law

A Security Guard’s Work Environment: What Should You Expect?

The Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) tracks numerous types of data about various occupations; this includes information on work environments. For many jobs, the work environment is relatively consistent; security officers, however, have to face a wide variety of settings and be able to adjust and function in each of those.

In fact, security guards have one of the most diverse job environments of any industry. While a teacher generally practices her craft in the classroom, a logger works in forests and a surgeon rules the operating theater, just about any building or location could need a guard. Schools, malls, casinos, hospitals, nuclear power stations, courthouses and airports all need varying levels of protection.

In its official category of “Security guard and gaming surveillance officer,” the BLS counts both private security officers and ones that work for the government; however, the agency makes a distinction between them and police. The main difference between the two is that police are always government employees and have the power of arrest, as well as a much more stringent training requirements.

The BLS identifies several industries that employ the greatest number of security personnel. In 2012-13, over half worked in “investigation and security services,” while government employed 9 percent, 6 percent worked in education facilities, both public and private; 5 percent were in accommodation and food services, and 4 percent protected hospitals.

Transportation security screeners and other security personnel provide services in transportation facilities such as airports, train stations and sea terminals; they work for the federal government.

Gaming surveillance officers work at casinos and other gambling institutions; for that reason, this is an occupation that only exists in jurisdictions where gambling is legal. While many in gaming security work in observation rooms and maintain surveillance with cameras, others patrol the floor in order to quickly respond to incidents. Gaming security officers are, as a rule, more highly paid than generic security guards, with an average wage premium of $7000 per year; however, they also face a higher than average rate of injury.

The work isn’t generally challenging physically, with long periods of little activity. Security officers either man a station for the duration of a shift or make rounds inspecting a facility. Both situations require most officers to be on their feet for long stretches of time, which is something to be taken into account if you have lower back pain or other health issues that could be exacerbated by standing or walking.

However, in case of theft, burglary, altercations or other incidents, a guard will be required to confront a potentially volatile or violent situation, in which case they should have both the personal skills to defuse a situation peacefully if possible, and the physical fitness to deal with a threatening individual if the former doesn’t work. This is why states require security officers to undergo training and certification, although it varies – while Florida, for example, mandates 40 hours’ training, a Connecticut security guard license only requires an 8-hour course.

In conclusion, it’s generally difficult to predict in advance the nature and comfort level of a security guard’s workplace. The higher an officer’s skill and training level, the more likely they will be to get a comfortable and well-paid assignment, so if you’re considering going into this industry, make sure to prepare thoroughly and train the skills you will need to ensure safety for yourself and others.

The Building of President Trump’s Border Wall

What Does Donald Trump Say About Mexicans?

Since the first day of his campaign back in June 2005, Donald Trump has been recorded several times making racially charged statements. His first speech labeled Mexican immigrants as criminals and rapists. He went further to claim that they bring drugs and crime. In the few weeks that followed, he labelled the Mexican immigrants as killers too. A few months down the campaign trail he claimed that the whole Mexican immigrant menace was part of a larger conspiracy by the Mexican government to send their bad people over the border so that the burden of rehabilitating them falls on the shoulders of the US taxpayer. Around August 2005 Trump ejected Mexican American journalist Jorge Ramos who challenged him on his immigration platform. Trump ordered him to sit down and go back to Univision, right before the suited security detail marched Ramos out of the room. Trump drew a lot of controversy when he suggested that a federal judge who was presiding over the Trump University fraud case would give a bias ruling based on his Mexican heritage.

How Necessary Is Donald Trump’s Wall?

The building of president Donald Trump’s wall became a reality on November 8th. Trump believe that a wall along the US and Mexican border will stem in the tide of undocumented immigrants flowing in through the southern border. Trump believes this recent immigrant tide are people coming to live off government subsidies or engage in criminal activity. He goes further to say that some are here to compete for high paying jobs at the expense of the American worker, His critics opposed against this project argue that Trumps arguments are based on assumptions and not facts.

Pros and Cons of Building a Wall between Us and Mexico

Pros

· Illegal immigration will greatly reduce or stop altogether. This might check some of the illegal activities that are brought about by it such as human trafficking and drug dealing.

· Border patrols will be much easier.

· The America public will feel much safer.

· The US economy is in no position to accommodate them. It’s averaged that the immigrant household receives $24721 of government welfare benefits while their annual taxes account for only $10,344.

Cons

· The estimated cost of building the wall is far higher than what Trump is suggesting. It is Americans who will bear the tax burden for building the wall.

· The wall will pass through regions that are full of immigrants.

· Illegal immigration will still remain a big challenge. The wall will symbolize racism and discrimination.

How Will Donald Trump’s Wall Affect Mexico and U.S Relations?

