How Has Mythology Shaped Society?

From the dawn of time, people from all countries have invented their own deities and myths. These legends were often handed down from one generation to the next, until the invention of the written word. Once the written word was invented, it was far easier for people to keep record of their deities and the many heroes that went on quests, and mythology involved into something far more interesting and personal for all societies. Gods gained their own personalities and agendas, heroes went off on epic quests, and from the mind of the authors, entire worlds were invented. Myth and legend had been tied in to life back in the days of yore, and to this day, it still plays a very important role in society.

The days of the week are in fact named after the Norse gods, each of whom had a day dedicated to them, even though there are not many people today who are aware of it. The creatures that modern society has come to love, such as dragons, werewolves, faeries and even vampires all originated from multiple legends and myths. Mythology has also played a role in politics and even some of the spoken phrases that we use. Many video games and movies owe their back stories to creatures or figures that have come straight out of ancient texts.

Religion even sprang forth from legends. People needed to believe that there was someone, some omnipotent beings, that created the world and everything within it. Therefore, the gods were born. Our modern religions all have very close similarities to the deities invented by ancient cultures. Though it has evolved in the same manner that all thoughts and dreams do, our religions all contain somewhat modern twists on ancient mythology.

We have even named our vehicles, some of our cities, planets, plants, animals and a few bodies of water after mythological creatures or deities. Pets are commonly named after mythological gods, and that trend has also began to affect how we name our children. Even some of our more commonly used words such as “satire” are simply re-spellings of words taken out of mythological texts. Some musicians include mythological references in their song lyrics or titles, and we still teach ancient religion in school. Though most people probably do not realize it, society is actually very heavily influenced by ancient society and the legends that were created and passed down for thousands of years.…

The Importance of Cosmetic Surgery

Cosmetic surgery is one of the most beneficial and crucially medical procedures in the world. This is giving somebody a second chance to look normal or gain their normalcy and in many cases to be more beautiful. People have the choice to get rid of that their birth feature and get a new look. The society has changed and accepted the fact that one can undergo physical makeover.

Millions of people all over the world have discovered these new procedure, most of them have permanent damages to some parts of their bodies. With the realization of this procure; it gives them hope to know that they can get a life changing experience. Physical deformities can affect somebody psychological and even emotionally. Some traditional societies tend to separate those children or adults who have been born with certain abnormalities on their bodies; they become outcasts in a society. It is a similar case in modern societies, which strives for perfection, people with abnormality somehow feel out of place. For such people, the chance to get a new and better look is a life changing opportunity.

They feel confident, reborn and can enjoy life to the fullest. In short, the surgery can work wonders whether you want to get a tummy tuck or undergo a breast argumentation or having a facelift. The cosmetic surgery industry has contributed a lot economically by providing jobs for health practitioners to helping underprovided in poor countries through the provision of free medical treatments. Another importance of the surgery is that provides indirect employment for persons working in pharmaceutical companies around the world.

It is important to consult a surgeon before undertaking any cosmetic surgery. This is because one needs to get professional advice as well as a look at your past medical history to avoid any complications that might arise in the future. This will also make you feel comfortable when undergoing the surgery.

Cosmetic surgery is something that should be thought through carefully. If rushed, complications could occur. You can easily Google “facial surgery” or any type of surgery and find pictures of surgeries gone wrong. Make sure to always consult with your doctor for a lengthy amount of time before jumping in. The doctor should be able to give you brochures, pamphlets, and even references of people who were happy with their surgery. If he’s a great doctor, he’ll even give you names and numbers of those who weren’t so happy with the service, whether it be that they didn’t like the final outcome, or maybe it was just way too expensive for what they received.…

Impact of Baby Boomers on American Society

Demographers’ defined the baby boom as a birth surge started in 1946, after the World War II and reached its peak in 1957 and continued until 1964 because of the postwar prosperity. Most people uses “generation” as their term but demographers precisely referred it as “cohort” (group of individuals experiencing a certain event within a specified time). This reveals that social changes interconnect with the life of every baby boomer.

There two groups of baby boomers. The babies born from 1946 to 1955 were called early boomers. Those who were born from 1956 to 1964 were called as late boomers. The last set were born during the first tour of Beatles in America and the first early ones was approximately 18 years that time. They are were noticeable because of their big populations. They crowded junior high, elementary schools, high schools, labor market, and colleges.

