’s Fair for the Chicago Herald. He developed a fascination with the Arabian horses on display, and spent years after their auction tracking them down and studying their ancestry. He bought two of Nejdme’s foals and founded the Davenport Desert Arabian Studs. One of Davenport’s political cartoons had helped Theodore Roosevelt win the 1904 election. In return, Roosevelt lent his political clout to Davenport’s expedition to the desert in 1906. The result was that Davenport was able to not only bring back a quantity of stud colts, which were easy to obtain, but also eight purebred mares. Mares were illegal to export and required special permission from the Sultan. By 1910, Davenport had bought Nejdme, had imported Crabbet Park Arabians, and was well on his way to becoming one of the best-known breeders of Domestic Arabian horses. “Davenport Arabians” are direct descendants of his horses.


In 1908, Davenport and his colleagues formed the Arabian Horse Registry of America. Nejdme was the first horse …

Myers Briggs Personality Type and Political Affiliation

We’ve all come across people who just seem incapable of modifying their perspective based on new data being presented. Most of us still mouth the words that additional education (or indoctrination/propaganda as is often the case) is what is needed since surely this person will turn around if his/her consciousness is sufficiently expanded with additional data backing your perspective. However, all too often deep inside we know that some people are “hopeless”. This conclusion concerning failure of propaganda is reached from all over the political, cultural, and religious spectrum at one point or another. It thus becomes fashionable to outright dismiss “inconvertible” individuals and opposing zealots (on political and religious fringes of any given population) as nuts and crazies.

Personality theory in psychology allows us to better categorize individuals in society without resorting to name calling. Myers-Briggs typology in particular offers a better construct (compared to useless terms like conservative and liberal for example) to predict how an individual will act politically and socially. Myers-Briggs research combined with biology and brain scan techniques also offers us hints at understanding the underlining anatomical basis that predisposes a person to be either a disagreeable radical or a gentle follower.

There’s been little relative popular attempts to scientifically explain why the bulk of the population is always a warzone between the extreme fringes. It’s just assumed that it will always be this way just like there will always be criminals and extremely altruistic self-sacrificing givers. This assumption seems reasonable and obvious but gives rise to two other creeping and unsettling assumptions:

1) The human population is relatively fixed along a bell curve type continuum. Perhaps this is better visually represented by a sphere with a number of spikes extending from it. The moderate population is the bulk of the sphere and the zealous “radical” factions (whose opinions differ dramatically from the statistical average) are the spikes extending from the sphere’s surface (as well as into the interior to some degree which would represent silent sympathizers). It is irrelevant to label the spikes as extreme left, right, etc. All that is important is that a relatively fixed minority of the population (lets say 10-20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} range) will be:

a) prone to modes of thought that are tangibly different from majority’s

b) prone to action and lifestyle based on these thoughts

Authors like Friedrich Hayek for instance, observed that in 1920s Germany roughly a million workers swung their support between communists and Nazis based on who was winning. It was noted that the two seemingly opposing ideological parties clashed with one another the most because they were very often competing for recruits in the same psychological pool of young people. Considering how many overexcited Americans called both Bush and Obama the new “Hitler” in recent years, we can easily imagine how an aggressive drooling at the mouth anti-war protestor from a big city could have been an equally excitable protester at a teabag rally if only he was born in a small town and into a …