The Use of Ambulance Services in the Society Today

There are many situations that call for immediate or drastic medical responses or otherwise a person’s condition worsens. The ambulance service is essential in every society, in saving lives and provision of services that prevent occurrences of irreversible medical complications. Many ambulances operate from designated points like hospitals and other emergency control centers.

Some of the uses of such services include quick treatment and stabilization of casualties that lead to prevention of any mishap before getting to the hospitals. The provision of immediate and effective medical care can save a life or two and at times, it may lead to prevention of serious medical complications that may result from the emergencies that the patients are involved in. The medical crew and other persons on board get first-aid training. This makes them able to deal with situations like profuse bleeding, cardiac arrests, falls or crush injuries, among others.

The ambulances also facilitate the transportation of patients from a scene of accident to the hospital. This provides for the patients getting better and enhanced medical care that may be deemed necessary at that time. Ambulance services are also useful in the transferring of patients from one medical institution to may be a more advanced institution for more advanced treatment. Still on the transportation, the services are useful if a patient needs to be transported over long distances.

Another importance of ambulances is that they help in the provision of medical services to areas that may have been hit by disease out breaks or other serious health hazards. Another situation where these services are useful is the war zones. People get injured in war and so treatment and medical care is called for. Ambulance services can also be used in the evacuation of the injured from disaster stricken areas.…

Importance of Moral Values in the Present day Situation

Modern mass society presents a sharp contrast, as the young grow up. They are faced with confusions, delays and discontinuities. Adolescents in particular are uncertain about themselves. Some are in conflict with themselves, bewildered an insecure.

Values are usually influenced by the changing philosophical ideologies, cultural and religious perspectives, social, political and geographical conditions. In modern emerging society, there has been a revolutionary change in the field of values due to many factors in addition to the influence of modern culture, industrialization, modernization, urbanization, globalisation and multinationals.

Values are the guiding principles, decisive in day to day behaviors as also is critical life situations. Values are a set bring of principles or standards of behavior. Values are regarded desirable,important and held in high esteem by a particular society in which a person lives.

Value education means inculcating in the children a sense humanism, a deep concern for the well being of others and the nation.This can be accomplished only when we instill in the children a deep feeling of commitment to values that would build this country and bring back to the people pride in work that brings order, security and assured progress.

Value education refers to a programme of planned educational action aimed at the development of value and character. Every action and thought of ours leaves an impression in our mind. These impressions determine in our behavior at a given moment and our responses to a given situation. The sum total of all our impressions is what determines our character. The past has determined the present and even so the present our present thoughts and actions will shape our future. This is a key principle governing personality development. The human values are resolved having lasting impact necessary for bringing about change in thought and conduct, in the 21st century.

“If there is righteousness in the heart there will be beauty in character If there is beauty in character There will be harmony in the home When there is harmony in the home There will be order in the nation When there is order in the nation There will be peace in the world”

At the boyhood state, individual physical development is concerned, during manhood and old age intellectual and spiritual values start dominating the corporal values. Therefore while imparting moral education educators must keep in mind that the young must be educated.

Prizes may be given to the deserving persons for showing honesty, bravery, truth etc. The award should be given during school gathering. Contests may be organized on values of life.

According to Father of Indian Nation M.K.Gandhi

“If wealth is lost nothing is lost”

“If health is lost something is lost”

“If character is lost everything is lost”

Best of all things is character.…

Ransford Slater Constitution of Sierra Leone – Obstacles to Constitutional Change

Several factors had seemed to threaten the implementation of the 1924 Constitution. The size of the Legislative Council was gradually increased between 1963 and 1920. The Executive Members for instance, who constituted an autocratic majority on the Legislative Council controlled almost all the powers. Although there were dynamic unofficial like A.J. Shorunkeh-Sawyerr and Samuel (later Sir Samuel) Lewis in the Legislative Council, there were several factors which really delayed the growth of the Legislative Council and Executive Councils as truly representative institutions1. In other words, these factors could be rightly seen as obstacles to the 1924 Constitution.

Colonialism and racism

Colonialism implies dominance, that is, the exploitation of the national interests of a subject by a foreign nation. Since it always concerns foreign interest, race relations are normally involved. This political and social system (colonialism) denotes a special relationship between the imported oligarchy and its subject majority which represents the nucleus of what George Balandier referred to as la situation colonial (the colonial situation).