Studies show that the impacts brought about by the society where baby boomers grew up contributes a lot in reshaping the society. They never think like their parents. Because the population of these cohorts is unprecedented during the 20th century, their beliefs and behaviors are then predicted to dominate things.

But there is also a great discrepancy in terms of economic status between early and late boomers. Compared to the energetic job market and emerging economy laid beneath the feet of early ones, late boomers needs adjustment on economic shifts. It is due to the rapid growth of service sectors, jobs for middle class became less stable, changing locations of workers, and career market adjustments.

Most are considered economic security as an elusive thing. They are the people who were born after the era of civil rights. Conducted studies even reveals income differences according to ethnicity, race, and birthplace creating ethnic classes. It was because one third of the population are Hispanic, African-American, or Asian besides the black and white Americans. Take for instance, the black boomer’s generation are considered inferior than whites, although the generation were rated the best in terms of education.

It is a fact that the life was accompanied by postwar transformations changing the American society. The ideas about sexuality, gender, and family were altered profoundly. Likewise, parenthood changed, old age and retirement was redefined, and labor forces were transformed. Even in their old age, they seize opportunity to stay involved and active like staying in their work force to meet the responsibilities of supporting their children.

The changes in the society were never brought solely by the stereotype but also the conservative types like Seth Grossman. They expressed themselves through street protests while the conservative use other forms such as leaflets, student newspapers, and forums. Although their actions did not attract the attention of media but they achieved their success when they forced a referendum which resulted in the withdrawal of Duke students from the National Student Association.

Conservative may not be a part of the projected boomer’s image but they became a strong force in making their way silently. …

Challenges of Local Government Institutions in Bangladesh

1. Ideas and practices of local government:

Most people consider public representatives as local guardians who work with them, and with whom they can share all sorts of personal, social, religious and political thoughts and beliefs. With the increase in power and volume of activities of the government, the responsibility and duty of the local government has also been increased by several times. Around the world most challenges people face are local. So, the best way to solve them is through local initiatives and local leadership by awakening and mobilizing people. Authorities closest to the citizen or rather citizens themselves by getting directly involved can greatly contribute in solving public problems. This is how the local government takes its shape. Local government brings decision-making closer to the people. A strong local government system can ensure good governance through transparency, accountability, effective participation and equal opportunities for all. Most importantly, this system can ensure development at the grassroots level. Strong local government institutions strengthen democracy, ensure good governance, and at the same time quicken the pace of political and socioeconomic development of the country.

1.1. New view of local government:

Local government is based on community governance, and focused on citizen-centered local governance. It is the primary agent for the citizens and leader and gatekeeper for shared rule, is responsive and accountable to local voters. It is purchaser of local services, and facilitator of network mechanisms of local governance, coordinator of government providers and entities beyond government, mediator of conflicts, and developer of social capital. It is externally focused and competitive; ardent practitioner of alternative service delivery framework; open, quick, and flexible, innovative. It is risk taker within limits, autonomous in taxing, spending, regulatory, and administrative decisions. It has managerial flexibility and accountability for results. It is participatory; and works to strengthen citizen voice and exit options through direct democracy provisions, citizens’ charters, and performance budgeting. It is focused on earning trust, creating space for civic dialogue, serving the citizens, and improving social outcomes. It is fiscally prudent; works better and costs less, inclusive and participatory. It overcomes market and government failures. Local government is connected in a globalized and localized world

1.2. Citizen-centered local governance:

Reforming the institutions of local governance requires agreement on basic principles. Three basic principles are advanced to initiate such a discussion:

* Responsive governance: This principle aims for governments to do the right things-that is, to deliver services consistent with citizen preferences.

* Responsible governance: The government should also do it right-that is, manage its fiscal resources prudently. It should earn the trust of residents by working better and costing less and by managing fiscal and social risks for the community. It should strive to improve the quality and quantity of and access to public services. To do so, it needs to benchmark its performance with the best-performing local government.

* Accountable governance: A local government should be accountable to its electorate. It should adhere to appropriate safeguards to ensure that it serves the public …

What is a Monocultural Society?

Do you live in a mono-cultural or multi-cultural society?. Often we find it difficult to define. What is a mono- cultural society?

Most experts agree that the essential traits of a mono-cultural society are a common heritage, belief structure, language and usually a mono-racial identity. Since we live in a more globalized World, many of our societies are essentially multi-cultural. But still many of today’s societies still share the common traits of a mono-cultural society.

