Know the Types of Laws Prevailing In a State

It is the laws that allow a state to function in a proper order. The legal system protects the rights of the individuals so as to ensure that they are safe and secured in every way. They are the rules that govern the character and function of any individual or group. They regulate the social and economic interactions and maintain that they are smoothly conducted. They are a source of primary mediator between the relations of the people.

It is better to know that every country has its personal legal system. They are generally divided into different branches. To name them it can be said that there is corporate law, taxation law, property law, international law, environmental health law, etc. Every type of law has some or the other importance with respect to the society. Some of the major laws that need mention are as follows:

Criminal Law

The criminal law is enforced to pass a judgment over the criminal activities. They are administered by the individual jurisdictions in every place, including the self-governing territories. It is a matter of concern for the state. In certain cases, the central government of the country and the Commonwealth might also have a say in the case.

Contract Law

The contract law is something that is enforced for the encompassing of the laws or the regulations in terms of certain promises. In most countries, these are related to the common law.

Industrial Law

The industrial law is the rules and regulations that the working people gas to abide by. It also ensures to protect their rights. They also put a restriction on the organizations and mediate the relationship between trade unions, employees and employers.

Constitutional Law

The constitutional law defines different entities within a state. These are divided into three parts or wings, namely the legislature, judiciary and the executive. They are in charge of the total processes of managing the state. With them enforced the ministers, the government bodies are directed the path to their work.

Administrative Law

If any of the subjects of the state wishes to challenge the action or a decision of the state or the country or a government official or an authority they can do so with the help of this law. It is also applicable in case the person on whom one wants to challenge is not a government official but is making use of the public power.

In all the above-mentioned circumstances the judgment is passed down by the court of law and the applicants or here the citizens have to abide by them. The court, therefore, has the final say in such cases.…

Science Fair Project Ideas – Quick and Easy Project 4 – Light Intensity

One of the best science fair project ideas for students that are particular interested in the science and mathematics of light travel is the Joly Photometer. This project allows students to use the inverse square law to measure light intensity. This may not be one of the best projects for students in lower grades, as the project requires an understanding of some difficult mathematic concepts.

In order to perform this experiment, students will need to spend between $ 20 and $ 50. The project should take about a week, which makes it one of the more time-consuming science fair project ideas that I've come across. Also, students might want to have a parent around to make sure the project is done safely.

Objective:
During this project, you will measure the light intensity of light bulbs using your own hand-crafted photometer.

Introduction:
Through this project, you will learn that different light sources have different powers to project light into a room. Every light bulb in your home may not have the same ability to emit light the same distance. During this project, you will learn about the basic differences between how light bulbs work. Plus, you'll build and use your very own photometer.

Terms and Concepts You'll Need to Know:
You'll learn much more about these terms and concepts through the course of your experiment, but it's a good idea to start with a basic knowledge of them:

  • Inverse square law (you'll learn lots about this law!)
  • Incandescent light bulbs (you may already have some in your home)
  • Compact fluorescent light bulbs
  • Photometer (you'll make your own)

Questions You'll Answer:

  • What makes incandescent light bulbs work?
  • Why do incandescent light bulbs die?
  • What makes fluorescent light bulbs work?
  • Why do fluorescent light bulbs die?
  • Which is the longest lying light bulb?
  • Which light bulb makes light most efficient?

Materials You'll Need:
You should not have to pay more than $ 50 for all of these materials, but you'll probably find most of them in your home already:

  • One pound of paraffin wax
  • A sharp knife
  • Foil
  • Cardboard box (small)
  • Scissors
  • Tape
  • Identical light fixtures
  • Measuring tape (not a ruler)
  • Several kinds of light bulbs

Procedure:
Follow these steps in order to successfully complete one of the best science fair project ideas for determine how light works differently with different bulbs:

  1. Cut one slab of the wax in half. (Each box of wax should have four slabs).
  2. Cut aluminum foil to be the same size as the slabs and place it in between the 2 slabs.
  3. Create a cardboard box around the slabs. Use tape to hold it together.
  4. Make 3 windows in the sides of the cardboard box (one side will not have a window). This is your photometer.
  5. Place the photometer straight between 2 light fixtures at equal distances and equal heights. Make sure these light fixtures are the only sources of light in a room.
  6. With the light bulbs illuminated, move the photometer between the two light bulbs until

Pollution in Kolkata – Why a Whole City is Turning Into a Health Hazard!