An examination of the colonial period in Sierra Leone from the inception of the Province of Freedom in 1787 to the period of independence in 1961 reveals that racism and colonialism were handmaidens, that is, they worked together. The efforts of Thomas Peters to become governor were thwarted. Although several factors contributed to the outbreak of the Nova Scotia Rebellion, the fact that the experience of slavery at the hands of the whiteman lingered a deep distrust of whites in authority in the minds of the Nova Scotians must not be overlooked. Even the Maroons emerged from a traumatic experience fighting for freedom for decades. White domination was reinforced with the formal imposition of colonial rule in the Colony on 1st January, 1808.

Since the days of the ancient Greeks, some philosophers held the notion that living things on earth evolved from simple to complex forms. It was, however, in the nineteenth century that Charles Darwin, the English naturalist, presented an explanation for the existence of different types of plants and animals and the reasons for the extinction of some and arrival of others. Since food supply multiplies slowly than animals, the latter always struggle to live. The implication is that those who survive could assimilate their environment better than those who perish. The fittest, therefore, live to produce another generation that is adapted in the same way. This natural way of selection is what Darwin called the principal of natural selection. The fight to live, the survival of the fittest and natural selection are thus the three ideas which formed Darwin’s theory of evolution.2

As Thomson noted, “so much had flowed into the Darwinist synthesis that as much again could be squeezed out of it”.3 His theories (which were transferred to phylogenetic) won a powerful array of converts ranging from politicians like Chamberlain and Hitler to Scoiologists like Spencer and Sumner and all sorts of imperialisits and expansionists towards the end of the last millennium. It is true that Darwin was not a racist but …

Fundamentals Of Abnormal Psychology – Obedience Across Cultures And Generations

The phenomenon observed by Milgram (1963) was that of obedience under the influence of authority, against one’s own beliefs. Milgram (1974) described obedience as ‘…the psychological mechanism that links individual action to political purpose’. Its basis is the belief that authoritative figures have a legitimate right to request actions. His experiment in 1963 looked at the reactions of participants believing they were part of a punishment and learning experiment. Participants were told that they would be administering electric shocks as a ‘teacher’ to a ‘learner’, really a confederate, when he answered incorrectly to a memory task. The ‘learner’ was seen being strapped to a chair with electrodes attached to him and the participant was given a sample shock.

This sample was quite severe but the participant was told that it was mild. The participant was sat in a separate room in front of a machine to administer the shocks. The levers on the machine increased gradually from 15 to 450 volts, with labels of words and numbers describing the level of shock that each would give, for example, ‘135 volts, strong shock’. The participant gave the ‘learner’ pairs of words to memorize. If the participant gave an incorrect answer when asked to recall the pair of the word the participant gave in the test, the experimenter ordered the participant to administer a shock. The shocks were not actually being administered but with each incorrect answer the shock was, apparently, increased. The ‘learner’ would begin to object to the shocks and complain of heart pain, but the participant was given instructions to carry on, such as ‘you have no other choice sir, you must go on’.

The results showed that 100{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of participants would administer up to 240 volts, a ‘very strong shock’, 68{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} would administer up to an ‘extremely intense shock’ of 360 volts and 65{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} would give a ‘XXX’ shock of 450 volts. This level of obedience was far higher than anyone, including Milgram, expected. Milgram used this to suggest that ‘normal’ people are capable of performing intolerable requests under the influence of a legitimate authority. The presence of authority creates a situational pressure to perform and often responsibility is thought to be that of the authority and so an individual feels less responsible for his or her actions.

At the time of Milgram’s experiment, the United States was beginning to recover from McCarthyism. McCarthyism is a term used for the period of time throughout the 1950’s where anti-communism was enforced (retrieved January 5th, 2007, from website: People were persecuted if it was believed they were communist or sympathized with communists. They were made unemployed, imprisoned and sometimes even executed for espionage. The presence of this type of oppression at the time of Milgram’s experiments may have had an effect on the level of obedience found. Although by the time of the experiment society was no longer experiencing McCarthyism, it was accustomed to obeying the order that it must adhere to an anti-communist way of thinking or …

The Importance of Plumbers and Plumbing Services

Many often do not think much of plumber and plumber services. This is due to many reasons such as the low prestige of the trade or the infrequent need of and contact with the plumber. However, they provide a valuable service to society, allowing us to enjoy the comfort of our environment with a well functioning plumbing system.

While simple leaks in faucets can be address to by homeowners ourselves, leaks or burst in our pipes especially understood ones often have to be left to a professional plumber. With their wealth of knowledge and advance equipments, they can ensure that the affected area is fully repaired so that your home plumbing system is functioning well again.