What are these common traits?

1. A common heritage

The historical heritage of the society could be based on a perception that the nations, food, language, attitudes, racial features and religious beliefs are an essential element to the nations identity.

2. A shared belief structure

The majority of the citizens of a country have a shared belief structure, based on the nation’s heritage. These beliefs form the national identity, and ‘psyche,’ which create to many a stronger bonded society, but to detractors a nation which loses out on the benefits of a multi-cultural ethnic society.

3. An inward looking ‘psyche’

To many, mono-cultural societies tend to look inwards, rather than outwards, and this can show in the nation’s culture. Television programs and news tends to be locally centered, and the cultures identity heavily promoted. A degree of ignorance of the outside World is often a product of looking inwards.

4. A suspicion of “foreigners”

The ‘psyche” of a mono-cultural society often can be suspicious towards “foreigners,” and unacceptable of their beliefs. This could lead to discouraging multi-cultural partnerships, to a ‘ghetto’ mentality of separating cultures through the areas they can live.

5. Common religious values

Whilst in some societies religion is seen as being less important, other cultures see it as part of their national or ethnic identity. A strong mono-cultural official religion often is a strong trait of a this type of society..

6. Tribalism

Citizens of strong multi-cultural societies tend to be more tribal when they live outside their own culture. Multi- cultural marriages are unacceptable, the neighbors, the food and even the workplace tends to be ‘tribal.” – the influence of the new society lessened by this strong cultural bond, between others who share it.

7. Purchasing Goods

Mono- cultural societies tend to support their own products, rather than purchase products from other nations. They tend to be proud of their industries, and economic achievements- encouraging buying nationally produced products over others. This is beneficial in a recession, but in an expanding economy can hinder the choice consumers have.

Mono-cultural societies tend to feel safer, as long as you are identified as “one of the group,” but also conservative when it comes to accepting change. Whilst threatened, these societies tend to bond together faster, but also can be guilty of the worse types of ethnic abuse.

Historic examples could be the Armenian holocaust by Turkey, or the past bloodshed in the Balkans, and Rwanda- Events that generally do not occur in more modern multi-ethnic societies, which accept the differences in ideas, …

Is Hollywood a Good Influence on People?

Whenever I hear the film industry being blamed for creating negativity in life my mind goes back to the Arnold Schwarzenegger film “Last Action Hero”. For those who may not have seen it, Arnie plays a screen character who is accidentally transported into real life, only to find that getting shot, punched, kicked and generally thrown around actually hurts. His character interacts with a young boy, and the moral of the story is that what you see on the silver screen is acting not real life.

Then I think about “Yes Man” with Jim Carrey, a film that broadly looked at the issues of positive thinking and saying “yes” to life. There were a great many interesting points wrapped up in a superbly funny storyline.

What about “The Matrix”, the first film in the series really resonated with a lot of people on the Spiritual path and you couldn’t help feeling as you watched it that Hollywood is tuned into more than big bucks and fame. Behind this and many other films you have the feeling of a number of thoughtful minds using the vehicle of film to explore popular life issues and offer a few conclusions.

That’s the positive side, let’s now look at the negative. Whenever I come to the negative the Charlie Sheen sequel “Hot Shots Part Deux” leaps immediately to mind. In that film there is a wonderful scene where he is shooting a machine gun and in one corner of the screen you have a written running commentary saying “more bullets than (name any famous action film) fired”, and the numbers keep going up. It’s a beautiful tongue-in-cheek poke at an industry that fires off more rounds of dummy ammunition in a year than teenagers have zits.

There is a great deal of casual violence in films, and no doubt there are minds out there only too willing to absorb the violence like a sponge and emulate it. Yet realistically how many times does that happen?

If you’re living in any violence besieged city in the world you will tell me “a lot”, but the truth is that if an individual doesn’t have the anger and sense of dislocation required they will not emulate anything they see in a film. At the very most violent films can provide the general public with ideas in the same way that prisons take a young person who’s made a mistake and provide exactly the training you don’t want any child to receive, thereby turning out a degree level criminal when they leave.

Everything in life is about personal choice and most well balanced people will view extremely violent films as disgusting at worst and a bit of a giggle at best. At no point will an ordinary human being feel tempted to risk their freedom and future by trying to be an Arnie, a Sly Stallone, or even a Charlie Sheen. To name a very few people who’ve been in violent films.

