Alcohol Addiction – A Social Evil

There is a group of who start using alcohol to drive away the sorrows and pains of life, whereas others turn to it because they know not any other way. Most alcohol addicts give the reason that alcohol gives them a power to face the challenges and difficulties of life. The practical theory behind this feeling is that alcohol can generate illusions and hallucinations in the minds of people and they are taken to another world where they forget the real world worries, and tensions. Sinking in this dream world, they start loving alcohol to an amount that they can not even imagine being without alcohol.

The effects of alcohol addiction are long lasting. The harmful effects are never limited to the individual; Rather the circle of society is forced to suffer the consequences. Alcohol addiction sends out a red signal by producing physical ailments and mental disorders in the individual. Even then it is not the individual but the associated ones that realizes the danger and think of how to help the injured stop drinking alcohol.

Harmful results of alcohol addiction start with physical damage to kidney, liver, heart and almost all internal organs. It starts carving the walls of intestine. Loss of appetite, vomiting, dizziness, nausea etc. Are some among the numerous difficulties followed by the addict. He slowly starts losing memory and false often due to lack of sleep. The physical appearance and facial appearance becomes too ugly.

Worst of all ill effects is the interference in his social and personal life. He fails to execute his duties and responsibilities. Instead of being a support, he becomes a burden to his family. Peace of the family is disturbed and they become the center of criticism for the entire society. The place of his work is another area affected badly. You start to have serious backlogs at work and co-workers are humiliated. Everyone dependent on him will be forced to take the pains of suffering and obviously live through the aftermath.

Social peace is disturbed. When alcohol addiction haunts a person, he will start engaging in criminal activity. Slowly he changes into an anti-social element and none will dare to get acquainted with him. He is isolated and this adds up the fury. His evil behavior shoots up and a criminal is born.

Several methods are available that will teach people how to stop drinking alcohol. De-addiction centers play a major role in bringing them back to life. Medicines that make them feel the taste of alcohol will inculcate a feeling of hesitance towards the drug. But the major problem in dealing with alcohol through medicine is that, their going to be a drug dependency or the forceful withdrawal could lead to many related problems. These efforts of not carried out in a professional manner can cause more harm than good. This later addiction is a critical factor to be deal with.

Hypnosis is the best method to slowly change the attitude of the individual towards liquor. The hypnosis therapy slowly operates on the minds of the addicts through relaxation devoid of drugs, thereby showing him the path of recovery. The thoughts are deviated to productive areas through hypnotherapy techniques and he is slowly brought back to normal life.

New Zealand – Common WEALTH or Common STEALTH?

To many people, New Zealand is one of the most sought-after countries for many English folk to move to, either to emigrate, or retire.

Why? Because we think that the whole country and its massive natural resources belong to us. But why should we think that? What about the people that lived peacefully there since the beginning of the first century – the Maori peoples from Polynesia?

Too many times, we seem to think that this whole area of the Pacific was populated by tribes of fierce savages, who knew nothing of the ‘civilized’ world, and allegedly had no idea of commerce or interaction with other nations. For many such peoples, they became ‘fair game’ to the more ‘advanced’ civilizations of the west, such as Britain, France and Spain, who would go to any lengths to secure new additions to their overseas empires.

Even if there was a lack of commercial awareness in these conquered States, what gave anybody the right to take over and attempt to destroy, the local religions, belief, and traditions of these indigenous peoples? After all, if Britain had lost the Second World War, we would probably now all be using German as our first language, and there would have been no religious freedom of expression allowed. Would that have made us a better country? I doubt it. There would have been much dissent and undertones of revolt, and a feeling that we were robbed of our heritage.

The facts are that at the turn of the 19th Century, the Maori people had established a Bank (Te Whare Awaroa Mauri Trust Bank) and a newspaper (The Native Courier) in 1808. Hardly the activities to be expected from so-called ‘ignorant savages’.

In 1816 Te Wakaminenga O Nga Hapu formed a Maori Court with laws based on Tikanga Maori (in response to the lawless and unruly behaviour of visiting whalers, sealers and other foreigners) and enforced the laws accordingly. They further planned to unite the tribes operating on two levels by uniting the Ariki blood lines, and forming an army in a common defence policy against to ever-increasing immigration issues.

In the same year the authority of Maori Sovereignty was recognised and registered in the House of Westminster, England, as well as recognised by other nations such as America, France, Japan and Te Moananui A Kiwa. (United Pacific Nations)

The growth of settlers and whalers into New Zealand in the first quarter of the 19th Century had a devastating effect on the Maori people. Not only were they becoming outnumbered, but disease introduced from the settlers was causing massive numbers deaths from illnesses that in the Western world were just mild complaints.

A lot of settlers were carrying out illegal purchase of land in this time period, and introducing new types of crops, and new ways of fishing (especially whaling), and this activity caused a lot of friction between many of the Maori iwi (Tribes), leading to a whole series of brutal inter-tribal wars. To try and redress this situation, the Treaty of Waitangi was set up, which was also meant to establish the sovereignty of the Maori over New Zealand.

The Treaty of Waitangi, Te Tiriti o Waitangi, was an agreement signed in 1840 between representatives of the British Crown and Maori iwi (tribes). The Treaty came about because the British War and Colonial Office was determined to annex New Zealand. It believed the only legal way to do so was to initiate a treaty of cessation whereby Maori leaders would cede their sovereignty to Britain.

This was because the same Maori leaders had declared their independence in 1835. It is very interesting to note, that as the Agreement was signed, 500 Chiefs signed the Maori version, and only 49 signed the English version.