Pollution levels across India are some of the highest anywhere in the world. And on top of this pile of polluted places sits Kolkata. A once beautiful city has been reduced to a huge garbage yard with tons of plastic waste strewn on every square inch of the city. Along with the number of aging buses and trucks spewing smoke – the various coal fires and dusty construction sites, have made the landscape a wasteland. But what has conspired to create this situation? Why has the West Bengal government turned a blind eye to the transport contractors?

Politics has always been a prominent part of the Kolkata culture. However the excessive politicizing of every issue has made it extremely difficult for legislation to be formed. The government in its quandary chooses to sleep over the various bills in the interest of protecting the environment – rather than irk the contractors who pay for the party funds. This has led to an unhealthy environment of government apathy and general callousness, especially in taking care of the living conditions. In its mandate to “provide rights to the poor” they have totally neglected the harm being caused to the environment by the millions of poor in the city.

The classic case of rampant pollution in the city of Kolkata are the buses and trucks plying the roads. In a recent move, a number of NGOs had petitioned that the pollution norms be strictly applied to the errant bus contractors. However the ministry decided to make the announcement with a rider that “people with genuine reasons can get a reprieve from the pollution control measures”!! This kind of obvious molly coddling of the transport contractors have further emboldened them, making it impossible for the police on the ground to fine the law breakers.

Plastic bags is another area where the West Bengal government has failed to check pollution. Elsewhere in all other major cities of India, plastic bags are banned as they cause widespread pollution which is difficult to remove. But not in Kolkata – where the “poor” have to carry their daily bread in plastic bags! The result is that the drainage system is choked in the city and the roads look like an unending garbage yard. Filth and disease accumulate in this waste causing diseases and generally making the whole city an unhealthy place to live in.

The present CPIM government is on its way out. They lost in all the by-polls. Here is hoping that the new government when it arrives, will be able to get rid pf the lethargy and inaction. If the laws are not implemented soon this city is going to become uninhabitable in the next few years! It is time the West Bengal government understood that “giving rights to the poor” does not mean that the environment can be abused!…

Write Love Letters Using the Law of Attraction

I recently searched the Internet to find out what people were saying about how to write love letters. I found a ton of ebooks advertised. Many of the ads talked about writing love letters to make the man or woman of your dreams fall head over heels in love with you.

One website wants nearly a hundred bucks to show you how to do this. Yeah, right. Where did I put my wallet?

My whole philosophy about how I write love letters is so different. I think of love notes as spreading love around. I don’t do it to seduce someone. I don’t scheme, plot, connive. I just beam love like sunlight and don’t live in fear of what the response will be.

Rather than thinking of writing love letters to make someone fall in love with me, I think of the process as sending out a reflection of who I am on the inside. I write from the heart and I show them my soul. I don’t play aloof or hard to get. I don’t worry about appearing too eager or too easy.

I be who I am and I figure that sooner or later the right someone is going to resonate with me. My words will have impact not because I have skillfully manipulated somebody’s emotions but because I have written what I stand for and that person likes it.

Have you seen or read The Secret? It’s about the law of attraction and how it works. Of course, the law of attraction has been around for centuries and great teachers of motivational thinking and positive psychology have been teaching it all along.

The law of attraction essentially says that you create your reality by how you think. If you constantly think good stuff, you’ll attract good stuff to you. If you constantly think about doom and gloom, that’s the consciousness and experiences you’ll attract to you.

So here’s the deal: If I geared a mate search or ran a relationship with a mentality of I have to manipulate someone to love me, that’s what I am going to get back. The whole relationship will be a fraud. The person I would want to love me wouldn’t really love me; she would love a cardboard fantasy image of me. Chances are that she would be using similar tactics in an attempt to manipulate me!

I recommend using the law of attraction in a positive way. If you don’t have a relationship, use it to attract one. If you do have a relationship, use it to energize the bond you have created.

What does this mean in practical terms? Think about what you want to happen in your love life. Think about what you want to create. Then write about it with all your heart.

