Category Archives: society



Olusegun Obasanjo (2002: 50-fifty one) asserts:

                        We combat, and in some cases get rid of

                        blood to achieve and keep political

                        electrical power due to the fact for us in Nigeria, the

                        political kingdom has for much too very long been

                        the gateway to the economic kingdom

The foregoing assertion captures the content and context of political thuggery and violence in Nigeria. The assertion demonstrates how blood is becoming exchanged for political electrical power in Nigeria. The use of thugs in Nigerian politics has not only led to squander of human sources, but it has also resulted in the dearth of in a position-bodied males who might be useful in the foreseeable future of Nigeria, and reduced participation of women of all ages in politics.

            With no doubt, Nigerian politics has given that independence, been characterised by thuggery and violence. Little ponder, politics is conceived as a soiled match and exceptional right of thugs and hooligans in Nigeria. Consequently, Nigeria politics manifest in acrimony, assault, assassination, intimidation, harassment, maiming and killing. This development is not a phenomenon of recency thuggery, brutality and violence political behaviour have been with us for the past 4 decades. Right away following independence the politicians, in an try to seize, exercising, and keep electrical power inside of their regional settings associated them selves in various functions that had been politically immature, unwise and distrastrous. They adopted a design and style that was antithetical to democratic tenet and good governance. They recruited, educated and empowered thugs to harass, intimidate and victimize perceived political opponents and opposing views towards their political ambition. This culture of thuggery has not only been imbibed and sustained as section of the country’s political behaviour given that independence to the existing instant, it has been one of the strong brings about of the reduced participation of women of all ages in politics. It is towards this qualifications that this paper examines thuggery and violence in Nigerian politics, its brings about, outcomes on women of all ages political participation and propose methods of ensuring maximum and substantial participation of Nigerian women of all ages in politics.


Knowing THE Concepts


            Thuggery according to the (Oxford Dictionary of Recent English (1998: 952), only signifies violent act or behaviour by ruffians. From the foregoing, it is noticed that thuggery is synonymous with violence.

            Howell described thug politics the tireless repetition of misleading specifics made to depict an opponent as individually despicable and in regard to governance as unsafe to bodily and religious lifetime of a nation (2004:3). Thuggery is an act characterised by rudeness, hooliganism, touting, intimidation and harassment. It is a behaviour that contradicts peace, harmony and co-existence amongst groups. Political thuggery is an illegitimate and violent signifies of seeking political electrical power with a watch to subverting countrywide view for parochial finishes by way of self imposition.

For that reason, political thuggery is only the criminalisation of politics. When politics is criminalized, it is still left in the hands of ruffians, thugs …



There is a typical maxim in the culture these days that’ whichever a gentleman can do, a female can also do it or much better’, which indicates that gals really should be specified equal possibility to present scenario their talent (s) in all sides of human endeavour.

          1 concern that has in excess of the yrs becoming a subject of controversy is regardless of whether gals really should require in politics. Now, gals are not only complaining of underneath-illustration in politics notably in federal government. Couple of gals are presidents of international locations and senators, assembly associates, councilors amongst other political posts these days.

          Primarily, there is no doubt that in excess of the yrs, men have been dominating the political landscape of most international locations in the entire world. What then can be regarded as the dividends of men’s adventurism in governance?. Now, most international locations in the entire world are plaque by myriads of troubles arising from bad governance of all those in corridor of energy who are primarily men. Most of the leaders are extremely greedy and corrupt to the extent that their international locations methods have been impoverished. Owning unsuccessful to provide good governance in this regard for various yrs, there is nothing improper if gals who are noted to be caring, fearful, humane amongst other traits are specified extra likelihood in federal government for feasible change in the ‘status quo’.