Support for the treaty was widespread right across the Maori people, spreading from the North then on to the South Island. The other interesting thing about this, is the fact that the Maori wanted to be totally loyal to the Crown, which is why, even now, over 160 years later, that with a republican movement being mooted in New Zealand, the most vociferous opponents to that movement is coming from the whole Maori people!

Sovereignty is a topic close to many people’s hearts. Nobody wants to particularly give up everything, unless they can see something coming back in return. Even in the UK today, many people are very concerned about the ‘creeping powers’ of the European Union, slowly one by one, removing UK Sovereignty over the legal system, fishing and agriculture, even usurping the UK’s own Parliament, and also eyeing up removal of the UK’s military independence, and also trying to control the monetary supply by pushing them towards the Euro Zone.

The Maori version of the Waitangi Treaty included the concept of their continuing sovereignty, but the English one didn’t, which is where the whole ‘Common Stealth’ has become a major cause of concern for the Maori people for nearly 200 years.

By 1840, the British Monarchy had ceased to have any real political power.

The newly crowned Queen Victoria was a constitutional monarch and the government of the day was led by the Whig party Prime Minister Lord Melbourne. In 1839 his Colonial Secretary the Marquess of Normanby sent Captain William Hobson to the Bay of Islands with detailed instructions on establishing New Zealand as a British colony.

On February 5, Hobson presented English and Maori versions of the Treaty to Maori. Following some discussion as to what the Treaty would do for Maori, it was signed by a gathering of Iwi leaders on February 6. It was then circulated more widely among other Maori leaders.

Since that time there has been considerable conflict and debate over what the Treaty promised Maori. The problems have been caused primarily by the differences between the English and Maori versions of the Treaty. The exact nature of the authority that Iwi ceded to the Crown is still an ongoing debate.

Towards the end of the 20th Century, a whole new era started to open up for Maori people who by now had fallen almost to the levels of a second-class race of peoples, suffering not just from wholesale robbing of their birthrights, but were suffering almost a form of racial apartheid, which needed redressing.

This was discussed and upheld by the United Nations in their Resolution on Indigenous Peoples and their Rights as late as 2007, totally underwritten by Australia and New Zealand.

In an attempt to restore the greatness of the Maori peoples, the first thing that had to be done was to try and reunite all of the iwi (tribes) again. To this end, an International Corporation, ‘TE MANA TINO RANGATIRA O TE MATUA KARANGA O TE HUIHUINGA PUTANOA CORPORATION SOLE’ was set up in 2003.

The Founder, His Excellency Chief Charles Hohepa, being empowered by a ‘Sovereign Mandate’ from the ‘Confederation of the Chiefs of the Tribes of Aotearoa (NZ)’ and ‘Te Matua Karanga O Te Huihuinga Puyanoa Trust, Auotearoa (NZ)’ has established a world-wide organization for and on behalf of the Maori people of Aotearoa (NZ) for the reinstatement of their ancient customary culture, values, and disciplines, and uplifting the Maori peoples in a modern society.

This is known as the Matua Karanga Foundation. ‘The Foundation’ extends to other peoples and nations, the hand of friendship in the pursuit and promotion of goodwill, peace and harmony.

The Foundation is committed to humanitarian relief of all peoples and nations, giving special regard to the indigenous first nation peoples of the world, recognizing the sovereignty of those nations and as such is committed to peaceful processes, encouraging mutual dialogue between all nations but on mutual respect and trust in the integrity of all mankind.

Considering the way in which first nation people have been treated in the past, this is a brilliant way to redress these early breaches of trust, and at the same time, encouraging a better world for all of us.

How Reckless Teen Driving Can Impact Society

Reckless driving is a very serious issue. How could it not be considered one when loss of life and property, and even serious injuries and damages are always involved? Its level of seriousness is such that there is no one who is in his right mind who’d even want to be remotely involved in situations involving reckless driving.

To be involved in a case of reckless driving can definitely be a life changing matter, that’s how serious it is. And when you start talking about teenagers being involved in it, then you could just imagine the kind of impact that it would have on everyone that’s involved.

Thinking of the kind of impact that reckless driving involving teens can potentially have on society is certainly an important and serious issue. You can even say that since teens are involved, the stakes are definitely raised higher than any usual case of reckless driving. There are a number of reasons why that is so true.

The recklessness that seems to be inherent in people during their teenage years certainly does not lend itself well to driving. If any, that actually leads to reckless driving – with the expected consequences and repercussions of it. The National Safety Council itself has already given the statement that the part of the brain that specifically helps in suppressing impulses, weighing the consequences, and organizing thoughts is not fully mature until a person reaches the age of 25.

Additional factors include the hormones that we all know are raging within all of us and affect our actions and behavior during our teenaged years. And teenagers also learn to drive under what can only be described as optimal or ideal conditions. The problems and hazardous conditions would not be encountered until later on when the teens are already out on the road.

As far as statistics are concerned, the Center for Disease Control states that here in the United States in 2005, about 4,544 teenagers (aged 16 to 19) died from injuries that they sustained because of being involved in motor vehicle crashes. A very telling statistic was revealed by the CDC – in 2005 the teenager population in the US accounted for about 10 percent of the country’s total population, but when it came to deaths involved in motor vehicle crashes, teens accounted for 12 percent.

I believe that everyone would agree that losing people’s lives far outweigh any other form or type of loss that results from motor vehicle accidents, but one can’t help but notice how much it costs as well. For the total costs of vehicle injuries in males, 30 percent of that number actually involves young people (aged 15 to 24) and is equivalent to $19 billion. For females, the figures show that 28 percent are young people, which accounts for $7 billion in total costs.