Beside leaks or bursting, installation of pipes in homes must also be done by a plumber as we will not have the know-how to do so. Without a plumber, we will not have the pleasure of clean running water and enjoy the basic sanitary pleasures we are so used to enjoy today. Imagine how backward we will become without them, having to draw water from wells for our daily usage. Any home owners facing a stubborn clogged drain, choked basin or toilet bowl can be tested to the importance of a plumber in their life. Imagine the stink caused by a choked toilet bowl or the situation of not being able to take a shower; One can easily guess how frustrated one can be. A plumber with their variety of useful tools can quickly rectify these problems and ensure everything run smoothly for us again.

What's more, there may be instances when we drop something valuable or with high sentimental values ​​such as jewelery into our drain. Who else can we turn to help us retrieve these items? Only a plumber will be able to help us do so without making a mess of drain system. Thus, from the above, you can see the importance of plumber and plumbing services in our daily life. So next time you engage a plumber, remember the valuable service they bring to our society and how they can help us solve problems which we can not deal with ourselves.

If you ever need plumbers in Singapore to help you, here is one reliable plumber in Singapore I recommend. …

As Civilization Advances Culture Declines

Civilization and culture are two constellations that lie in the same continuum. Each influences and is in turn influenced by the other. Civilization is an advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record-keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions. This is basically a state of affair in a society at a particular time frame. The definition above suggests the advanced state of affair… in common parlance… but civilization may be traditional or not advanced.

People say Indus valley civilization or Egyptian civilizations which are primitive civilizations. On the other hand, culture means the ways of thinking, acting, behaving that people have internalized in them and which are transformed into reality through their actions in the society. For example, respecting the elders or treating guests as the God; as in “Atithi devo bhava” are examples of particular cultural traits. Here before proceeding any further one needs to understand the various constituents of the culture.

When one studies culture, two things can not be neglected; cultural traits and cultural complexes. Cultural traits are the individual acts that defy any scientific reason but are simply followed on the basis that they are rooted in tradition. The examples of cultural traits are folding hands in front of a deity or touching the feet of elders. The inter-related cultural traits form a cultural complex.

For example while performing a “pooja” one lights an “agarvati”, chants some hymns or devotional songs, offers “Prasad” to the lord etc. All these activities constitute the cultural complex. The inter-play and interaction of the different cultural complexes form the substratum of culture. With so much of epistemological differences between culture and civilization one needs to see what separates the both. Culture refers to those intrinsic and intangible elements that engulf human whereas civilization includes all the physical objects that are the exemplification of some objective realities.

Civilization is the human creativity, intellect and volition translated into reality whereas culture is the morality and intellect that remain as the under current of human thought. Civilization progresses thorough the vehicle of knowledge and technology whereas culture thrives in human mind and proceeds through tradition. But when one says they lie in the same continuum means culture determines the civilization. For example, that society where the dominant culture is heroism and hero-worships like the Sioux Indians their substrata of civilization is based on heroism, physical prowess.

Their chief industry is making weapons for hunting and defending own clan members. And their structure of authority and leadership also hovers around this principle only. But at the same time civilization also influences culture in many ways. The technical developments and objective rationality in knowledge inquires the truth among the traditional customs. Reinterpretation of cultural complexes and superstitions from a scientific point of view makes room for reinterpretation of culture. So culture and civilization influence each other. The present write up requires an analysis if …

Delegated Media Regulation Within the Context of Broadcasting in South Africa


This paper discusses the concept of delegated media regulation within the context of broadcasting in South Africa. It briefly discusses the history of media regulation during the apartheid period; the transformation of broadcasting media from an authoritarian government, to a liberalised media, the impact of the transformation with regards to internal media policies; focusing mostly in broadcasting media policy. The paper will then discuss the formation of independent regulatory agencies by government as delegated bodies; to monitor broadcasting media. These include the Independent Broadcasting Act of 1993 (IBA), the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (SATRA) and the merger to the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA), the Broadcasting Complaints Commission of South Africa (BCCSA), and the existence of the Media Diversity and Development Agency (MDDA). In discussing these bodies, the paper will look at the role played by these organisations in regulating broadcasting media, and the impact they have in the development and monitoring of broadcasting media.