A growing rift has developed between Mexico’s Enrique Pena Nieto and Donald Trump as we could see by the Mexican president cancelling his scheduled trip to the US. Despite the Mexican president categorically saying that it will not pay for the border wall Trump keeps on insisting it will do so. Such contradictions put the Mexican president on the defensive back at home. Trump has proposed a 20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} border tax on all Mexican imports aimed at financing the construction of the wall. Despite leading Mexican experts saying the cost of that proposal would pass the burden to the American consumer, such a move would be disastrous for the Mexican economy which has become deeply entwined in the NAFTA agreement of 1994.

How A Border wall Would Hurt the U.S Economy

It is estimated that trade in goods and services between Mexico and the U.S was worth $583.6 billion as of 2015. Sealing off the border would prevent Mexican shoppers who spend billions of dollars shopping inside the U.S. This will also hurt several Mexican towns which rely on American tourism.

Dangerous Dog Ordinances, Stevens County, Washington – Title 12 – Straight Talk – Know Your Rights!

Reacting to a series of dog attacks and problems in recent years in the Counties, both Stevens County and Spokane County in Washington State (and nationwide) have adopted new regulations for dealing with potentially dangerous and vicious dogs. Since I am a citizen of Stevens County, I will speak to the new Title 20 ordinance adopted in December 2007 by Stevens County.

Stevens County’s new set of dangerous dog laws is designed to put the accountability on the owner and not just the animal. At this date, Stevens County does not have any designated animal control authority other than the Stevens County Sheriff. Under its new Title 20 ordinance, the Stevens County Sheriff’s Office now has more authority to find that a dog is dangerous or potentially dangerous and impose corrective actions to protect the public. Owners are given further opportunity to appeal the Stevens County Sheriff’s designation to the courts.

By definition under the newly adopted Title 20, a “potentially dangerous” dog is one that has a known propensity, tendency, or disposition to cause an unprovoked attack or to cause injury or otherwise threaten the safety of humans or domestic animals. A “dangerous dog” has caused unprovoked severe injury to a human being, or has killed a domestic animal while off the owner or keeper’s property, or has previously been found “potentially dangerous” and aggressively attacks again or endangers safety. Both the “potentially dangerous” dog and “dangerous dog” designations under the Stevens County, Washington Title 20, carry similar consequences for owners and their dog(s). Stevens County has imposed more restrictive measures under the “potentially dangerous” dog designation than under current Washington State law.

If a dog is found to be “dangerous” or “potentially dangerous”, the owner must register the dogs within 14 days of the County Sheriff’s determination, and the registration will only be accepted if the owner agrees to placement of an identifying microchip inserted in the animal, payment of the first registration fee and an annual registration fee, and to keep the dog enclosed indoors or in a proper enclosure. Proper enclosure is defined under Title 20 as a kennel that contains an enclosed top as well as sides. If the dog is allowed outside the enclosure, it must be muzzled and restrained with a 3-foot chain with a 300 lb. tensile strength. An owner cannot sell or transfer ownership, custody or residence of the dog without notifying the County Sheriff and notifying the new owner of the dog’s record with an acknowledgment signed by the new owner of the terms and conditions of his maintenance while in Stevens County, Washington. In extreme cases, presumably the County Sheriff as the animal control officer has the authority to decide if the dog must be destroyed. While I can understand the adoption of Title 20 and its ordinances and the “dangerous dog” designation and the purpose and merit behind its adoption, the “potentially dangerous dog” designation appears to be nearly impossible to regulate and this particular designation is ripe for abuse.

I am relatively certain many of us have experienced a difficult neighbor a time or two. For whatever reason, certain individuals seem to have nothing better to do than complain about their neighbors’ pets, the broken down automobile, hobbies, or anything else that may annoy them at any given time. In fact for some people, they seem to make complaining their hobby. In rural Stevens County, Washington and other rural areas that are moving rapidly toward development, there will always be conflicts between country neighbors with differing views on a rural lifestyle. The Title 20 “potentially dangerous” dog designation provides these people with just one more avenue for conflict and additional ammunition for harassment. An additional danger for citizens is that the entire hearing process as applied through the Stevens County Sheriff’s Office, under both designations, appears to be fundamentally flawed and unconstitutional.

I have spoken to several residents in the County where harassment by a nuisance neighbor, through Title 20, appears to have occurred to their detriment. The new Stevens County, Washington Title 20 “potentially dangerous dog” designation seems to make it particularly easy for a nuisance neighbor to harass another neighbor. Since the recent adoption of Title 20 in December 2007, I have discovered that several citizens have been struggling to defend against false and/or frivolous allegations about their companion dogs. One citizen found herself the target of a nuisance allegation by a problem neighbor and the Stevens County Sheriff concerning her “potentially dangerous” dogs, after her complaining neighbor’s dog pulled her show dog through her own fence and killed it. Apparently a complaint was lodged by the nuisance neighbor against the deceased show dog as a preemptive strike. How many Stevens County citizens have simply forfeited their right to ownership of a companion dog because of nuisance allegations they could not afford to defend and unconstitutional actions being taken by Stevens County public officials? All a nuisance neighbor may now have to do is claim that a dog barked at them, and the dog’s owner may be hit with a predetermined “potentially dangerous” dog designation, fees, an embarrassing public hearing and media coverage, and other severe restrictions on their dog by the Stevens County Sheriff.