Probably the best thing that can be done is to make use of a graduated licensing program. Talking to teenagers about the dangers of reckless driving is also one of the things that are being done in order to help in reduce the incidence of reckless driving among teenagers.

A Review of Foreign Affairs (A Political Magazine)

In this article I will review, yet again, another political magazine. I will also give some brief background information and why I like this one as well as the prior reviewed political magazine. Probably by now you have guessed that I read a lot of these types of magazines and enjoy them immensely.

Shall we get to the background information. Foreign Affairs is an old publication that dates back to 1922 when it was founded. This magazine focuses on international relations and united States foreign policy. It is similar to Current History but different as well. Foreign Affairs is published by the Council on Foreign Relations and publishes bi-monthly. The Council of Foreign Affairs was founded in 1921 and is located in New York City. The Council on Foreign Affairs is a think tank that focuses on international relations. This publication is more academically oriented, similar to Current History, with many contributors that are professors.

It is now time to talk about why I deem this publication to be a favorite of mine. I like to read and learn about international relations and the role the United States plays. I think it is important to be aware of various institutions that the United States finds itself involved in. Especially in the twenty-first century, geopolitical issues are very complex and there are many different actors that play various roles. For instance, today the United States is involved in Afghanistan and just finished combat operation in Iraq. These examples are common knowledge because they are discussed on the nightly news or in the newspaper. But I like to learn an issue in depth and go beyond the soundbites heard on television or cursory coverage found in my local newspaper. I want to understand the political history of a country like Iraq or what will happen now that the United States has ended combat operation there and pulled out our troops. I want to know more about the fight against terrorism, that goes beyond what the politicians tell us.

I want to learn how China is becoming an economic powerhouse and about other emerging markets. I enjoy reading this type of magazine but I use it to inform myself of issues that help me make sound decisions when I vote. I think that for the United States to be a good democratic society and have constructive dialogue about various geopolitical issues people need to be informed about. By reading this magazine and others like it, this can be a small contribution to society. This can be a small step to contributing to our democratic ideals by being well informed and have a solid understanding of geopolitical issues and being able to engage in thoughtful dialogue and be able to put forth different ideas. This knowledge also helps me make wise decisions at the ballot box by thinking globally and not just nationally or locally. If you want to be more informed you should consider purchasing an issue at your local bookstore. And for the Internet Age, Foreign Affairs also a has website that you can check out. Foreign Affairs would also make a good gift for someone that is interested in foreign relations.

World Disable Day

The world is moving towards progress in every walk of life. But when we look towards societies, it feels as if some thing is still missing. Money, power, lust, etc., is the wish of every human being to attain. But we can not deny this fact that we all are bounded with loads of social problems, which are hard nuts to crack. The key element of success and self-satisfaction is missing in most of the societies. Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. Social issues include poverty, violence, pollution, injustice, illiteracy, corruption, bribery, suppression of human rights, discrimination, and crime, child abuse, rape, dowry system, abortion, sex, etc.

Out of many social problems, I feel that the rights of Exceptional people are always being neglected by every one. No one wants to hear them. No body wants to give them proper love and care. They are being rejected from most of the societies. Due to the ill- behavior of the people, they are facing lots of trouble to explore their talents and creativity. Now, the time has arrived, when we need to re-think about our attitudes towards them. Tall talks from the government officials that special needs people will be given opportunities were held back by the previous government and still they are wiping for their rights to be given.

I did my research for 7 years at Aga Khan Social Welfare Board for Exceptional People Committee. I joined this institute and came to know about their feelings and emotions. I later studied many books and met many children of "Borderline Category" of different schools in Karachi. The revealing truth was bitter. I realized that they were totally deprived from our society and were considered as an insane, which is not true.

I guess, no one has right to define any human in their own perception, until and without, he / she knows himself / herself deeply and perfectly. But it is a matter of despairty in Pakistan, that Exceptional Children are considered as a different being. People are trying to give their own definitions about them without knowing the proper definition of human. Human are acting like an animal and showing lack of concern towards them.

Let us try to understand, who exceptional people are?

Those persons who have IQ score which differs from the mean by two or more standard deviations are called Exceptional persons. Mentally retarded are declared as those persons who have scores two or more standard deviations below the mean. While the persons having score two or more standard deviations above the mean are called gifted persons.

Categories in respect of IQ are as follows:

O 70 above Border Line (trained and understandable)
O 70-50 Mild (educable)
O 50-35 Moderate (trainable)
O 35-20 Severe (miniman skills)
O 20-0 Profound (custodial care)

So we can say that,

"Exceptional children are those, who lacks either motor, cognitive, language, social and emotional, or self-help skill development."

Imagine yourself sitting in Japan with the Japanese students communicating only in Japanese. How will you feel? At that moment, you will be called as a disabled person who can not speak or understand their language. But this is considered by you as a normal reaction, because you know you are normal. If that is the case, then how could most of us declare other mental without judging their talents and special skills, which God has bestowed them.

What disability is all about?

"Disability" means the lack of ability to perform an activity in a manner that is considered to be normal. "

"A disability is the expression of a physical or mental limitation in a social context- the gap between a person's capabilities and the demands of the environment."

(Pope and Tarlov, 1991)

A person with disabilities means who, on account of injury, disease, or congenital deformity, is handicapped in undertaking any gainful profession or employment, and includes persons who are visually impaired as well. In short, Exceptional people are those, who either lacks one of the areas of development.

"Disability refers to the impact of injury upon the performances or activities commonly accepted as the basic elements of every day living. Disability can be used when an impairment, objectively defined, constituents a hindrance to mobility, domestic routines or the occupational and may be communicational Skills. "

According to the social model,

"Disability is the outcome of the interaction of person and their environment and thus is either person nor environment specific".

