How to Find Good Legal Services Abroad

Advancement in technology has made it quick and easy to set up businesses abroad. Whether the business functions out of a brick-and- mortar office or a virtual one, doing business on an international level has become the norm. Conducting business in a foreign country entails familiarity with the host country’s laws. The legal intricacies of international trading could be quite challenging, and without the right legal guidance, a business owner may well end up paying penalties and fines, and saddled with legal hitches. What does it take to find good legal services abroad?

Areas of Specialization

One of the travails of establishments operating in a foreign country is finding good legal services. Lawyers usually specialize in one particular type of law, or other related areas. A lawyer may generally work on immigration cases, while another one may be a tax specialist. Note that there are lawyers who only render advice to their clients, and not represent them to actual court litigation.

General areas of legal practice include: personal injury, criminal law, tax, employment and family law. It is best to choose a lawyer that specializes in one’s legal concern and one that has a firm foundation in the laws of the host country.

Different Types of Lawyer

Foreign Legal Consultants may be classified as lawyers working for international law firms based in foreign countries. These attorneys may advise clients regarding the requirements and conditions of the host country’s law, but they may or may not be licensed to practice law in the country where they are based. If court representation is needed, a licensed lawyer in the country where he works is required.

Solicitors and Barristers are specialized lawyers who may be practicing in foreign countries. Solicitors generally do not represent clients in court, but advise them, and may put together legal cases for barristers to take to court.

Notaries usually do the functions of attorneys, but depending on the country they practice, their job description may vary. Notaries may draft transfers of property titles and wills. In some countries, notaries are Ministry of Justice appointees and may act as administrators in estate settlements.

Where to Find a Lawyer

Searching for a lawyer in a foreign country is no longer too tasking. Overseas embassies and consulates of most countries have listings of local lawyers who have expressed their willingness to assist citizens of another country. For example, an American in Thailand may go to the U.S. embassy and he will be furnished with a copy of local lawyers willing to assist a U.S. citizen.

There are international bar associations with local chapters that could help foreigners with their legal problems. Most of these associations and similar organizations have standing agreements with accredited members in other countries.

Law firms maintain websites. This should make it doubly easy for anyone needing legal counsel to find a qualified lawyer through this mode.

Law schools have credible law professors who may be practicing or may know a practicing lawyer in his circle. If the …

Important Facts About the Criminal Law

Criminal law can be generally defined as the branch of law that majorly classifies crimes, treats of their nature, and provides best effective ways or approaches that can be followed for their punishment. In recent times, it has emerged as one of the few fields that are attracting many young aspirants to make their career. In fact, in the last few years the ratio of students practicing criminal law has increased rapidly. These days, many young lawyers are engaged in criminal law practice work for a governmental agency on either the federal or local level or in the non-indigent defense work for solo or small private practices. Today it is counted among one of the major vital parts of the legal system in the United States and offer rewards that are very exciting and better than any other profession. However, the field of criminal law even features some of the most important facts that are worth to be known.

Today if we talk about the criminal law then it is very important to understand the exact meaning or the classification of crimes. In simple terms, crimes can be classified as felony or misdemeanor, but there is a slight difference between felony and misdemeanor. The basic distinction between felonies and misdemeanors rests on the penalty and the power of imprisonment. Basically, a misdemeanor is defined as an offense for which a punishment other than detention or death in the state prison is followed by the law. Besides this, there are many people who often get confused with the term “degree of crime”. Now, the term degree of crime primarily relates to distinctions in the guiltiness of a crime because of the circumstances surrounding its commission.

In the United States, the power to define crimes and set penalty generally depends on the legislatures of the United States, the states, and the territories along with the principal authority associated to that of the individual states. In addition, a common-law crime is one punishable universal regulation, as distinguished from crimes specified by statute. However, these days in many U.S. jurisdictions, including those in which inclusive criminal law has been enacted the common law in relative to the criminal process.

The procedure in criminal cases is significantly similar all through the United States. If the offense is severe, the case is initially passed to a grand jury, which draws up condemnation if there is enough proof to validate the trial, or else it discharges the charged convict. However, it is really surprising to find that in the United States, the offenders proved as guilty in the criminal offence may be liable to get life long imprisonment, which can go up to 100 years. Moreover, the electric chair punishments and other severe criminal punishments have been amended in US, many years back.

If we talk about the criminal laws in gulf countries then the picture is totally different. The laws are very strict with regard to the execution of punishments. In gulf countries, the criminal laws …

Massachusetts Immediate Threat Suspensions

G.L. c. 90, Sec. 22(a) grants the Massachusetts Registry of Motor Vehicles broad power to indefinitely revoke a driver’s license for violations of the motor vehicle laws which constitute an immediate threat to the public safety. A revocation under the immediate threat law has been determined not to constitute a punishment and, therefore, a criminal prosecutions and non-punitive immediate threat suspension arising out of the same incident, such as an operating under the influence event, does not violate the double jeopardy clause of the United States Constitution or Massachusetts common, statutory, or constitutional law.