I suppose the best part of the new Title 20 ordinance is the appeal process since a dog is already predetermined by the Stevens County Sheriff to either be “dangerous” or “potentially dangerous” prior to a hearing. However, many poor people do not have the resources to legally fight back against an initial and possibly frivolous determination by the Stevens County Sheriff in advance of a public hearing. Attorney fees, at a rate of $200 per hour to defend against this type of nuisance action, may be in the range of $2,000 – $40,000+.

There are other potential problems in carrying out the new Stevens County Title 20 ordinances. The problems I reference below, as well as others I have not highlighted in this article, have already emerged in other states and Washington State counties — King and Spokane County, Washington, for example. The courts in King County and Spokane County have recently ruled upon the controversial dangerous dog ordinances and procedures. In King County, for example, in the recent dangerous dog case of Mansour v. King County tried by animal law attorney Adam Karp, where Mansour was found to have been denied due process, the Washington State Court of Appeals ruled: “Due process essentially requires the opportunity to be heard at a meaningful time and in a meaningful manner”. . . “An adequate standard of proof is a mandatory safeguard.” ” The standard of proof instructs the fact finder “concerning the degree of confidence our society thinks he should have in the correctness of the factual conclusions” . . .. While the Stevens County Sheriff continues to sit as the investigating official, the judge and jury in these potentially dangerous and dangerous dog cases, how much confidence can the public place in any factual conclusion made by the Sheriff’s Office?

In Spokane County in a “potentially dangerous dog” case, Judge Austin of the Spokane County Superior Court ruled that Spokane’s “dangerous dog” ordinance is unconstitutional because it denies pet owners the right of due process, and that as a matter of law the administrative procedures used in the City of Spokane regarding “dangerous dog” determinations and appeals from those rulings violate citizens’ due process rights. In their current system, dogs tagged as “dangerous” by the city and its contractor, SpokAnimal, are deemed to be just that unless the owner can prove otherwise — flying in the face of the notion of presumed innocence. The judge ruled that the City violated (in this case) Patty Schoendorf’s rights by taking her property — her dogs –and intended to destroy them after a hearing where she was not allowed to cross-examine or impeach witnesses involved in the dog’s impoundment. She also wasn’t given access to documents in the City’s “dangerous dog” file, and the opportunity to rebut those allegations — another denial of due process guaranteed by the Constitution. The judge not only ordered Spokanimal to immediately release the dogs, he also ordered the City of Spokane to pay legal bills for a team of attorneys – Robert Caruso, Richard Lee and Cheryl Mitchell, animal law attorneys.

While I would like to say that I trust the Sheriff’s Animal Control Officers to ensure that there is a real danger to the public, the truth (and therein the problem) is that in Stevens County there is currently no separation of powers from the onset of the initial investigation, the Sheriff’s determination of “potentially dangerous dog”, and finally to the Sheriff’s ruling following a public hearing that a dog is “potentially dangerous”. The Stevens County Animal Control Authority (the Stevens County Sheriff’s Office) sits as the investigator, judge and jury. Where is our guaranteed system of checks and balances in this process? The following is generally the procedure used under the Stevens County “potentially dangerous” dog designation:

(1) When a complainant calls to make a report, he makes it to the Stevens County

Sheriff’s Office, the designated animal control authority in Stevens County;

(2) A Stevens County Sheriff’s Officer may be dispatched to the scene to presumably thoroughly investigate the dog incident and take an incident report. A thorough and complete investigation may or may not occur, and in fact the dog’s owner may not even be allowed to tell their side of the story to the Officer or see the complaint, the results of the investigation, and may not even be advised of the name of the complainant by the Sheriff’s Office. The Sheriff’s goal in these cases appears to be to hold back all relevant documents and evidence entirely from the accused pet owner until a day or two before the hearing, stating that the procedure is still in the “investigational stage”– similar to a criminal proceeding. The pet owner has no time to prepare a defense;

(3) After the Sheriff takes an incident report from the complainant, the owner of the alleged offending dog(s) is then promptly advised by a Stevens County Sheriff’s Officer that he/she must submit to photographing of his/her dog(s), prior to the dog owner receiving any kind of a notice or citation from the Stevens County Animal Control Authority (the Sheriff). Notice of the alleged incident may simply be a Sheriff’s Officer arriving on the doorstep or at your gate, and advising you that he is required to take photographs of your dogs as “part of the hearing process”. At this point, you may not even have notice of any hearing. The photographing process may or may not involve a Stevens County Sheriff’s Officer demanding entrance onto your private property or requesting entrance into your home, for the stated purpose of photographing your dog(s).

Citizens, please be aware that a dog is designated as “personal property” in the State of Washington and other states. The Washington State Constitution and U.S. Constitution protect individuals against unlawful searches and seizures concerning your personal property.