          When seen from an additional viewpoint, gals are noted for domesticated assignments, becoming weak elements who really should not be subjected to much too much worry. It is believed that Politics is a extremely severe business involving strategies, repeated conferences and movement from a person spot to an additional, which are in truth much too demanding for gals. Adult males in politics are noted for holding late evenings thanks to their limited program. If gals are  allowed to adhere to accommodate, this can make them  abandon their roles at the residence setting, the consequence of which can be extremely grave which includes broken residence, marital conflict, adultery of their husbands, indulgence of small children in social vices like armed robbery, prostitution, thieving amongst others thanks to insufficient motherly treatment.…

Political Parties of the US


The United States is commonly classified as a representative democracy. What is that?

In a literal sense,democracymeans government by the people. The word democracy originated in two Greek roots—demos, meaning “the populace” or “the common people”; and kratia, meaning “rule.” Of course, in large, populous nations, government by all the people is impractical at the national level. It would be impossible for the more than 246 million Americans to vote on every important issue that comes before Congress. Consequently, democracies are generally maintained through a mode of participation known as representative democracy, in which certain individuals are selected to speak for the people.

The United States is commonly classified as a representative democracy, since Americans elect members of Congress and state legislatures to handle the task of writing laws.

Unlike monarchies, oligarchies, and dictatorships, the democratic form of government implies an opposition which is tolerated or, indeed, encouraged to exist. In the United States, there are two major political parties—the Democrats and Republicans—as well as various minor parties. Sociologists use the term political party to refer to an organization whose purposes are to promote candidates for elected office, advance an ideology as reflected in positions on political issues, win elections, and exercise power.

So in my report I would like to tell you history of American donkey and elephant. Also I used to think that there are no politic parties in the USA except Democrats and Republicans but that was mistake I changed due to that report.


The Democratic Party (DNC) today

After the 2002 elections, Democrats control several key governorships (including PA, MI, IL, VA, NJ, NC and WA) and many state legislatures – but lost control of the US House in 1994, narrowly lost control of the US Senate again in 2002 (but they still hold enough seats to block much legislation), and lost control of the White House in the 2000 elections. While prominent Democrats run the wide gamut from the near democratic-socialist left (Barbara Lee, Dennis Kucinich and the Congressional Progressive Caucus) and traditional liberals (Hillary Clinton, Nancy Pelosi and Ted Kennedy) to the center-right (Joe Lieberman, the Congressional Blue Dog Coalition and the New Democrat Network) to the GOP-style conservative right (Ralph Hall and Gene Taylor), most fall somewhere into the pragmatic Democratic Leadership Council’s “centrist” moderate-to-liberal style (Evan Bayh, Dick Gephardt, Tom Daschle).

Brief History of  the Democratic Party

At the start of the 21st Century, the Democratic Party can look back on a proud history — a history not just of a political organization but of a national vision. It is a vision based on the strength and power of millions of economically empowered, socially diverse and politically active Americans. Over two hundred years ago, democsatic party’s founders decided that wealth and social status were not an entitlement to rule. They believed that wisdom and compassion could be found within every individual and a stable government must be built upon a broad …

Ethics of Legal Profession


Ethics of Legal Profession


The profession of law is honourable, and its members are expected to act in an honest and upright manner, and any deviation from these elementary principles is liable to e dealt with severely.

An advocate practising law is under a triple obligation­­­­­­:

An obligation to his clients to be faithful to them till the last, an obligation to the profession not to besmirch its name by anything done by him, and an obligation to the court to be and to remain a dependable part of the machinery through which justice is administered. It is beyond the scope of treatise on legal ethics to describe the aims and uses of examinations of witnesses or to state the rules as to how evidence shall be recorded. In examining witnesses the advocate should not forget that he is not merely the counsel of client but also an officer of the Court to further the ends of justice. Similarly, the advocate should maintain towards his opponent utmost cordiality. Clients and not counsels are litigants. The ill-feelings between clients should not be allowed to influence the conduct of their counsel. Says Daniel Webster: “lawyers on opposite sides of a case are like the two parts of shears, they cut what comes between them, but not each other”

In the same way, Law being a fraternity, the profession is entitled to loyal support of its members in the maintenance of this tradition. There are certain duties of advocates towards his profession also; like, professional courtesy, co-operation, equal consideration to all members of the profession, encourage junior brethren, should stand up for its dignity and privileges whenever there is occasion for it, he should expose corrupt or dishonest conduct in the profession. Similarly advocates should also owe certain duties towards his colleagues which is analysed in subsequent pages.