You’re probably more likely to find …

Effects of Emerging Technologies on the Society

Advancement in technology has made the world go “gaga”. As far as technology is concerned, you can expect the unexpected or imagine the unimaginable. The world has left the stage of crude implementation. Every facet of life has been touched and affected by technology. The bewilderment of everyone is that existing technologies are fast becoming obsolete by the day; courtesy of advancement in technology. This article discusses the effects of emerging technology on the society.

Technology has affected and is still affecting people of all age brackets from all over the world. You can imagine the formats in which toddlers’ toys and items for old people are made these days. They are given touch of modernity to let them have the feel of the innovations the mind of the human person is capable of.

Internet Technology

Let us begin with Information Technology. Gone are the days when people melted for fear of where to get information or data for their usage. Whatever information you think you need has been well written out for you on the Internet. “Internet is the world on the computer”. The internet has a wealth of information on every area of human endeavour. It is a safe place of consultation or reference for students as well as professors. The internet is a place individuals and enterprise run to locate the information they need. For instance, when you need any service, just log into the Internet, and you will see one million and one individuals and organisations who render such services. Whatever it is you need, you can find it on the internet.

The world wide web as an aspect of technological advancement, has made the production and sharing of information a breeze. With the proper use of the internet, businesses that took “ages” to be accomplished are now executed within a twinkle of an eye. Even though the internet has numerous advantages, it has some disadvantages too. A lot of unhealthy materials are available on the internet. And these to the detriment of innocent minds. In as much as good people post relevant information on the net for the use of those who need them, people with bad intentions also post harmful materials on the internet. Materials on how to indulge in bad things abound on the internet. This is because a large part of the internet is not censored.

Technological advancements have positive and negative effects on us. Let us talk about other facets of latest technologies and their effects.

Nano technology

Nano technology, like the Internet technology is spreading like a wild fire and its future effects are unimaginable. Nano technology spreads through large parts of human life. In the area of human health, nano technology is used for the treatment of cancer. It is used through the infrared to dismantle cancer tumors. Besides the health sector where nano technology has proved its relevance, it is also a force in the electronic sector. With nano, devices or applications of different types and sizes can …

A Law May Be Harsh, But it is Still the Law

Web 2.0 technologies offer the potential to improve significantly the quality of education. However, the impact of copyright and control technologies may limit educators and students to continue to engage freely with a variety of information sources.

This poses a great challenge to institutions in understanding such implication within the bounds of intellectual property law which is by itself is also challenged by the move toward collective creation. A single work of art may contain multiple copyrighted works owned by different people. This is the harsh reality of the law that many educational materials run the risk of inadvertently violating copyrights.

The law may be harsh, but it is still the law. Until such time that it is declared unconstitutional, it deserves to be respected and obeyed no matter how unfair the said law is. When the courts declare a law to be inconsistent with the Constitution, the former shall be void and the latter shall prevail.

Laws are repealed only by subsequent ones, and their violation or non-observance shall not be excused by disuse or custom or practice to the contrary. No judge or court shall decline to render judgment by reason of the silence, obscurity or insufficiency of the laws. In case of doubt in the interpretation or application of laws, it is presumed that the lawmaking body intended right and justice to prevail.

The term “law” in its widest sense means any rule of action, norm or conduct, or expression of uniformity. In its most comprehensive signification, law is applicable indiscriminately to all objects of creation, whether animate or inanimate, rational or irrational, as well as to intangible processes.

Law is the factor that holds organized society together. Where such element does not exist, there is only a lawless group. To the extent that a group of men are held together as a society by such factor, to that extent it has a legal system, crude or highly developed as the case may be.

The concrete statutes, customs or judicial decisions prevailing are only so many facets of that overriding, super eminent factor. When a particular rule or act promotes the efficacy of this factor, it is a lawful act or a good rule; if it derogates from the effectiveness of this element, it is an unlawful act which should be changed.