The simple act of entering onto private property for the purpose of taking photographs of personal property, without the direct or implied consent of the property owner and without a search warrant, is unlawful. Generally speaking, warrants are signed by judges or commissioners in criminal matters. At this point, this procedure is still considered a civil or administrative matter. There appears to be something inherently wrong with this process from the outset. (The rule that I have personally imposed is not to let anyone onto my property without my express invitation (or a warrant). My directive to this effect seems to work for most people.)

Of course, there are “exigent circumstances” exceptions under the law to the warrant requirement. Exigent circumstances generally arise when a law enforcement officer may have reasonable ground to believe that there is an immediate need to protect his life, the life of others, their property, or that of others, the search is not motivated by an intent to arrest and seize evidence, and there is some reasonable basis to associate an emergency with the area or place to be searched. None of these exigent circumstances is likely to exist in a Title 20 dangerous or potentially dangerous dog investigation which would allow a public official to trespass for the purpose of photographing dogs.

4) The owner of the alleged offending dog will then receive a certified letter or personal service by the Stevens County Sheriff’, notifying the dog’s owner that their dog has already been deemed a “potentially dangerous” dog or “dangerous dog” under their new Title 20 ordinance. The owner’s dog is deemed “guilty” before tried, based generally only upon a report made by a complainant. That complainant could be made by anyone with “axe to grind”. The dog is declared guilty in advance of a public hearing before the Stevens County Sheriff’s Department. The investigating agency (the Stevens County Sheriff’s Office) then amazingly plays the role of the judge and jury at this public hearing where the dog’s owner is required to prove that his/her dog is not dangerous, or potentially dangerous. Please be aware that you (as the accused) are not required to prove anything. The burden of proof falls upon your accusers to make their case, and not you. Public testimony will be taken by the Sheriff, and you will receive a subsequent notice of his final ruling. This entire process usurps constitutional protections afforded each citizen under Washington State and U.S. Constitutions. Any hearing in a “potentially dangerous dog” or “dangerous dog” case should be set before an impartial judge or hearing officer. The Sheriff cannot rule on issues as a matter of law.

It is my understanding and belief that any public hearing conducted by a public official(s) in Washington State must follow the law and procedures under either the Washington State Open Meetings Act or Administrative Procedures Act. Since a dangerous dog hearing does not really meet the criteria under the Open Meetings Act, the hearing process should follow the Washington State Administrative Procedures Act. If you are not familiar with this Act, familiarize yourself with it and your rights under this Act. This law can be found in the public library under 34.05 RCW (Revised Code of Washington). Insist that any dangerous dog hearing you may be a party to comply with these lawful procedures.

Citizens, please take heed! The Stevens County Title 20 dangerous dog ordinances are dangerous to you in that they can potentially escalate into a criminal matter if you do not comply with the severe restrictions imposed on your dog, or if the dog is again the subject of a complaint. You must contest the letter/notice that you receive from the Stevens County, Washington Sheriff’s Office and promptly return it via Certified US Mail or Delivery Confirmation. Also enclose your own letter stating you contest your dog’s predetermined designation by the Sheriff, and that you demand a lawful hearing before a bona fide hearing officer conducted under the Washington State Administrative Procedures Act. If you do not sign and return the Notice from the County Sheriff, the “potentially dangerous dog” designation is automatically applied by the Sheriff to your dog through your inaction.

Once you have been deemed to own a “potentially dangerous” dog or “dangerous” dog, all regulations, restrictions, fees and other penalties under the new ordinances apply to you and your dog. The Title 20 regulations, restrictions, fees and other penalties have severe consequences for both you and your dog. If you do not comply with these new regulations following the final determination of your “potentially dangerous dog” or “dangerous dog”, then you possibly may be issued a criminal citation. Potentially you may be thrust into the position of defending yourself as a criminal. Moreover, your homeowner’s insurance may be cancelled or be prohibitively expensive in the future, and you may be forced to carry an expensive bond if you intend to keep your dog in the County.

The Title 20 dangerous dog ordinances can be dangerous to your health and welfare and your dog’s health and welfare, particularly if you do not exercise your constitutional rights. I would highly recommend hiring an attorney, if you can afford one. Hire someone who specializes in animal law, for instance one of the attorneys mentioned in this article. If you cannot afford one and are low income, call CLEAR at their toll free number in Washington State to see if you can qualify for free legal assistance. Other possible sources of legal assistance are the Gonzaga Law School, or the Washington State Bar Association who may have a referral to a pro bono (free) attorney.

Please exercise your civil and constitutional rights and familiarize yourselves with this new set of laws under Stevens County, Washington – Title 20. Please do not allow your valuable rights to be trampled upon by public officials or you may lose them. Do not allow yourself to become their victim.