In the words of Chief Justice Marshall has observed;

“the fundamental aim of Legal Ethics is to maintain the honour and dignity of the Law Profession, to secure a spirit of friendly co-operation between the Bench and the Bar in the promotion of highest standards of justice, to establish honourable and fair dealings of the counsel with his client opponent and witnesses ; to establish a spirit of brotherhood in the Bar itself ; and to secure that lawyers discharge their responsibilities to the community generally.”

Legal profession is not a business but a profession. It has been created by the state for the public good. Consequently, the essence of the profession lies in the three things-

  1. Organisation of its members for the performance of their function ;
  2. Maintenance of certain standards, intellectual and ethical for the dignity of the profession;
  3. Subordination of pecuniary gains to efficient services.

The codification of the canons of the professional ethics may give impression that the code is exhaustive while in reality it cannot be exhaustive. It has been rightly stated by P.Ramanatha Aiyer and N.S. Ranganatha Aiyer that it is not possible to formulate a …

Outcomes of a Dui in Los Angeles

A DUI or Driving beneath the Affect cost is significantly extra critical of an function than most individuals imagine. Primarily in Los Angeles and the Southern California space, exactly where driving is a substantial section of one’s everyday life. The popular assumed amongst most individuals is that a DUI is not a critical criminal offense and is extra of a targeted visitors violation. The fact is that it is as critical as any other criminal offense and the penalties linked with it may even come with a heavier burden and selling price tag.

A DUI is a thing that can occur to any individual and in most circumstances is a criminal offense that is charged to individuals customers of the neighborhood that are minimum probable to be associated in any prison matter. Consequently, a DUI can occur to anybody. Hence, DUI’s are crimes that take place with greater frequency than other crimes in our modern society. For this explanation, law enforcement and authorities coverage have been extra stringent on the penalties it imposes on the offenders.

So how does a DUI affect a Southern Californian? The mere mother nature of the infrastructure in the Greater Los Angeles space and Southern California requires just one to use a individual automobile for transportation extra than other metropolitan areas. As properly, thanks to the measurement of the city, Southern Californians are prone to commute more time distances than most other cities, putting them extra scenarios exactly where they have to make a judgment of no matter if they are capable to drive soon after consuming alcoholic drinks. As properly as putting numerous Los Angeles drivers in a higher possibility of encountering a drunk driver. Hence, halting drunk drivers is an objective of higher precedence for neighborhood law enforcement agencies.

If a driver is convicted of a DUI in Los Angeles, the penalties will have good and long lasting consequences on them. For just one, the DUI offender will experience prison expenses. A conviction in a prison court docket can impose a sentence involving jail time, liquor packages, drug packages, neighborhood assistance, Cal Trans work, and so forth. The court docket will make a determination based on the situation of the situation. A conviction by the prison court docket will surface on the defendant’s prison report.