Avoid thinking about what you don’t want or don’t have. Since you create your own reality through your thoughts, beliefs, and expectations, focusing on bad stuff just attracts bad stuff to you.

Common sense …

Three Famous Canadians Working Abroad

With high educational standards and excellent technical training programs, Canada is a popular source of skilled workers throughout the world. Almost anywhere you go, you’ll find Canadians working abroad in a variety of fields, from engineering and medical professionals to actors, artists, and musicians. In fact, it was estimated in 2014 that the total number of Canadians working abroad (or studying) amounted to nearly 3 million people. With so many citizens finding employment overseas, it’s not hard to find stories of people achieving amazing success. Here are three standouts of individuals who made a name for themselves working outside of Canada.

Mark Henry Roswell

Mark Henry Roswell is one of the most popular television personalities from Canada. This may seem odd since very few in the western world have heard of him. In China, however, where Mr. Roswell goes by the name Dashan (meaning ‘big mountain’) he is an actor, comedian, game show host, and television personality of considerable fame. Dashan studied Mandarin at the University of Toronto and, upon graduating, received a full scholarship to the University of Peking to continue his language studies. His ability to speak Mandarin with fluency and a native speaker’s diction led to him hosting an international singing competition on Chinese television in the late 1980s. Since then, he has become a star in China, appearing in numerous films and TV shows.

Andrew Bonar Law

The story of Andrew Bonar Law takes us back to the early 20th century when the New Brunswick-born Law rose to the apex of political power, not in Canada, but in the seat of colonial power: London. As a teenager, Law moved to Scotland to live with relatives. He left school at a young age to work in the iron industry where he rose through the ranks and became a wealthy man by his late 20s. He entered politics in 1900 and eventually became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the only one in history to have been born outside the British Isles. Sadly, his time at the top was short lived as poor health forced him to retire after only 211 days in office. He resigned in May of 1923 and succumbed to his illness later that year.

Jim Carrey

The last on our list of Canadians working abroad is a name everyone will recognize. James Eugene Carrey was born in Newmarket, Ontario, in 1962. By his teens, his father was driving him to Toronto where the youngster was making a name for himself performing in comedy clubs. At one of these shows, he was discovered by legendary comedian Rodney Dangerfield who signed Carrey on as his opening act for a stint in Vegas. From there, it was on to Hollywood where he was a cast member of “In Living Color” before starring in “Ace Ventura: Pet Detective.” He’s starred in a long string of blockbuster comedies ever since.

Canadians working abroad have found great success in the countries in which they live and work. For a country …

Understanding the Law of Scarcity

Sales trainers and speakers reference the law of scarcity as one of the fundamental laws of persuasion. The law of scarcity is simply that when someone perceives something that they desire to be in limited quantity, the perceived value of that thing or person becomes much greater than if were widely available. The law of scarcity applies to both salesmanship and in relationships and courtship.

Sales Example

You turn on the television and see a commercial for some new overly-hyped kitchen gadget. The commercial voice reminds you that "… supplies are limited" and that "… this offer will not last." This commercial is employing the use of the law of scarcity to increase the perceived value of that item. Believe it or not, it works for them.

Relationship Example

Jack and Jill have been boyfriend and girlfriend for about two years now and the relationship is getting boring. The couple both attend a party one night. Jack notices that Jill is paying attention to some other guys at the party, rather than with him. The value that Jack has placed on Jill now has increased dramatically because he fears that she might leave him for another guy.

Practical Applications

1. Sometimes people make themselves overly available to someone they are referred to by showing them with affection, but this over availability sometimes causes the opposite reaction to occur – the person actually places a lower value on the person because it is in abundance. If the other person believes that you are highly desired by others, hence, you're demand outweighs your supply, then your value will go up.

2. Increasing the price or decreasing the availability of a product or service will increase the perceived value of that product or service in the eyes of others.

3. If you want to persuade someone to commit to an appointment, then try to increase the perceived value on your own time. Instead of saying that you have the entire day free, which creates a state of abundance, instead say you are busy and have only such-and-such time free. This increases the perceived value of your own time and makes the other person take scheduling an appointment with you more seriously. …

Equity Follows the Law

Introduction:

Equity has no clash with law neither it overrides the provisions of law. Nor it is the enemy of law. It adopts and follows the basic rules of law. It is said that equity is not a body of jurisprudence acting contrary to law but is rather a supplement to law. It is a well known rule that equity follos the analogies of law. The equity came not to destroy the law but to fulfit it, to supplement it, to explain it. Equity respect every word of law.