Last but not least, please recognize and be aware that you do not have to allow anyone onto your private property, in most cases, without a warrant. It surprises me that many citizens do not know this. If there is any doubt in your mind, please respectfully ask the person requesting permission to enter onto your private property “do you have a warrant?” Express to them that without a signed warrant, that person does not have your consent to enter onto your private property. This rule generally applies to most everyone, public officials included, unless they have an implied right to enter such as a meter reader. With respect to your private property rights, generally speaking, what applies to any other private citizen who wants entrance to your property applies to public officials as well. Post your gates and property with “No Trespassing” and “Beware of Dog” signs to protect yourself — approximately every 50 feet. Also fence your property with at least a 5-6 foot fence if you own a dog, for additional protection. Electrify your fence, if necessary, if you are in a rural area. Fence chargers, including solar fence chargers, can be purchased for $30 and up and are quite effective as a deterrent to entrance and exit by animals.

I recognize that this article may not be “politically correct” in this climate as this is a sensitive issue right now. I am aware that it may anger those who are truly at risk or who have been victims of genuinely dangerous dogs. I agree that genuinely dangerous dogs are a threat to public safety. However, I submit that while the intent behind Title 20 and other dangerous dog laws is good and I agree with its intent, the process to apply and regulate under these laws has been poorly thought out and implemented in general by Stevens County, Washington and other counties around Washington State (and our nation) in trying to protect the public safety. In trying to protect the public health and safety, individual constitutional rights, due process, and privacy cannot be ignored. If you do not exercise your rights, you will forfeit those valuable rights guaranteed to you by the U.S. and Washington State constitutions. You also may be forced to relinquish your beloved family pet, euthanize it, move out of the County, or live with severe restrictions on the animal and very expensive insurance.

The Building of President Trump's Border Wall

What Does Donald Trump Say About Mexicans?

Since the first day of his campaign back in June 2005, Donald Trump has been recorded several times making racially charged statements. His first speech labeled Mexican immigrants as criminals and rapists. He went further to claim that they bring medicines and crime. In the few weeks that followed, he labeled the Mexican immigrants as killers too. A few months down the campaign trail he claimed that the whole Mexican immigrant menace was part of a greater conspiracy by the Mexican government to send their bad people over the border so that the burden of rehabilitating them falls on the shoulders of the US taxpayer. Around August 2005 Trump ejected Mexican American journalist Jorge Ramos who challenged him on his immigration platform. Trump ordered him to sit down and go back to Univision, right before the tailored security detail marched Ramos out of the room. Trump drew a lot of controversies when he suggested that a federal judge who was presiding over the Trump University fraud case would give a bias ruling based on his Mexican heritage.

How Necessary Is Donald Trump's Wall?

The building of president Donald Trump's wall became a reality on November 8th. Trump believe that a wall along the US and Mexican border will stem in the tide of undocumented immigrants flowing in through the southern border. Trump believes this recent immigrant tide are people coming to live off government subsidies or engage in criminal activity. He goes further to say that some are here to compete for high paying jobs at the expense of the American worker, His critics opposed this project argument that Trumps notifications are based on liabilities and not facts.

Pros and Cons of Building a Wall between Us and Mexico

Pros

· Illegal migration will greatly reduce or stop altogether. This may check some of the illegal activities that are brought about by it such as human trafficking and drug dealing.

· Border patrols will be much easier.

· The America public will feel much safer.

· The US economy is in no position to accommodate them. It's averaged that the immigrant household receives $ 24721 of government welfare benefits while their annual taxes account for only $ 10,344.

Cons

· The estimated cost of building the wall is far higher than what Trump is proposing. It is Americans who will bear the tax burden for building the wall.

· The wall will pass through regions that are full of immigrants.

· Illegal immigration will still remain a big challenge. The wall will symbolize racism and discrimination.

How Will Donald Trump's Wall Affect Mexico and US Relations?

A growing rift has developed between Mexico's Enrique Pena Nieto and Donald Trump as we could see by the Mexican president complaining his scheduled trip to the US. Despite the Mexican president categorically saying that it will not pay for the border wall Trump keeps on insisting it will do so. Such contradictions put the Mexican president on the defensive back at home. Trump has proposed a 20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} border tax on all Mexican imports aimed at financing the construction of the wall. Since leading Mexican experts saying the cost of that proposal would pass the burden to the American consumer, such a move would be disastrous for the Mexican economy which has become deeply entwined in the NAFTA agreement of 1994.

How A Border wall Would Hurt the US Economy

It is estimated that trade in goods and services between Mexico and the US was worth $ 583.6 billion as of 2015. Sealing off the border would prevent Mexican shoppers who spend billions of dollars shopping inside the US This will also hurt several Mexican towns which are on American Tourism.

Techniques Used By An Advertising Agency In Modern Times

In the modern world, with the rapid growth in technology, brands, lifestyle, etc., it is very important to sell and promote the products and services of your business effectively. The traditional methods of television, radio and newspaper are just not enough, anymore. The creative minds of modern day advertisers have to be quick, smart and efficient. They have created new ways and have gone above and beyond the old traditional ways. These days, any advertising agency provides all the services and uses specialized techniques, to promote your brand adequately.