A DUI will also affect one’s driver license privileges. A different listening to by the DMV (California Division of Motor Motor vehicles) will determine no matter if limits on one’s driver license should be placed. Following reviewing the proof on the matter and testimony by the arresting officer, the DMV can possibly depart the license in tact devoid of limits, suspend for a certain volume of time, revoke the license, or make the license restrictive for driving to and from work. Shedding a driving license in Los Angeles is a greater burden than any other place, as it could affect how you get to work and general public transportation is not usually a likelihood in LA. Any infraction …

Being a Politician. Professionals and Disadvantages of This Really serious Job

Job is needed in lifetime not only to gain funds. It is also a way for self-realization, diverse ambitions implementation, and so on. Although choosing a profession one particular estimates not only such elements as higher salary, options for occupation setting up, but also normally takes into account all doable positive and damaging sides. Negative sides are regarded to bring tension to folks that may possibly direct to melancholy and psychological insanity. These points are relatively critical whilst choosing a occupation or willingness to occupy any place. There is a good deal of details relating to peculiarities of operate business office. There is even recognized new disease, supervisor syndrome that declares by itself via the emotion of consistent tiredness, psychological stress and unwillingness to go to the business office each working day. And what about these folks who operate at the governmental services? Are there any Professionals and Disadvantages of getting a politician? This place is worth of dialogue. Professionals of getting a politician one)Immunity of a deputy. Every politician is a suitable for it, since immunity of a deputy provides the specific privileges that consist in obtaining the specific deputy autos, housing, security, and inviolability in some juridical questions. 2)High salary. Due to the fact a profession of a politician is a major ample. The higher social rank also influences the salary price. Disadvantages of getting a politician one)Immunity of a deputy. It is a paradox, but immunity of a deputy can be thought of both equally, a positive and a damaging. It can be damaging in a scenario when a politician commits unlawful actions toward citizens and modern society and are unable to be appropriately punished for it. 2)Good obligation. The profession of a politician provides the terrific obligation for each action since of the politician’s actions would count long run lifetime of a metropolis or even the complete region (if it is a president). Hence, it is apparent that Professionals and Disadvantages are in each profession, even the most well known and perfectly paid.…

The principle of Political management

The notion that a condition cannot be on its own without the need of some established of individuals at the helm of its affairs cannot be in excess of emphasised. It follows that for any soceity to be nicely cordinated, there ought to be a chief. But the question to inquire is that: why do the citizens have the duty to obey the rules of the condition by its management? This is the issue of political obligation.

The respond to to this question is uncomplicated and clear. “The condition has sovereign authority”. It follows logically that at the helm of affairs of each and every condition, there are some established of individuals to give orders even though others are obliged by the legislation to comply with. It is as a result obvious that the principle of management is peculiar to Hobbes’ social contract wherever individuals surrender their rights to be dominated by the leviathan.

Nonetheless, the phrase “management” implies supplying a course to, or heading a social team or system. It could also be understood as a relationship among all those that lead and all those that comply with them. It could be a collective or refer to a one specific and it goes as much as the potential of leaders to persuade followers by the cultivation of a perception of popular objective which will advantage all users.

The question to take into consideration on the over assertion is that: is it not probable for a relationship to be created in a society or condition and popular aim attained without the need of anybody always getting the chief? We can also watch leadersip as the potential to attain a no-coerced, voluntary compliance which allows followers to attain the targets which they share with their leaders. Nonetheless, we can make some crucial observation namely, that political management is a relational principle beneath lied by ability, have confidence in and outlined targets and sites a large amount of high quality on the purpose of specific.…

Government and Politics


Political system is one of the subsystem of society, and play sufficient role in our life.

The term political system refers to a recognized set of procedures for implementing and obtaining the goals of a group.

Each society must have a political system in order to maintain recognized procedures for allocating valued resources. In political scientist Harold Lasswell’s (1936) terms, politics is who gets what, when, and how. Thus, like religion and the family, a political system is a cultural universal; it is a social institution found in every society.

We will focus on government and politics within the United States as well as other industrialized nations and preindustrial societies. In their study of politics and political systems, sociologists are concerned with social interactions among individuals and groups and their impact on the larger political order. For example, in studying the controversy over the nomination of Judge Robert Bork, sociologists might wish to focus on how a change in the group structure of American society—the increasing importance of the black vote for southern Democratic candidates—affected the decision making of Howell Heflin and other senators (and, ultimately, the outcome of the Bork confirmation battle). From a sociological perspective, therefore, a fundamental question is: how do a nation’s social conditions affect its day-to-day political and governmental life?