Meaning

Equity is intended to supplement the law and not to supersede it.

Case law

Cowper vs. Cowper 1734, 2P WNS 720

The discretion of the court is to be governed by the rules of law and equity which are not oppose but each in tur to be subservient to other, this discretion in some cases follows the law implicity, in other assists it and advances the remedy; in other against it relieves against the abuse or allays the rigour of it but in no case does it contradict or overturn the grounds of principle thereof.

Application

It has application in the following two aspects.

1. As to legal estates, rights and interest:

As regards legal estates, right and interests, equity was and is strictly bound by the rules of law and it has no discretion to deviate there from. Equity does not allow an unfair use to be made of legal rights so equity follows in regard to the rule of primogeniture.

Case Law

Strickland vs. Aldrige 1804

It was held exclusion of the younger member of a family from property according to the rule of primogeniture does not create any particular circumstances entitling to a relief at equiry, because the eldest son gets only what he is entitled to get in law.

2. As to Equitable rights and interest:

In many cases, equity acts by analogy to the rules of law in relation to equitable titles and estates. Equitable estates are guided by the rules of decent as legal estate.

Important aspects of maxim:

Following are the two important aspects of this maxim.

Equity adopts and following the rules of law in all cases where applicable.

Equity follows the analogy of law

Exceptions:

Following are exceptions

i. Where a rule of law did not specifically apply.

ii. Where even by analogy the rule of law did not apply, equity formulated and applied it, own rules.

Ending Remarks:

To conclude it can be said that equity always follows the law in the sense of obeying it and conforming to its general rules and policy, whether contained in common law or statue law. The rules of equity can not override the specific provisions of law.

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Eva Peron – The Princess Diana of Argentina?

The latest news about the return of the famous Broadway musical Evita with Ricky Martin in a starring role has the entertainment press whipped into a frenzy. However, many of us are still wondering who Evita is, what she did, and why she deserves her own musical.

Maria Eva Duarte de Peron (1919-1952) was the second wife and political partner of President Juan Peron (1895’1974) of Argentina. She’s also popularly known by the affectionate Spanish diminutive Evita, which translates into “Little Eva”. Still a hugely popular figure in Argentina and a worldwide icon due to books, movies and musicals based on her life, many consider her comparable to another global superstar, England’s Princess Diana. Here we look at the similarities and differences of both women to see if the comparison is justified.

It’s fair to say that both Evita and Diana, despite living almost 50 years apart on different continents, had similarities;

– Both married powerful men, Diana with Prince Charles and Evita with Colonel Juan Peron. They met in 1943 when Peron had assumed the post of secretary of labor and social welfare in the military government that had recently come to power. Two years later they were married in 1945 when Evita assisted Peron with his release from prison after his incarceration by military opposition. Peron’s presidency in 1946 assumed soon after, and Evita’s close relationship with Peron gave her access to a lot of power.

– Both Diana and Evita shared an affinity for the poor and sick; during the 1946 Presidential campaign Evita directed her efforts towards the “descamisados” (shirtless poor) and her efforts for woman’s suffrage saw laws passed in 1947 that allowed women to vote in the 1951 elections for the first time in history. She also devoted several hours every day to meeting with poor people and visiting hospitals, orphanages, and factories. Additionally, she supervised the newly created Ministry of Health, which built many new hospitals and established a successful program to fight different diseases.

– Much like Diana, Evita was a figure constantly in the public eye. As a result she, like Diana, was immensely fashion-conscious. Her clothes and hairstyle were avidly studied, commented upon and copied.

– Both women died young, Evita of cervical cancer at the age of 33. In both cases, there were huge outpouring of public grief. All activity in Argentina ceased; movies stopped playing; restaurants were closed and patrons were shown to the door. The crowd outside of the official presidential residence after the announcement of her death was so dense that the streets were congesting for ten blocks in each direction. The streets of Buenos Aires overflowed with flowers that were stacked in huge piles, and within one day of Evita’s death, all flower shops in Buenos Aires had sold out.