Brief History

Apartheid affected every single aspect of South Africa, including the media. Laws that regulated the media were tailor-made to restrict freedom of expression and subject the media to the extremes of the apartheid government. Before the rise of democracy, South Africa showed essential features of aristocracy; which consisted of whites, Indians and coloured people nominated to the legislative assembly. The ideology of apartheid brought division among the South African society along racial lines. The divisions in society and domination of the majority by the minority were reflected in policy formulation; which included stipulations that restricted the media (Fourie, 2004: 168). This was evident as the government exercised its powers in the broadcasting media. When the SABC was established in parliament, it was said to be the public broadcaster; but this was not the case. Because of political philosophies related to the political values of the society and those in power at the time, the SABC was the state broadcaster and not a public broadcaster; and as a result was said to be the apartheid state’s most powerful propaganda tool Dennis Jjuuko (2005: 3).

According to Jjuuko “The assumption to political power by the National Party in 1948 meant the Afrikanerisation of the SABC, which was achieved largely through controls of the board.” Jjuuko continues to say that during this time the SABC had to play a “significant role in the politics of the day, with no space to make independent editorial decisions.” This particularly had a negative impact on the importance on the SABC’s internal policies. As a result the SABC was referred to as “his master’s voice”, as it gave the government a platform to articulate the apartheid ideology, to control the people of South Africa; particularly blacks.

In support of this argument, one of the main laws that restricted media freedom was the one that reduced the broadcast/publication of activities of anti-government black groups. Fourie (2004) argues that from the apartheid laws “one can deduce that the public interest was very narrowly defined. (That) Many laws/policies of …

Insurance Law – An Indian Perspective


“Insurance should be bought to protect you against a calamity that would otherwise be financially devastating.”

In simple terms, insurance allows someone who suffers a loss or accident to be compensated for the effects of their misfortune. It lets you protect yourself against everyday risks to your health, home and financial situation.

Insurance in India started without any regulation in the Nineteenth Century. It was a typical story of a colonial epoch: few British insurance companies dominating the market serving mostly large urban centers. After the independence, it took a theatrical turn. Insurance was nationalized. First, the life insurance companies were nationalized in 1956, and then the general insurance business was nationalized in 1972. It was only in 1999 that the private insurance companies have been allowed back into the business of insurance with a maximum of 26{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of foreign holding.

“The insurance industry is enormous and can be quite intimidating. Insurance is being sold for almost anything and everything you can imagine. Determining what’s right for you can be a very daunting task.”

Concepts of insurance have been extended beyond the coverage of tangible asset. Now the risk of losses due to sudden changes in currency exchange rates, political disturbance, negligence and liability for the damages can also be covered.

But if a person thoughtfully invests in insurance for his property prior to any unexpected contingency then he will be suitably compensated for his loss as soon as the extent of damage is ascertained.

The entry of the State Bank of India with its proposal of bank assurance brings a new dynamics in the game. The collective experience of the other countries in Asia has already deregulated their markets and has allowed foreign companies to participate. If the experience of the other countries is any guide, the dominance of the Life Insurance Corporation and the General Insurance Corporation is not going to disappear any time soon.

The aim of all insurance is to compensate the owner against loss arising from a variety of risks, which he anticipates, to his life, property and business. Insurance is mainly of two types: life insurance and general insurance. General insurance means Fire, Marine and Miscellaneous insurance which includes insurance against burglary or theft, fidelity guarantee, insurance for employer’s liability, and insurance of motor vehicles, livestock and crops.


“Life insurance is the heartfelt love letter ever written.

It calms down the crying of a hungry baby at night. It relieves the heart of a bereaved widow.

It is the comforting whisper in the dark silent hours of the night.”

Life insurance made its debut in India well over 100 years ago. Its salient features are not as widely understood in our country as they ought to be. There is no statutory definition of life insurance, but it has been defined as a contract of insurance whereby the insured agrees to pay certain sums called premiums, at specified time, and in consideration thereof the insurer agreed to pay certain sums …

The Great Masculine Renunciation of the 19th Century

There was an intense period of change in social, political, and fashion spheres during the 19th Century. Men increasingly adopted a penchant for dark coloured attire; most notably black emerged as a favoured choice of colour among all sectors of the male population. Trends in clothing towards functional simplicity became prominent in the early 1800s. The turn of the century also brought along an up-and-coming group of ultra-fashionable males known as ‘dandies’, the most renown being Beau Brummell. The de facto first English dandy said that pretentious apparel and the wearing of outstanding colours and fabrics for the purpose of drawing attention was an improper way to participate in society.