Power is at the heart of a political system. Power may be defined as the ability to exercise one’s will over others. To put it another way, if one party in a relationship can control the behavior of the other, that individual or group is exercising power. Power relations can involve large organizations, small groups, or even people in an intimate association. Blood and Wolfe (1960) devised the concept of marital power to describe the manner in which decision making is distributed within families.

There are three basic sources of power within any political system—force, influence, and authority. Force is the actual or threatened use of coercion to impose one’s will on others. When leaders imprison or even execute political dissidents, they are applying force; so, too, are terrorists when they seize an embassy or assassinate a political leader. Influence, on the other hand, refers to the exercise of power through a process of persuasion. A citizen may change his or her position regarding a Supreme Court nominee because of a newspaper editorial, the expert testimony of a law school dean before the Senate Judiciary Committee, or a stirring speech at a rally by a political activist. In each case, sociologists would view such efforts to persuade people as examples of influence. Authority, the third source of power, will be discussed later.

Max Weber made an important distinction between legitimate and illegitimate power. In a political sense, the term legitimacy refers to the “belief of a citizenry that a government has the right to rule and that a citizen ought to obey the rules and laws of that government”. Of course, the meaning of the term can be extended beyond the …

Leads to and Results of Ethnic Clashes in Kenya

one. Leads to of Ethnic Clashes

Ethnic clashes, wherever they have taken position in Kenya, have frequently been instigated by the panic of reduction of political power and the implications that might accompany these types of an eventuality these types of as reduction of privilege and the patronage that goes with it. In this regard it has been mentioned elsewhere that the only unique sample that emerges from the ethnic clashes is that they seem to be linked to political pressure in the entire body politic. For occasions the Rift Valley clashes took position when the political atmosphere in the state was hugely charged because of to exterior and inner pressure for political pluralism. The major causes are briefly talked over in this segment. Politicized Ethnicity: A lot has been written about ethnicity as a supply of conflict in Africa. It is recommended right here that ethnicity per se, in the absence of its politicization, does not cause conflict. There is proof to propose that exactly where ethnic conflict has emerged in Africa, there has constantly been political machinations powering it. Politicization of ethnicity generally can take position in a situation characterised by an inequitable framework of entry. These a framework provides increase to the emergence of the “in team” and the “out team” with the latter attempting to split the framework of inequality as the previous responds by constructing limitations to entry that assure the continuation of its privileged placement. At the centre of this scenario are the elites who, emotion excluded or threatened with exclusion, start to invoke ethnic ideology in the hope of developing a responsible foundation of guidance to combat what is purely own and/ or elite passions.

one.2 Land problems: Land was an underlying aspect powering considerably of the organised violence in the Rift Valley, as nicely as getting critical to the additional localised ongoing conflicts in Mt Elgon and Molo. Without a doubt, due to the fact the nineties selected leaders have exploited grievances more than perceived ‘historical injustices’ and inadequately managed settlement schemes for electoral edge. These grievances, are perceived as favouritism and corruption by successive governments in allocation of fertile land, such as a refusal to protect against and reverse settlement of outsiders (notably Kikuyus) in land originally appropriated from the neighborhood citizens by the colonial authorities. This of program has transpired in a context of speedy population development in what continues to be a largely agricultural culture.

one.three Weak and disempowered establishments: In spite of some attempts on reform due to the fact 2002, establishments in Kenya are easily manipulated or captured by own agendas and vested passions. Well known distrust and political manipulation rendered crucial establishments unable to mediate the election impasse and answer properly to the violence. For instance ECK (Electoral Commission of Kenya).

one.4 Society of impunity: Considering the fact that the arrival of multi-bash politics all through the nineties this political dynamic has been a vital aspect major to the incitement of violence about elections (both …