These indefinite license revocations are usually triggered by a police officer filing a report with the RMV wherein he explains why allowing the driver to remain on the road constitutes an immediate threat to public safety. Sometimes the issue is medical related such as a case where a person is operating under the influence of prescription medication. In other cases, the report is generated as a result of dangerous or reckless driving witnessed by or reported to a police officer. Immediate threat reports may involve companion criminal charges.

The legal standard for an indefinite immediate threat revocation, which the Registry had wide latitude in interpreting, is that the driver “has committed a violation of the motor vehicle laws of a nature which would give the Registrar reason to believe that continuing operation by such holder is and will be so seriously improper as to constitute an immediate threat to the public safety.”

The immediate threat statute requires that the Registrar find that a license holder poses such a significant threat to public safety, that the license should be summarily taken. Additionally, law requires that the Registrar provide the operator with a notice specifying the time and place of the violation or incident that led to the immediate threat suspension.

Anyone who is had his or her license or right to operate revoked as an immediate threat is entitled to a hearing at the Registry of Motor Vehicles within 30 days of the revocation and the driver is entitled to be represented by a lawyer. Massachusetts Immediate threat revocations are indefinite in nature, meaning that the revocation will not terminate unless and until the license holder has proven to the Registry’s satisfaction that the causes of the past or present violations or issues of concern have been brought under control such that the driver no longer poses a threat to the motoring public. A Registry of Motor Vehicles lawyer can help you make this showing and get your license reinstated. The RMV charges a $500.00 reinstatement fee for immediate threat suspensions.…

Substantial Similarity in Copyright Law

INTRODUCTION:

The Copyright Law is made up of all the legal principles and rules envisaging the protection of those who produce intellectual works in the field of literature, music and the fine arts, including photographs, films and performance of artists. It is in essence concerned with the negative right of preventing the copyright of physical, material, existing in the field of literature and art. Its object is to protect the author of an original work from the unlawful re-production of its material. Copyright is a man's inherent right over his intellectual property which emanates from the deep recesses of the human mind and assays complex form called his works. Nothing can be called a man's property than the fruits of his brains. The property is an article or substance accruing to him by reason of his own mechanical labor is never denied him: the labor of his mind is no less arduous and consequentially no less worthy of protection of the law.

The various requirements for a work to be eligible for copyright include:

1. The work must be original

2. The copyright subsists in the expression of ideas and not in the ideas, no matter how genuine and novel the work is.

3. The work must be fixed in some tangible form for more than a transitory period.

The United States Supreme Court, in Fiest Publication, Inc. V. Rural Telephone Service Co., Inc., articulated the elements of copyright infringement as

1. Ownership of a valid copyright

2. Unauthorized copying of constituent elements of the work that are original

Not all copying is a copyright infringement. Particularly, actionable copying requires appropriation of protected elements of the work.

It is extremely difficult to prove copying by direct evidence. Therefore, to prove the same, recourse is taken to the defendant's access to the work and "substantive similarity" between the original work and the accused work. To prove an infringement of copyright in a particular work, there must be an element of misappropriation. The degree of similarity necessary for a court to find misappropriation is not easily defined. Indeed, "the test for infringement of a copyright is of necessity vague".

Further, we need to reach to the kernel of the work which is more commonly referred to as the "core copyrightable material".

The underlined need to be removed:

1. ideas

2. facts

3. substances from the public domain

4. substances which come under the purview of the doctrine of merger, where an idea and its expression are inseparable, that is, the idea can effectively be expressed in only one way.

5. such expressions which have become "standards" for describing a particular idea, elements which are referred to as scenes a faire,

From the alleged infringed work to come up with nugget of such work. The kernel of the alleged infringed work, so obtained, is to be compared with the alleged infringing work to decide factually and circumstantially, the infringement. The latter would be proved true if there is substantial similarity between the two …

Understanding the California Red Tag Law and How It Affects Auto Loans

Last year the government officials in California passed the “red tag law” which has had a significant affect on the used cars market that consumers can benefit from. For those who are familiar with the logistics of this new law I’ll explain it simply. In its basic understanding the California red tag law requires dealers to place a red sticker on any vehicle that has been salvaged, in a junk yard, or sustained any flood damage.

These vehicles also have to be registered into a federal database that is also open to the public. With this type of law in affect it helps make people who are looking to buy a pre-owned vehicle much more comfortable about acquiring a reliable automobile. There are also people who can get bad credit car loans with the California red tag law as they will be more confident that the vehicle will last throughout the duration of the loan.