Remember that physically disabled, blind / partially sighted, hearing impaired, autism, speech impairment, learning disabled, mild, moderate, severe, substantial, borderline, etc., are some of the main categories of the Exceptional people out of many others. Persons with Exceptionality are mostly unseen, unheard and unaccounted persons in Pakistan. They are the most marginalized group. Individuals with special needs face overwhelming barriers in education, skills development and daily life.

The United Nations estimates that some 600 million people worldwide have a disability and that the vast majority of Exceptional people live in low and middle income countries. The proportion of Exceptional people in Pakistan as per census 1998 is 2.49 percent of total population, which is quite diverse from the estimates of World Bank, UN and WHO.

These children have equal right to freedom of expression, quality education and have access to a safe and healthy environment; In accordance with the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973; To have full rights and obligations as citizens as confirmed in; The UN Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, on Education for All (1990), UN Standard Rules on Equalization of Opportunities of Persons with Exceptionality (1993), Salamnca Statement and Framework for Actions (1994), Dakar Framework for Action (2000) UN Millennium Development Goals (2001) and the National Policy for Persons With Disabilities (2002) guarantee the rights of all children, both with and without disabilities, to obtain quality education adapted to their individuals needs, abilities and aspirations and full equal participation in all Other aspects of life such as participating in decisions and casting votes, etc.

But These claims proved to be false, when people unable raised their voice through media that how brutally they are being treated in Pakistani society.

Example: to attain quality education is the right for every disable, but still, no schools, colleges and universities have been setup by the government to cater their needs. Thanks to the private NGOs, who took an initiative and established few schools for the students with special needs.

The issue of Exceptionality is gaining more and more importance all over the world as well as in Pakistan. Due the movement for a rights based society initiated by many national organizations, World Bank and other donor agencies have included this issue in their mandates. Governments haves framed various policies including accommodation jobs, concession facilities in traveling, special training institutions etc. But the question is, if these mandates were made, when it will be implemented, and who will implement it? No concession is being granted to any disable in Pakistan so far in any of the commodity, nor there is an institute, where they could learn skills free of cost. NGOs have set up institutions, which takes loads of money from the parents to support their child.

It has ratified several international conventions, promulgated the National Policy in 2002, begging revising the ordinance on employment which would raise the employment quota to two percent to ensure more job opportunities, and initiatives to develop "Inclusive Education". But so far, no initiatives have been taken by any of the government.

An infrastructure for Inclusive Education and Training was established in Pakistan in the 1980s which far surpassed that of most of the developing countries. However, despite these efforts, the sad fact is that most people with disabilities and their families remain completely un-served by government – and even NGO resources. There is dire need of more accurate data and research on causes, prevention, and curative efforts to understand the social and economic realities and possibilities with regards to disability.

The major barrier to employment and other socio economic benefits for persons with Exceptionality in our society continues to be attitudinal barriers; Stereotypical thinking and assumption about what people with disabilities can and can not do. The truth is that, the range of abilities of persons within any exceptional group is intense. We need to get rid of our stereotypical images and view each "individual" as just that "an individual".

Only limited categories of disabilities (physical disabilities such as amputations, foot and leg deformities, visual and hearing impairments) have been surveyed nationwide and most of the data has not been categorized by gender. Therefore, quantitative, nationwide, disaggregated data, by gender and age, is required for comprehensive policing and an assessment of progress. In Pakistan, there is only the ministry, responsible for social welfare and special education, which touch upon person with Exceptional issues. Moreover, Pakistani's believe that persons with Exceptionality are a social burden and a curse on the family. These beliefs lead to the misunderstanding of disability. They prevent people from obtaining appropriate information and being educated. Employment opportunities for them are very limited and so they are a financial burden for their families.

Like us, Exceptional people are also bounded with some common problems, which they face in their day to day life.

Some of the problems of exceptional people are

O Hyperactivity;
O Distractibility;
O Impulsivity;
O Anxiety withdrawal;
O Fear and Phobias;
O Eating disorders;
O Echholahia;
O Movement problems;
O Depression;
O Suicidal Behavior;
O Difficult Temperament;
O Conduct Disorder;
O Aggression;
O Obsessions and Compulsions;
O Reluctant Speech;
O Elimination Disorder;
O Unresponsiveness to Suicidal Stimuli;
O Self Injury, etc.

Individuals with disabilities face multiple social, economic, physical and political problems, which hampers their freedom of movement in society. These barriers include stigmatization and a misunderstanding of the abilities and aspirations of persons with disabilities. There is also a pronounced lack of informational data, rules and regulations, rehabilitation centers, and main streaming and specialized services for persons with Exceptionalities.

The major community problem for which I have contributed my efforts is for "THE RIGHTS OF SPECIAL PEOPLE". I have worked as a teacher / counselor / trainer of Exceptional People for 7 years. Since my childhood, I had an intention to social work for the Exceptional people, because I had a natural bond of attachment with them.

I deal with all types of student of Profound, Severe, Moderate and Mild category. But I especially worked with "Borderline" students, who want their rights; Who are facing major problem in every society and in every community; Who wants their creativity to explore in front of others; Who awaits for the love from others and wants other to accept them as a Normal Being.

I believe that every individual can make a difference. I thank God that these lovely students trusted me ,ave me the bond of relationship and accepted me whole-heartedly during my first year of Volunteer Service. They shared all of their problems with me and I thank God for giving me the special power for being accepted by them. I have heard their voices, their shivered pleadings, their wishes, their expectations. But still, they need every one in the society to hear them, to care them and to love them. While working for their RIGHTS, I also faced many difficulties in our society.