“Rather he should exercise rigorous restraint in his dress,” as Baudelaire suggests. Another important factor to consider is the bourgeois ethic which surfaced against a backdrop of gender equality struggle. Cultural theorist Flugel supports Baudelaire in his argument that there was a dramatic cutback in the male sartorial wardrobe. Men renounced the desire to be beautifully and elaborately dressed, endeavouring instead to be merely practical and functional. The emergence of the three-piece suit was an example of such changes in sartorial ideology. The austere and ascetic forms of sombre attire were deemed socially ‘correct’. The advancement of aesthetic fashion was left almost entirely to the female population.

In a previous era, royalty signalled their proximity to power through expensive jewels and fabrics. Later on, simplicity and minimalism became a fixture of American ideological discourse. The mass produced suit progressed to symbolise virtuous American polity. A very important phenomenon which took place during the great masculine renunciation was the transformation from brightly coloured sartorial garments to dark and undistinguished clothing. Black was originally only used for ecclesiastical attire or military uniforms. However by around 1830, black trousers and pantaloons were the rule. The result was a 19th Century that bore close resemblance to a perpetual funeral. Nevertheless, black was powerful. There was a close association of black dress with democracy, a bourgeois ethic, and potentially more equality between different classes through the elimination of individuality.

The key idea behind the great masculine renunciation is the desire by all to give an impression of sober propriety, an illusion for gaining respect. An important development which affected fashion was the Industrial Revolution. The inescapable fact of social emulation led to a copying in dress sense of families which prospered in manufacturing industries, caricatured as tall dingy men with a look of hostility behind black hair, clothes and faces. Moreover, clothes were made to a greater extent by machinery rather than labour, facilitated by the mechanization of the sewing machine; this instigated the standardization of male attire.

Breward points to the notion that during the great masculine renunciation, men embraced a sexual, psychological and physical release of the body from Victorian constraints, a denial of human nature. The endeavour for utility over style was predominantly caused by political changes in the period. The tendency towards more indistinctive dress was a result of a new …

Characteristics of Civilization in Ancient China

I was once instructed to find examples that show that China had the characteristics of civilization, and also to show how Chinese civilization was different from that of Mesopotamia and Egypt. Examples demonstrating that China possessed the characteristics of civilization are numerous. When one considers their ceremonial temples, their Book of Wisdom, the I-Ching, their world renown poetry and cuisine, the simple longevity of their society, and their over crowded cities, it is apparent that the Chinese knew just as much about civilization as did the Mesopotamians and the Egyptians. Conversely, however, the Chinese also differed in their experience of a civil society. We’ll explore the commonalities and differences herein. As you may know, the main five characteristics of a civilization are large population centers in cities, writing, ritual centers, continuity, and the arts.

China had a highly developed cultural core which was used to promote a moral order for its people. As the text “China: The Mandate of Heaven” (Wood) discloses, Confucius proposed that the “state is a moral order sustained by virtue, ritual, and reverence for ancestors.” (Wood) Every aspect of the Chinese civilization was initially imbued with these values. The ceremonial temples, and shrines throughout China were a large part of this. These ritual centers drew millions to China’s major cities. Of note are the famed Taoist temple atop the sacred mountain, Tai Shan, in the Shandong province, and the monument to Confucius in Suzhou, China.

The Chinese Book of Wisdom, the I-Ching, was another example of the presence of the characteristics of civilization in China. Considered one of the benchmarks of Eastern writing, it testified to the importance of the written word in Chinese society. This is a vital document for anyone studying the history of ancient civilization.

Additionally, there were the arts of China. Arts, as we know, are one of the fundamental characteristics of civilization. The poets, Li Po and Du Fu, headed the list of a long tradition of the Chinese arts. If cuisine were allowed to be classified among the arts, then Chinese cuisine would lead the world. It was one of the earliest known, and most sought after cuisines. Their centuries old, famous dishes have evolved into a literal art form.

It is common knowledge that China boasts the world’s largest population. Much of this populous resided and still resides in China’s cities. While the details of the particular living arrangements and standards of living among the millions of residents of cities like Kai Thanks, Shanghai, Beijing, Hong Kong and Tianjin are the topic of another setting, none can doubt China’s commitment to living in cities. This is one of the most obvious characteristics of civilization that China demonstrates well.

Finally, China is one of the oldest civilizations on Earth. Their culture and traditions impressively span several millennia, as those who’ve studied any ancient civilization of the world well know. They have demonstrated the type of inter-generational continuity that few other civilizations have enjoyed. While parallels to all of these examples …