Applying for Used Car Loans in California

Most people can still qualify for auto financing in California even with a poor credit score, but very few dealers would be up for the task as they had too much to lose. Before this law if a used car dealer allowed someone to buy and finance a vehicle that had flood damage, and it broke down after a month they would be out of an investment as most lemon laws don’t require you to continue making payments.

Now that dealers can provide more reliable vehicles it will be easier to qualify for bad credit used car loans, since more credit lenders will be more relaxed. It also helps that another part of this new California law allows dealerships to charge the same fees for leases and actual sold vehicles applications. Originally car lots would only charge $45 for leases and add another $10 if you were going to make a full purchase; however, bother prices have shot up to $80 which has made many dealers happy.

The only true downside of auto financing in California under the red tag law is that it has yet to be applied nationwide. It is rumored the United States government will be discussing this, but in order for it to actually go into affect they will need to get the dealerships on board as well. If they are able to accomplish this, we could see a lot more people feeling comfortable about buying used cars and applying for bad credit auto loans.…

Is JK Rowling a Master of the Law of Attraction and Wealth Affirmation?

Whether she is a conscious wealth attractor, or not Ms. Rowling has obviously attracted not just massive wealth, but fame, success and is a generous spirit. America loves a rags-to-riches story and I know I’ll be tuning in on Friday to hear all about what this remarkable woman has to share with Oprah. I’ve read that she’s somewhat at odds with her own religious experience. I haven’t heard whether she is a spiritual woman or not. She could think the Law of Attraction is a bunch of nonsense. Just the same, this woman progressed from a single mom living on welfare to a multi-millionaire in under five years.

In 1998, the Harry Potter books made J.K. Rowling the first self-made billionaire author in history. Just prior to that her publisher advised her to ‘keep her day job’ as there is “little chance of making money in children’s books.” One thing I know for sure, in order to attract and allow in success, wealth, (or any form of well-being), one must be a vibrational match to it. Apparently, J.K. Rowling has no internal conflicts with being wildly successful and wealthy. Perhaps we can learn something about attitude and wealth attraction J.K. Rowling visits with Oprah. We may be able to model how this woman’s journey went from welfare to billionaire.

The majority of us will not become billionaires. Many of us will not even become wealthy. And why not? Why is it so many struggle with wealth? So many struggle to simply make ends meet. There is an internal disconnect. If you’re not manifesting wealth and you’d like to have lots more money, ask yourself: “What beliefs do I have about wealthy people? What judgments do I have about people who win the lottery? What opinions do I have about people who have a lot more than I do?”

It would serve you very well to probe into your firmly held beliefs about wealth and wealthy people. Your beliefs are holding your wealth from you. Money is just another form of energy. It’s neither inherently good nor bad. Start to build a healthy relationship with money and financial well-being. Treat it with respect and appreciation. Appreciate the money you have and it will appreciate for you.…

Millionaire Mind – Win the Lottery – Luck OR Law of Attraction?

It is time to stop being so serious and have some fun with the universal Law of Attraction, also known as the Law of Belief.

In simple words, this Law states that “you get exactly what you believe”, “it is done unto you as you believe”, “be it done unto you according to your faith”, “your deeply held beliefs are materializing your reality”.”you materialize on all planes the subconscious beliefs held in your subconscious mind”.

Let’s see if we can share some light on this Law and winning the Lottery.

(1) Some state there is no such thing as LUCK. That is their BELIEF. These people have no luck at all.

(2) Others keep repeating this sentence preached by so many gurus and so called experts: “Luck is the intersection of preparation and opportunity”. These are the ones who want to impress people with the HARD WORK they NEED to perform

in order to achieve their goals. They glorify working real hard, struggling against all odds, and all that NONSENSE. They just don’t know any better. The idea of things being EASY and even FUN never crosses their minds. Their BELIEF is that they must work real hard for anything they achieve.

(3) Then, there are those who are just plain LUCKY. They keep winning in contests, bingo games, raffles. They always get parking spaces right in front of the places they want to go to. Happy events keep materializing in their lives without them really making any efforts whatsoever. People who know them keep commenting on how LUCKY they are. That reinforces their beliefs that they are LUCKY. And they keep getting LUCKIER by the day.

If you analyze those three examples, they all have ONE common factor: BELIEF.

The first group BELIEVES there is no such thing as LUCK. And that is exactly what they get: NO luck.

The second group BELIEVES that by preparing themselves opportunities will appear. They prepare themselves because they BELIEVE opportunities will appear to those who are ready and prepared. And these opportunities DO appear as they BELIEVE.

The third group BELIEVES they are lucky. Therefore, they BELIEVE good things happen to them all the time. And they do happen since that is what they BELIEVE.

Interesting, they are all getting results according to their BELIEFS. That looks TOO MUCH like the universal Law of Attraction, also known as the Law of Belief, at work — giving each group what each group BELIEVES.