I can not do every thing alone, but at least, I have brought a little change in their lives, which is a big reward for me. The problems, which need to be resolved wholly, could only be possible, if the societies will join their hands together.

O Media should take an initiative to discuss their issues to create awareness among the masses
O Inclusive education should be made compulsory in every school as the part of their curriculum.
O Awareness campaign for students' parents' teachers' should be raised in every community.
O Job opportunities must be provided to disable people
O Their needs should be addressed.
O Awareness should be made through telecasting movies and drama on their issues.
O They should not be called special.
O Competition should be raised in every community for youngger students to make them aware about their rights.
O They must get rights to study in normal schools with special needs.
O Government should setup new curriculum for them.
O Psychological testing should be made compulsory to identify their needs and areas of development.
O They must get work place opportunity, which is lack in Pakistan. They must get jobs in government institutions also.

Every one can contribute in the society:

O By participating in International competitions to raise awareness.
O By participating in awareness campaigns.
O By developing new curriculum for them on national policy level.
O By providing them educational facilities and social justice.
O By raising funds for them and by finding more work place opportunities for them.
O By becoming the Ambassador for Exceptional People in Pakistan.
O By truly implementing the human right laws, made by UN.
O By motivating them more enthusiastically.

What Made Native American Peoples Vulnerable to Conquest by European Adventurers?

What made Native American peoples vulnerable to conquest by European adventurers?

There were several traits which made the Native American’s vulnerable to conquest by European adventurers. First, the people themselves were ill equipped to deal with the European invaders. Their numbers were quickly reduced as a result of famine, forced labor, epidemics involving contact with European diseases and wars.

They were unaccustomed to the economic, political and military aspects associated with the Europeans. They lacked the organization and political unity to resist the conquering people. The various tribes were frequently in conflict with one and other as they went about their daily lives competing with each other for land and food. As an example over the years the Aztecs accumulated many enemies especially within their own tribe. This conflict resulted from competition for territorial rights, acquisition of wealth and the practice of using their captive enemies as religious sacrifices. Cortés exploited this trait by forming alliances with the opposing tribes. In contrast to the Aztecs lack of unity the Spanish explorers were a highly unified society.

The Native Americans possessed the necessary skills to work with copper but failed to develop those needed to smelt iron thus they lacked sufficient technology to wage war upon the invaders. When the Europeans arrived in the New World they were welcomed by the Native Americans. The Indians regarded their visitors as wonderful warriors with their dress, beards, and their ships but more so for the technology they brought with them. The native population was amazed at this technology such as their steel knives and swords, the arquebus which is a sort of muzzle loader, the cannon, copper and brass kettles, mirrors, hawk bells and earrings which were used as trading goods, along with other items which were unusual to their way of life. This was rightfully so since the natives lacked the ability to create these amazing inventions used by the Europeans. Unfortunately the European visitors used their weapons of war inflicting great amounts of damage to the natives.

It did not take long before serious problems began to develop. Upon the arrival of the Europeans there were 7 million Native Americans in North America. Most lived in hunter-gather or agricultural types of communities. The largest problem encountered by the Native Americans was their lack of immunity toward European diseases. This lack of immunity in these communities towards the European diseases took their toll among the Indian tribes. Smallpox was a common threat frequently contracted by the Indians from the European people.

The Native Americans soon began to dislike the Europeans and their beliefs. They often viewed the white man as despicable and stingy with their wealth. This was something that the Indians had not previously encountered. In their social order things were freely shared. The explorers were deemed to be insatiable in their desire for furs and hides. They particularly disliked the European’s intolerance for their religious beliefs, eating habits, sexual and marital arrangements and other aspects of their customs.

The Native Americans were used to being in tune with the spirit of nature but to the Europeans nature was an obstacle in their path. They viewed the gifts of nature as an endless supply of resources such as the forest having an abundance of timber, a beaver colony possessing unlimited pelts and the buffalo with many robes. To the explorers even the Native American’s were deemed a resource ripe for religious conversion or as a means of free labor.

Copyright @ 2015

Telenursing Approach – Evidence Based Challenge

Introduction-The term “basic health services” is defined by UNICEF and WHO (1965) as a network of co-ordinated, peripheral and intermediate health units capable of performing effectively, a selected group of functions essential to the health of an area and assuring the availability of competent professional personnel to perform these functions. WHO has also proclaimed health as a fundamental right of every individual and society.

India is a developing country with a large and diverse geographical terrain, and a huge population with a great deal of ethnic and cultural variation. It has all kinds of health care providers ranging from well qualified doctors of allopathy, homeopathy, ayurveda, registered medical practitioners to untrained providers of medical aid, herbalists, and magico-religious practitioners. The importance of the involvement of practitioners belonging to different systems of medicine in the health care system has been noted by various committees and in various health related policy documents from time to time. The National Health Policy (2002) advocated expanding the pool of medical practitioners to include a cadre of licentiates of medical practice, practitioners of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy. It further recommended that different categories of medical manpower should be permitted medical practice after adequate training. The National Population Policy (2000) recommended the involvement of manpower from different health agencies to expand the body of effective health care providers. Shrivastva Committee (1975) recommended primary health care within the community through trained workers to keep the health in the hands of the people.

The governments of developing countries are unable to deliver free health services as the basic right of the citizen in a holistic manner.Accessibility of health agency is an important aspect of its availability; hence a vital factor affecting treatment seeking behaviour of consumers. To make provision for basic health care to all the people is a difficult task for administrators in a country like India. Thus, eliminating geographical barriers, and to help develop new strategies and services to appeal to consumers’ various needs and desires is a big challenge.In spite of a host of national health policies; the health care indices significantly lag behind those of the developed countries. The quantitative and qualitative demographic transition in the population and disease profile along with inadequate health care delivery infrastructure is a fundamental concern for the country. In India, government from time to time declared deadlines for achievement of goals in health and various related areas. At present, in addition to other time bound goals of current eleventh five year plan, some of the important goals to be achieved by 2000-2015 are to increase utilization of public health facilities, and to establish a system of surveillance, national health accounts and health statistics.