– Just as Diana’s legacy and reputation has endured after her death, Evita’s passing doesn’t seem to have stopped her international fame. In 1980, Andrew Lloyd Weber and Timothy Rice’s Musical “Evita” won a major …

Mormonism and the Law of Attraction

Is there a conflict between what Mormons believe, and the principles of the law of attraction? To me that is an easy question to answer because; I believe that not only are there no conflicts between the two, but they are actually the same thing just worded differently.

For example, in the classic law of attraction book “Excuse Me, Your Life is Waiting,” the author, Lynn Grabhorn, says that the way to attract anything into your life is to determine what it is that you want and then to imagine what it would feel like if you already had it. The Mormon Church, just like all other Christian churches teaches that God will bless us with the desires of our heart if we ask in faith. So whether you call it faith, or a feeling, it doesn’t really matter, does it?

And I like to compare the teaching of Mormonism and the principles of the law of attraction; because a clearer understanding of one, leads to a better understanding of the other. For example, a common misunderstanding of the law of attraction is that you just have to feel good, and suddenly everything you want will just appear. But a key component of the law of attraction is to “act as if” you already had what you want. This is perhaps better explained by the scripture that Mormons like to quote which says that “faith without works is dead.” Taking inspired action is both a gospel principle and a part of the law of attraction.

My favorite Biblical example of Christ teaching people to “act as if,” is the story of the leapers who called out to Christ, asking him to heal them. His instructions to them were to go show themselves to the Chief Priests. Why? Because it was the custom of the day that when someone was restored to health after being seriously ill, that they had to have the Chief Priest certify them as “clean” before they were aloud back into society. So Christ was telling the leapers to go ahead and do what they would do if they were healed. He was telling them to “act as if” they were healed. They acted, and they were healed.

I am a life coach who specializes in the law of attraction; I am also a practicing Mormon. And I have found that my religion is a great aid to me as a life coach. One thing that Mormons teach is that time is pretty much meaningless to God. Think about it, if God knows right now, everything that has ever happened, and everything that will ever happen, then the concept of “time” certainly changes.

And playing around with “time” is one of the best techniques that I know of to apply the principles of the law of attraction. This worked wonders with a client I was working with that was so stressed out about a major crisis in her life that it was making her physically ill. She …

Six Types of Human Values

Human beings need different things to live in this world. However, nothing in this world is available free of cost. Everything has a price and one has to pay the right price to get ones need satisfied. However, we value the things based on our needs and the needs depends on the basis of our value system.

First, there are basic necessities like food, water, air, shelter, and clothing without which survival of the body itself is not possible. However, once these necessities are satisfied, man moves to satisfy his higher needs like the social needs, security needs or the need of self-actualization.

However, every person does not follow the same path as his path would depend on the inherent values of the person. These inherent values are acquired by the man by virtue of his nature and also by his nurture. The effect of the family, society, nation and individual makes every person unique as he develops a unique set of values. These values decide the priority and lifestyle of the person. The values make the personality of the person and decide the growth of the individual, family, society, nation and the humanity.

1. Individualistic Values

The most inherent value of a person is individualistic which means valuing the self over anything else in the world. This is also the most natural value which is inherent in every animal of the world. The animals live for themselves without much bothering about the other animals. The only exception would be the mother animal which takes care of her child animal till the child grows up sufficiently to support itself.

The modern world has been moving more and more towards individualistic values where the interest of the individual is considered to be the most “right” and needs to be protected over everything else. The individualistic value support freedom as it believes that every person has the right to decide what is good for him.

Every child starts with individualistic values and he wants everything in the world for the self and wants everyone to serve him. When the need of the child is not satisfied, he cries and do everything to get the need satisfied.

2. Family Values

The human specie may be the most powerful specie in the earth but it is also true that human specie is also the weakest specie. A human child does not learn to even walk for one year. If the child of the man is allowed to survive of its own, it just can not survive. The support of family is must for the growth of every human child. It is for this reason that human specie over the year has invented the concept of family that lives like one unit and supports a new born child till it becomes strong enough to support itself.

The concept of family has given rise to the family value where a family is considered to be the basic unit of the society instead of the individual. The …