Some of the latest techniques used by these advertisers are as follows:

Consumer Advertising – This technique is informative as well as persuasive in nature. It is used by a full service advertising agency, to advertise the FMCG (Fast moving consumer goods). This technique is used in every medium like T.V., radio, newspaper, internet, etc. Consumer ads are done to pull in the customers who buy products like soaps, shampoos, biscuits etc., on a regular basis.

Industrial Advertising – The manufactures and distributors of industrial products demand for this technique to target industrial buyers. Products like plant and machinery, fabricated machine parts, raw materials, etc., can be promoted. Industrial advertisements are seen on trade publications, and attracts factory owners and businessmen, on a large scale.

Financial Advertising – This technique is used by the financial industry to advertise financial products like bank loans, mutual funds, shares, etc. These type of advertisements are seen in newspapers, magazines, theaters, and now-a-days, outdoor advertising is also used. Financial advertisements are not only issued by the advertisers, but also by the banks. This type of advertising educates the audience on any financial matters.

Political Advertising – This technique is used by politicians to gain votes. It is specially done on mass media, and generally targets the common man. It is a new trend of gaining votes by the political parties. The demand for this political advertisements are high, especially around the time of elections. This technique is a challenge to agencies, as they have to think of an ad campaign carefully, keeping in mind the sentiments of the people of that area.

These are the various techniques in which the product is advertised by any creative ad agency. There are many other techniques to advertise products, according to the category that they belong to, like lifestyle, B2B, classifieds, retails, etc. These techniques are used in the present competitive markets to target the appropriate audience and increase the sales of products and services for your business.

How to Spot Every Issue on a Law School Exam

For purposes of writing a legal exam, issues are anything that a professor may give you points for noticing or discussing. Generally, unless the question asks only about specific issues, you should discuss all applicable legal theories, claims, causes of action and defenses assertible by or against any and all parties or potential parties. In addition to the subjects of the hypothetical and other obvious parties, be alert for less-obvious parties like the following: the manufacturer of a product that caused an injury; the “innocent bystander” who ostensibly suffered no injury or has no liability; the owner of land where an injury occurs; the government agency responsible for doing an act or protecting obvious parties; and any individual or entity who at any time might have exercised some control or authority over a person, place, thing or policy which has caused an injury.

There are five important things to remember when spotting issues.

First, read the question! Before reading the body of the hypothetical, read the question or questions following it. Some academics call this the “call of the question.” You may find an open-ended question such as “Discuss the parties’ rights and liabilities,” a more narrow question focused on particular parties such as “Discuss A’s rights against B,” or an extremely narrow question focused on only one issue such as “Was there consideration for A’s promise?”

Now that you know the question(s), read the hypothetical with each question in mind. Obviously, you don’t want to reread or scrutinize a hypothetical more often than is necessary. If a question asks only for A’s rights against B, don’t waste time thinking about A’s rights against other parties.

Your first read of a hypothetical should be just a quick scan to get a general understanding of the facts and the chronology. The second time you read it, spot issues and note them in the margin. As you go through the hypothetical, circle dates, transactions, terms and parties that suggest issues or elements of legal rules. Mark up the hypothetical to your heart’s content – your professor’s not going to see it, and any notations you make will facilitate your outlining process. Finally, read the hypothetical a third time, making absolutely certain you are familiar with all relevant facts and have noted every conceivable issue.

Second, think like a lawyer. Adopt an attitude that is at once aggressive, objective and creative. Remember that in many cases, the only thing distinguishing a superior answer from a mediocre answer is that the superior answer discusses more issues. Analyze the facts from every perspective, putting yourself in the shoes of each party’s lawyer in turn. Imagine that real clients are involved, and that they want to win! Muster every argument which each party could advance in its favor.

Also, think about the objectives of the parties. What does each party want, and what will he, she or it have to establish to get it? For example, in the sample contracts exam on page 81, Mary’s objective is to establish that a valid contract was formed between Doug and her so she can recover damages from Doug for his breach. Doug’s objective, on the other hand, is to establish that no contract was formed so that he can avoid paying damages. Simplifying the parties’ objectives in this manner will often help you to think of arguments and legal theories which they might advance.

Third, consider every fact. Professors will rarely insert extraneous facts in a hypothetical, so if you come across facts that do not immediately suggest an issue, look at them from different perspectives and go through your checklist until you find an issue. Dates, places and events are facts worthy of particular mention.

Fourth, pay particular attention to adjectives and adverbs. Often, these will provide a clue to a potential issue. For example, if a party to a contract is described as “young,” she may be a minor and therefore lack capacity to contract. If a hypothetical indicates that a party was driving a car “quickly,” he may have been exceeding the speed limit and therefore breaching a duty owed to a potential plaintiff.

Fifth, use your checklist. After you have gone through the hypothetical three times, run through your checklist quickly to see if there are any potential issues that you have omitted. You may have already jotted down the first letters of each item in your checklist. If so, check off each item on the list as you come to it, so that you’re satisfied either that it’s not present in the hypothetical, or that it’s present and you’ve covered it in your outline.