Moreover, the increased need for health care has not been matched with a commensurate increase in resource, and the imbalance is growing. In developed countries telenursing applications are available in homes, home care agencies, hospital based telemedicine centres, hospices and rehabilitation centres whereas in Indian scenario, its need for implementation is being considered vis-a-vis telemedicine. The evidence based approach can mobilize application of the knowledge generated through research to meet the consumers’ health needs to bridge the gap between what is known and what to be done. Telenursing approach can serve as a new and valuable asset to utilize telecommunications to support the practice of nursing and provision of professional nursing care to the patients, health care professionals, as well as administrators on remote residential or clinical settings. The present paper presents an evidence based challenges for telenursing approach with an attempt to assess and study the trends of utilization of public and private (formal and informal) health agencies available in different communities of the Union Territory, Chandigarh, India.

Further, implementation of a holistic national health programme would require an assessment of the available health systems. In addition there is a nation wide need to find various aspects of the utilization of health services in different populations and geographical areas which may be helpful for finding out some of the reasons why the goal of “health for all” was not achieved and the utilization of public health care services was very low. It will further aid to fulfill the time bound national health goals. Thus, the considerable promise of e-health in addressing issues of quality, efficiency, cost, and access to care should be placed at the forefront of our national effort to reform healthcare.

Need of the study-With an attempt to discover the relationship between the consumer and the health agencies; the present paper intended to investigate and address major bottlenecks that may impede effective implementation of telenursing approach. Further, the need was felt for positive return on investment by targeting the consumers’ real needs and to hunt aspects which may be helpful for finding out some of the reasons for slow or non achievement of health goals and low utilization of public health care services.

Methodology-The study was conducted through a cross sectional survey of geographical areas of the urban, the rural, the slum and the rehabilitated sector in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. Data about utilization of health care services, and factors affecting treatment seeking behaviour of the consumers was explored through formal and informal interviews of 600 consumers. Observational visits were made to health agencies and study areas.

Results-The study found that majority i.e. 490(81.7{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}) out of 600 subjects most often used the indigenous health agency at one time or the other.Amongst reasons for utilization of indigenous health agencies and majority consumers perceived cause of diseases to be supernatural powers,bad karma/bad nazar (bad fortune), kala jadu performed by evil people to affect their families, no cure was available in the Allopathic system of medicine, illnesses can be cured through pujas, jharas or animal sacrifices,tying of sacred thread given by sadhus/babas cures illnesses, and the treatment of ailments through yoga and pranayama.

Indigenous health agencies were nearest to majority i.e. 59.9{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} subjects which included maximum number 87.3{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the slum subjects. As the indigenous agency was the second amongst most often used health care agency; the accessibility and availability of the indigenous agencies, along with other factors, are likely explanations for their high utilization.

On the other hand, it can be seen that in spite of the indigenous health agency being the nearest health agency in the urban and the rural sector (40{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} and 63.3{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} subjects respectively) it was not the most often utilized (utilization was by 11.3{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the urban and 20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the rural subjects). The use of indigenous agencies was significantly higher in less educated people.

It was found that who utilized indigenous health agency most (53.1{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} respondents) were from lowest monthly income group (Rs.1000-5000). These included 93.3{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the slum, and 100{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the rehabilitated subjects. Chi square value of 110.617 and p value <0.001 indicated a highly significant difference in the use of health agencies in different income groups. Thus, the use of indigenous agencies was significantly higher in lower income group.Majority of people from low income group availed health services from informal health agencies, which also happened to be the cheapest agencies. Thus, from above it was found that services of indigenous health agencies were actively utilized them in the slum and the rehabilitated sector.

Recommendations-Education and documentation will bring better quality of health care services through formal recognition of standardized private indigenous health agencies and health workers as opposed to the reliance on quacks/faith healers. Thus, with greater responsibility in telecare, telenursing has to struggle a long way to replace old challenges with new possibilities in weaning consumers away from untrained private indigenous health providers and faith healers hence safeguarding the interest of the consumers. This will not only save people from being misled by superstitions and unscientific practices, but would also conform to the objective of the national health goals in developing countries like India.

There is a need for collaboration and integration of services of the government health care agencies with private formal and private indigenous (informal) health care providers to achieve national health goals.The right mix of health care professionals can attend to people’s most frequent needs up to their satisfaction levels.

Therefore, the investment plans should be intended to meet towards today’s evidence based needs and challenges with steady progress toward a longer term vision.

Eastern Culture or Western Culture, Which is Better

As we see the changing of the guard of the Worlds greatest civilizations from the United States to China or India we see history repeating itself as it has so many times in the human endeavors written history. It was not much more than 200 years ago when Great Britain was the greatest nation in the World. They kept the Great in their name but the United States clearly carried the choice after that. Next it appears due to our own follies and lake of forward progression we will be passing the torch again and in doing so taking our place as a footnote on the page in the annals of mankind’s history.

As we pass are on the apex of the hand off, which is clearly a choice having drown our nation in bureaucracy, over regulation and disdain for change, innovation or progress; we see a difference in cultures which is vast indeed. It is obvious that Western Culture has its advantages, whether we take advantage of them or not. It is equally as obvious for anyone who studies culture that Eastern Culture has its own advantages. Some of these advantages are in conflict, while much is similar. Which is better?