The burden of proving that a law is unconstitutional is reposed on the individual suitor or challenger because of the presumption of constitutionality of a law. Laws are meant to be followed; otherwise, there will be chaos, disorder. Law is like a nuclear force that holds the atom together, without it there shall be destruction.…

The Importance of Law Enforcement in Our Society

Without proper law enforcement, the rule of the law would mean nothing. There would be no one to protect you from harm and violence. Humans are social creatures, and we tend to live in cities, villages, and communities, where interaction among our peers is almost inevitable. Unfortunately, there would almost always be those who would not respect your rights as a human being, or would not do their social, financial, and moral responsibility as a citizen. They will try to steal from you, threaten you, and take advantage of you. That necessitates for the role of the police being the ones who would enforce the law, by catching or deterring people who would violate the rules of the law, and to protect your rights as a citizen.

Without law enforcement, if somebody did you wrong, then you have to take this person yourself and haul him before the magistrate. Furthermore, if you came home only to see that someone had broken in and stolen your belongings, without law enforcement, there would be no police detective to investigate. Moreover, the rich and the powerful might hire a detective agency to track down whoever committed crimes, but the poor might have no one to protect had they been victimized. If you have been hit by a car driven by a reckless driver, without law enforcement, they could do away with it. Of course, that would be aggravating on you part. If the beer-gutted husband is smacking, beating, or verbally abusing his wife, without law enforcement, the domestic violence might still continue on, as no law enforcement would not be there if the domestic violence would be reported. These are only few among the many other violations, which can be done against you, but nonetheless, we cannot deny how hugely important the role law enforcement plays in our society.

The rule of the law identifies that your property is yours, and therefore no one can come into your property and take it against your will. Moreover, the rule of the law likewise identifies that no person deserves to be discriminated, whether it be because of their race, skin color, sex, and gender, and that those who would discriminate must be punished by the countries’ own respective law. Additionally, it dictates that corrupt officials, rapists, murderers, and thefts must be punished. Furthermore, the rule of the law recognizes that, as a citizen, you have a responsibility to fulfill, and that you also have rights which must be dutifully acknowledged, respected, and protected by all means.…

Cultural Diversity in Nigeria: A Blessing or a Curse?

Cultural diversity is a phrase generally used in describing a society with people of different ethnic roots which manifest in their languages, mode of dressing, arts, as well as other traditional practices which are either similar or distinctively different from each group. Such traditional practices are highly valued and held with great admiration among people of an ethnic group. In Nigeria for instance, when it comes to dressing a core northerner is identified with a starchy ironed fez as a cap. In the western part of Nigeria which is dominated by Yoruba ethnic group, people generally sew their cap in a long style which is neatly folded when worn on the head. On the other hand, in the eastern side of the country the Ibo are know for their red cap which is traditional worn (but mostly) by title holders. Other minority ethnic groups within the middle belt region like the Tiv, Ngas, Idoma, Nupe, etc, also have unique cultural attributes which help in recognizing their cultural roots when appeared in the public. For example, the Tiv people in Nigeria are widely known for their a’nger, a unique traditional costume (fabric), lineally sewn in black and white features, which is generally worn by Tiv people to identify with their cultural origin.

The picture created above is that of a cultural mosaic or congress of cultures consensually residing in one community called Nigeria. However, to express how culturally diversified Nigeria is, there is need to have mental cross-section of Kaduna state which has, over the years, remained a unifying point for varying cultures.

Kaduna state is an epitome of a highly diversified sub-political entity in Nigeria with over fifteen tribes/ethnic groups. Apart from the Hausas, which dominate the northern part of the state, there are a lot of minority tribes/cultural groups settling in different parts of Kaduna state. For example, the southern part of the state has Kagoro, Moro’a, Jaba, Fantsuan, Kataf, Baju, Gbagi, Kagoma, Mada, Ninzam, Attakar, Fulani, Attukur, Koro etc. All these tribes/ethnic groups mentioned above have cultural attributes which are similar in practice or remarkable different from each other. Kagoro ethnic group, for instance, set aside January 1 of every year to celebrate her people and culture. In every Kagoro Day (1st January), there are a lot of cultural display: Dance, costumes, arts, etc. The event draws people from various parts of the country especially sons and daughters of Kagoro as well as highly dignifying chiefs within Nigeria.

On the other hand, the disparities within the ethnic groups have existed for a long time. Even in the history of Nigeria, one may agree with the writer that it was the cultural or ethnic differences which propelled polarize ideologies that made indirect rule during the colonial era to be successful in the north and failed in the south. Also, it was the manifestation of such differences that made the people of the southern part of Nigeria to demand for independence in 1958 when the northern representatives said they …