Equity of Redemption and Law of Mortgages

Mortgages provide for the repayment of the loan on a specified date. The effect of failure to redeem on the due date meant that the legal right of the mortgagor to extinguish the mortgagee’s rights had gone forever, and in addition, the mortgagee could sue for repayment of the loan. This did not appeal to equity, therefore the courts evolved a rule that the mortgagor could redeem the mortgage by paying back the mortgage debt and all interest on it at any time before the mortgagee sold or foreclosed. This has had a major impact on new home owners versus the frequency of Jamaica home rentals.

This right of the mortgagor to redeem after the due date is his equitable right to redeem. But from the start of the mortgage, the mortgagor has been possessed of a species of equitable interest known as the equity of redemption.

This interest is a bundle of equitable rights, including the equitable right to redeem.

Law of mortgages

A mortgage is a form of security for the repayment of money lent. Mortgagor (Borrower) is the party who conveys the property by way of security. Mortgagee is the lender who obtains an interest in the property. The importance of the mortgage is that if the borrower fails to repay the mortgage debt, the lender has the powers under the mortgage, of realizing the value of the mortgaged property and repaying himself out of the proceeds.

Equity of Redemption – suppose a house worth $100,000 was mortgaged to secure a loan of 25,000. Obviously, the mortgagor still has asset worth $75,000. This is an equitable estate – the equity of redemption. Without paying off the mortgage, the borrower can sell, lease or devise his interest. This is in fact transferring the equity of redemption. He can also mortgage it, so that there may be a number of mortgages affecting the property.

The mortgagor has two rights to redeem his property:

1) The contractual right on the date specified in the deed, and,

2) The equitable right to redeem, on payment of principal of the loan, the accrued interest along with fees and loan costs, and establishing proper notice to the mortgagee. This does not take effect until and unless the contractual right (the mortgagors prerogative) to redeem, on the date fixed in the mortgage has passed. This process of curtailing the equitable right to redeem and so leaving the mortgagee with a fee simple is known as foreclosure.

Foreclosure

A foreclosure puts an end to the equitable right to redeem and so destroys the equity of redemption. It therefore follows that the right to foreclosure cannot arise until the legal date for redemption has passed; for only then does the equitable right – which is the victim in a foreclosure action – arise. An action may apparently commence immediately the legal date has passed, but in practice however, an action for foreclosure is not usually begun except after such default as might justify a sale. While the matter of frequency is not a grave concern it does affect Jamaica home rentals positively, so rent income increases for some property investors.

The effect of a foreclosure is that it vests in the mortgagee the fee simple (or the whole of the mortgagor’s estate) and it also extinguishes the mortgagee’s mortgage term and other subsequent mortgages. But prior mortgages are not affected by the foreclosure: they still subsist and the result is that the foreclosing mortgagee will have to redeem these prior mortgages if he wishes to be absolute master of the property. For example, suppose there are four mortgages of the fee simple in the property which were made to A, B, C and D in that order.

If it forecloses, then the unencumbered fee simple vests in him because all the subsequent mortgagees, that is, those of B, C and D are extinguished. But if C forecloses, he only extinguishes D’s mortgage, those of A and B remain and he must redeem these mortgages by paying off A and B if he wishes to have the property unencumbered. Of course, in any foreclosure action by a mortgagee, subsequent mortgage must be made parties to the action and are also given the opportunity to redeem the mortgage of the foreclosing mortgagee. Thus, in our example, when A was foreclosing, B, C or D could pay off A and redeem A’s mortgage, thus preventing their own mortgage from becoming extinguished.

This principle has given rise to the saying, “redeem up, and foreclose down”. Therefore, any mortgagee can foreclose in an action to recover land and action must be brought within twelve years from the date upon which the right of recovery accrues.

Jamaica real estate agents with house rentals have identified that in recent times they have seen a growing number of listings coming from financial institutions as they are unable to divest foreclosed properties.

Hidden Jobs in Indian Government

The young graduates of India have ample opportunities regarding their career. They have the choice to work in public sector, private sector or start their own business. The prospering economy of India paves way for easy employment with luxurious pay, as soon the youngsters finish a degree or a diploma.

There are thousands of HR companies and consultancies guiding such young people looking for people in the private sector. However, proper websites and organizations assisting youngsters looking for government jobs in the state or central government firms are rare. There are so many government jobs in India waiting to hire potential employees. The rural graduates, who cannot cope up with the high standards of IT companies can very well prove their worth in such jobs. Here is a list of a few such jobs.

Railway Jobs: The Indian Railway is one of the largest railways in the world. Nearly 1.5 million employees work in the railway department. The Indian railway keeps recruiting more and more people to fill the vacancies created by the retiring employees. Railway jobs are the best choice for youngsters with service mentality and good interpersonal skills.