Should we assume that since Eastern Culture is next up to bat with the bases loaded that Eastern lifestyle is more fulfilling than the Western Lifestyle? We know from our own short 200-year history in the United States that western worlds; capitalism and western culture lifts people up, who put in. We have seen in recent history how Socialism and Communism have tended to push people down and over run civilizations in debt and inefficiency. Yet all in all most of human history and the government structures they have chosen share many things. All these scenarios and all the hybrids of each or all, seem to involve people who are of the ruling class who are motivated by those things humans are motivated by, similarly to those they rule, who are equally motivated by such things.

So when we ask which is better; one government structure or one culture over another, it appears that one could indeed argue both sides of the point or be right no matter which side they argue. And indeed in such abstract thought it seems we are all of the same genes and all one in that regard. The only difference between you neighbor in the United States and one of Asian Ancestry is probably not more than 3000-4000 years and certainly not more than 10,000 to 15,000. We all have similar needs to fulfill self and although have been pre-conditioned to believe one culture is better than the other is more nurture than nature isn’t it? Have you thought here yet? You might next time someone says it is us against them, as that is more similar to punching yourself in the eye really? We all belong to a fairly successful species which has come quite a ways and whose future is very bright if we will dump these egocentric attitude and that goes for both sides.

In the movie about World War II a Japanese Political Prisoner in the United States was asked; “Who do you want to win the war?” In the movie his answer showed much wisdom as he said; ” If your mother and father are fighting, do you want one to kill the other or do you just want them to stop fighting?” Well with that said and if you are a God fearing individual what do you think your God might say about this? Do you really believe that a God believes that these questions of which culture is better; Eastern or Western Culture are relevant? When Gandhi was asked what he thought of Western Culture, he said; “I think it would be a good idea.” You know so do I, I wish we would live as we promise ourselves rather than in hypocrisy, how about you?

Additionally had it not been for our long and strong history of capitalists, we in the Western World would have never achieved this level of civilization, yet we condemn those who got us here and those that follow in their footsteps. How many times have you heard that Bill Gates is the Anti-Christ? That is ridiculous and he and Melinda have given more to the World than anyone else in the history of humankind and what do we do as a society? Call him the anti-Christ and tell the government to attack his company, which is providing the communication to the world and opening up the world for cross-culture knowledge and commerce? So if Western Culture is better, why do we attack it?

We should not necessarily equate Red China to communism or place a label like Imperialism as we did to the Japanese in the Second World War, but we should understand that as we live in hypocrisy in our civilization often those running other civilizations do the same. History shows many different styles of societies, but in critic of Western Civilization for Eastern Culture, we might wish to define which one. The Chinese Dynasties of days gone by, the more recent hard line Red China of three decades ago or the newest hybrid culture which is slowly emerging, which when finished will much resemble a larger and even more stable version of South Korea?

Currently I guess if I were a Chinese Peasant and the government was testing out N5H1 Bird Flu vaccine for a possible use for bio-warfare in my South Western Province, I do not think I would be a great supporter of Eastern Culture over Western? I think if this was the case that I would rather have my family to be making Nike Shoes today and driving a Chevrolet and wearing Levis tomorrow. This is an interesting point on debate of which is better; Eastern or Western Culture, but the question in itself is wrong as we are comparing apples and oranges aren’t we. Some say that the Ugly Western Culture Capitalists in their pursuit of Globalism are causing other nations to remain impoverished. Is Globalism really bad, or is it getting a bad rap? And does it really matter which is better Eastern or Western Culture as we do not even respect all we have in the United States and in our haste to point out worse problems in the world, we have taken our eye off the ball and China and/or India is ready to hit a grand slam home run, clean out of the park. So it really doesn’t matter which you think is better; click here:

Learn Chinese while you drive, sure beats road rage, yelling at fellow citizens, may as well start today:

http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1888194170/104-0004098-8541509?v=glance

It would be wise to re-evaluate our nation, what we really stand for and move to fix those things which are not perfect now, before we allow it to all slip away embroiled in controversy, politics and chaos as we divide ourselves. Think about it.

UK Has Become a Democracy by Evolution Rather Than Revolution

Introduction

In first century B.C. Roman Empire was spread through out whole Europe including Southern Britain which including modern England. Roman Empire prevails not only by military means but also their culture, law and political system. At that time Rome was ruled by Senate, with the principles of ancient Democracy. That was a legacy of Greece to Rome. While conquering the world these Roman donate Democracy all over its territory as well as England. After the collapse of Roman Empire in 3rd century A.D. British people enjoyed some kind of independence from outer world. After some time whole island scattered to a number of kingdoms. Then, there was nothing left something called Democracy anymore. Only monarchs were left there which relies on feudalism.

Various invasions and migrations made mixed nation in Britain. British history was intermingled with dozens of cultures like Celtic, Roman, Anglo Saxon, Jute, French, Dane, Norse and Norman.

The main turning point of British history is invasion of William of Normandy in 1066.He beat the Saxon King Harold at the battle of Hastings. William and his descendants over England with violent and totalitarian regime and there was no liberal democracy. Gradually Norman Knights and those Saxons, who had some land and money, secure great power over the Kings. They had their own army as well as taxation process. Therefore Kings couldn’t rule country without their help (both military and financially).Especially the reign of inept Kings. However, the main characteristic of the British Constitution is there is no book or archive in written form. We can figure it out as series of bills consent in parliament and customs evolved time to time. These Bills and Customs built up evolution rather than revolution. From here let us consider main archives to prove that.

Magna Carta

In the reign of such inept King John in 1215,the great barons of the land rose up in mutiny and forced the King to sign an agreement called “Magna Carta”(Great Charter). They were questioned whether the King really should have total power over the country. From signing Magna Carta “the king to renounce certain rights and respect certain legal procedures, and to accept that the will of the king could be bound by law. Magna Carta was the first step in a long historical process leading to the rule of constitutional law.”

This is a revolutionary moment in British history. Probably, the preamble to the British constitution. Actually, the incident is seems like a revolutionary one, though it didn’t change structure of Monarch or abolish it. Feudalism continues. Only change was Nobles and Pope gets some power rather than before and some human rights were accepted as inviolable. Below mention the most valuable clause in the Charter even modern constitutions also added as fundamental right of human beings. That was;

“No free man shall be arrested, or imprisoned, or deprived of his property, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way destroyed, nor shall we go against him or send against him, unless by legal judgement of his peers, or by the law of the land”.

In particular it set up the right of habeas corpus, which means the right to appeal against imprisonment. However the successors of King John broke the clauses of Charter and again move to power of absolute monarch again. Therefore Magna Carta can’t consider as a revolutionary incident of world history.

Church and Monarch

Monarch is not the only section which used the power in Medieval England; The Roman Catholic Church acted significant character in great deal. The Church owned large acres of land, had power of charge and raise taxes, and even its own system of courts to try people who had broken its laws – called Canon law. So, for on these issues there was a clash between Monarch and The Church in England.

Clear example for that, is the matter of divorce Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. The Church wasn’t let the king do so. The monarch turned on the Church with a vengeance. He seized Church lands, closed ancient monasteries, and took all the property of them and finally appointed himself as head of the Church, which meant the Pope was no longer be obeyed in England. This was a major turning point in English history because it increased power and wealth of the monarch, and because the Church land was sold to wealthy merchants, it also created a new group of landowners, who in time went into parliament and took part in government. This is the first event the members of the parliament took sufficient power. This is revolutionary act, but it last only in Henry’s regime, then his daughter Mary convert the country to Catholic, but again in the era of Elizabeth I, she followed Henry’s path. That demonstrated, this revolutionary act not accepted at once by people of England. This (independence from Church) was the second step of the evolution of British Constitution.

Parliament Power

The Monarch and the Parliament work together peacefully most of the British history, except some incident. Elections to the House of Commons were held regularly but only landowners got to vote.

Struggle between King Charles I and Parliamentarians is the most crucial incident happened in British history. King Charles I refuse to ruling with the agreement of Parliament, and wanted absolute monarch. In 1642, civil war broke out, Charles I defeated and executed. Finally Britain became a republic under leadership of Oliver Cromwell for 11 years without a monarchy. After his death again the country became a monarch.

From this example we see the British people react revolutions very slowly. There was no much power given to the King by Parliament after this incident. So, these two institutions have compromised there power to neutralize hostilities with each other from here. Eventually, parliament gains the power over monarch.

After the incident so called “English Revolution” which overthrew King James II and gave the throne to William of Orange is dynamic example for how much power parliamentarians gained after 1642 civil war. Before that had no power to decide and appoint the King. That showed slightly some of the King’s power slightly leaked to Parliament by passing Bills and Acts. So, King’s absolute power and divinity reduce by time but not in instant. People introduce this incident as a revolution, but still it didn’t change the former political structure significantly.

Thenceforth, despite the monarch have some power, the King or Queen would only govern the country with the agreement of Parliament. In effect, power shifted from a single monarch to the members of an elected parliament and the unelected House of Lords.

Political Parties

After the power centralized in the Parliament factions of society rose up as parties, which carried out their own policy. Not only parties, some wealthy individuals also rose up independent candidates.

The first two great political parties are Liberal Democrats (Whigs) and Conservatives (Tories).In eighteenth and nineteenth centuries these two parties’ bitter rivals, but once one party came to power they ruled the country in harmony as a one nation.

These two parties had their own policies, which always gave priority when they come to power. Conservatives were generally Catholic or Anglican while were from a more Calvinist or radical Protestant tradition. Religion in the eighteenth and nineteenth

centuries was a big issue and it was the root of the enmity between the two parties.

Power of Lords

House of Lords is not elected from election, though at the time, the House of Lords could in effect veto any laws drawn up by the House of Commons. In 1911, then Liberal Government introduced Parliament Act and removed veto power of House of Lords. As a result of the Parliament Act, the House of Lords has the right to scrutinize proposed laws drawn up in the Commons and to ask members of that House to think again three times. If the Lords reject a law a third time, the House of Commons can say enough and the proposed Act passes into law despite objection from the Lords. After that, the House of Commons secure their primacy over the House of Lords. This is another example for evolution of British Constitution; because they change it according to temporary demands arises at that time. Veto power is always be a threat to modern Democracy. It was indirectly reduce of the power of monarch and wealthy families, because all of Lords are appointed by monarch, and also many of the Lords are descend from wealthy families who didn’t like common people’s welfare. Whatever the matter abolishment of veto power of the House of Lords; House of Commons didn’t try to abolish that institution. For this reason we can’t pointed it as a revolution.

Earning Full Democracy

There was no full Democracy in Britain until first two decade in twentieth century. Women were granted voting power at those days. Prior to that only men had the power to vote, even earlier only for the wealthy; and also majority of population didn’t have the power to choose who govern them.

Conclusion

Today, we see Britain as one of the best democratic country of the world. It earns and continues Democracy from evolution. When comparing France, Russia and USA it took too much time to change in to one political structure to another. Their democracy still evolving and turning more freely. That democracy affects them today more harshly because any party who form a government has to make a coalition. This is very bad to country’s stability. However, they manage to keep the country safe on the name of Democracy.