Jobs in the Medical Sector: Most youngsters do not know much about the medical sector government jobs. This sector appoints numerous nurses, microbiologists, technicians handling medical equipment’s, admin personnel, lab technicians and helpers in addition to doctors. Youngsters with various engineering and management degrees can look for jobs in the government medical sector. There is a wide gap between the required number of technical assistants and the available qualified people in this field.

Tourism Department Jobs: The Indian Tourism department manages many hotels, lodges and ample offices. There are abundant career opportunities for young people with multi-lingual skills, history and tourism degrees. It is one of the less explored fields in the Indian government job search.

Government Jobs in the Mining Sector: The Mining sector offer lucrative jobs with high challenges for fresh engineers and technology degree holders. Finding a job in a mining company like Hindustan Zinc Limited is considered is very easy. Mining companies operate in hi-tech townships equivalent to Special Economic Zones, promising a posh lifestyle.

Department of Atomic Energy Jobs: Many trainee jobs, research oriented jobs and technical assistant jobs are available in the department of atomic energy. There are very few students opting to select nuclear engineering in the mainstream colleges. So, there are lots of chances for the nuclear engineering degree holders to get government jobs easily.

Explore these less known fields in the Indian government to land in well-paid jobs with very little competition.

The Barriers to Effective Communication

D.E. McFarland has defined Communication as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human being. But there may be some faults /barriers in the communication system that prevents the message from reaching the receiver, these barriers are as follows:-

1. Language Barrier; – Different languages, vocabulary, accent, dialect represents a national/ regional barriers. Semantic gaps are words having similar pronunciation but multiple meanings like- round; badly expressed message, wrong interpretation and unqualified assumptions. The use of difficult or inappropriate words/ poorly explained or misunderstood messages can result in confusion.

2. Cultural Barriers: – Age, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament, health, beauty, popularity, religion, political belief, ethics, values, motives, assumptions, aspirations, rules/regulations, standards, priorities can separate one person from another and create a barrier.

3. Individual Barrier: – It may be a result of an individual’s perceptual and personal discomfort. Even when two persons have experienced the same event their mental perception may/may not be identical which acts as a barrier. Style, selective perception, halo effect, poor attention and retention, defensiveness, close mindedness, insufficient filtration are the Individual or Psychological barrier.

4. Organizational Barrier: – It includes Poor Organization’s culture, climate, stringent rules, regulations, status, relationship, complexity, inadequate facilities/ opportunities of growth and improvement; whereas; the nature of the internal and external environment like large working areas physically separated from others, poor lightening, staff shortage, outdated equipments and background noise are Physical Organizational Barrier.

5. Interpersonal Barrier: – Barriers from Employers are :- Lack of Trust in employees; Lack of Knowledge of non-verbal clues like facial expression, body language, gestures, postures, eye contact; different experiences; shortage of time for employees; no consideration for employee needs; wish to capture authority; fear of losing power of control; bypassing and informational overloading, while Barriers from Employees includes Lack of Motivation, lack of co-operation, trust, fear of penalty and poor relationship with the employer.

6. Attitudinal Barrier: – It comes about as a result of problems with staff in the organisation. Limitation in physical and mental ability, intelligence, understanding, pre-conceived notions, and distrusted source divides the attention and create a mechanical barrier which affects the attitude and opinion.

7. Channel Barrier: – If the length of the communication is long, or the medium selected is inappropriate, the communication might break up; it can also be a result of the inter-personal conflicts between the sender and receiver; lack of interest to communicate; information sharing or access problems which can hamper the channel and affect the clarity, accuracy and effectiveness.

To communicate effectively one need to overcome these barriers. Working on breaking the barrier is a broad-brush activity and here are certain measures.

DO’S FOR BREAKING THE BARRIER:

– Allow employees access to resources, self expression and idea generation.

– Express your expectations to others.

– Use less of absolute words such as “never”, “always”, “forever”, etc.

– Be a good, attentive and active listener.

– Filter the information correctly before passing on to someone else.

– Try to establish one communication channel and eliminate the intermediaries.

– Use specific and accurate words which audiences can easily understand.

– Try and view the situations through the eyes of the speaker.

– The “you” attitude must be used on all occasions.

– Maintain eye contact with the speaker and make him comfortable.

– Write the instructions if the information is very detailed or complicated.

– Oral communication must be clear and not heavily accented.

– Avoid miscommunication of words and semantic noise.

– Ask for clarifications, repetition where necessary.

– Make the organisational structure more flexible, dynamic and transparent.

– Foster congenial relationship which strengths coordination between superior and subordinate.

– Focus on purposeful and well focused communication.

– The message of communication should be clear and practical.

– Get Proper Feedback.

DONT’S FOR BREAKING THE BARRIER:

– Be a Selective Listener, this is when a person hears another but selects not to hear what is being said by choice or desire to hear some other message.

– Be a “Fixer”, a fixer is a person that tries to find other person’s fault.

– Be a daydreamer.

– Use long chain of command for communication.

– Use too many technical jargons.

– Jump to conclusions immediately.

– Interrupt the speakers and distract him by asking too many irrelevant questions.