Changing focus a bit, this is a true story about a fellow I know. I caught him once sitting in front of his TV checking the winning lottery numbers. He kept always saying that he would make millions winning the Lottery.

A friend of his decided to have some fun and asked him “John,

I always hear you saying there are only three ways to make lots of money. Refresh my mind. What are they?”

John replied, “You can make lots of money by (1) inheritance, (2) having your own …

Deaerator Working Principles and Deaerator Types

The Deaeration Principle

Today a deaerator is an essential part of a steam system. Corrosion in boiler cycles is caused mainly by the presence of non-condensable gasses such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, or by a low pH value. While the pH is raised by the addition of chemicals, it is more economical to remove non-condensable gasses mechanically. This mechanical process is known as Deaeration and its employment increases the life of a steam system dramatically.

Using Henry’s law of partial pressures, the principle behind Deaeration can be explained as follows: The quantity of a gas dissolved in a given quantity of liquid is directly proportional to its partial pressure surrounding the liquid. Therefore, by reducing the partial pressure of the unwanted gasses in the surrounding atmosphere, the gasses are diminished. These partial pressures are reduced by spraying the liquid into a countercurrent flow of steam. The steam, which is free of non-condensable gasses, is the liquid’s new atmosphere and Henry’s law prevails. Using steam is advantageous in that the solubility of a gas in a liquid decreases with an increase in the temperature of that liquid. The liquid is sprayed in thin films in order to increase the surface area of the liquid in contact with the steam, which, in turn, provides more rapid oxygen removal and lower gas concentrations.

With these principles in mind, Deaerator employs a two-stage system of heating and deaerating feedwater. This system reduces oxygen concentration to less than 0.007 ppm, and completely eliminates the carbon dioxide concentration when tested by the APHA method. Testing for oxygen concentration shall be done in accordance with ASME Performance Test Code 12.3. Other methods of testing may be used if mutually agreed upon by the parties involved.

Deaerator Operation – Stage One

The first stage of deaeration is shown in Figure I. The prime element in our vent condenser zone is the self-adjusting spray valve that allows incoming water, which is to be deaerated, to discharge as a thin-walled, hollow cone spray. Because steam flows countercurrent, intimate water to steam contact occurs with consequent latent heat transfer. As the falling water reaches the tray stack (tray type deaerator), or the collection basin (spray type deaerator), its temperature is within 2°F (1ºC) of the counter-flowing saturated steam temperature. Most of the dissolved oxygen and free carbon dioxide have been removed at this point. Since nearly all of the steam has been condensed, the non-condensable gasses and the small amount of “transport” steam exits through the vent piping.

Deaerator Operation – Stage Two

Tray Type Deaerator

The partially deaerated water enters the tray stack at saturation temperature. The heated water flows down over the trays, zigzagging through counter flow steam. This arrangement provides additional retention time to allow a final oxygen strip by the purest steam. The two-stage tray deaeration technique is the most reliable method for meeting critical performance over a complete load range.

Spray Type Deaerator

Water from the collection basin flows down the vertical down comer and …

Sources of Islamic Law

Opening remarks

Islam is the complete code of life. It gives guidance in all walk of life. Under Islamic law the term law includes the moral law and legal enactments. According to Islam ultimate source of any authority is God alone.

Sources of Islamic law

1. Quran

Quran is the first and primary source of law. Quran is not a legal code in the modern sense. The legislative part of Quran is the model illustration for future legislation and does not constituted a legal code by itself.

Importance

As primary source of law Quran has vital importance. It lays down a way of life which regulates the relationship of man with man and his relationship with God. The law of inheritance, marriage, divorce, theft, adultery and provisions of war and peace are meant for regulating the ties of man with the fellow beings.

2. Sunnah

Second source of Islamic law is Sunnah. The Sunnah is closely linked with the Quran. It comprises of:

All words counsels of the Prophet (S.A.W.W)

Actions, words and daily practices of the hold prophet (S.A.W.W).

Silence implying a tacit approbation his part of any individual act committed by the disciplines.

Importance

Sunnah has great importance after the Quran. It describes the functions of the Holy Prophet (S.A.W.W) namely, announcing of the revelation before people, giving then guidance.

3. Ijma

Imja is an important source of law. It is the agreement of the Jurists among the followers of Muhammad (S.A.W.W) in a particular age on a particular question.

Basis of Ijma

Ijma may be based on

Quran

Sunnah

Analogy

Kinds of Ijma

Express

Tacit

Qawli

Sakuti

Importance

Ijma as a source of law has great importance. It helps in interpretation of laws according to the changing needs of times and new legislation can be made through its procees.

4. Qiyas

Qiyas is an extension of law from the original text to which the process is applied to a particular case by means of common Illat or effective cause, which cannot be ascertained merely by interpretation of the language of the text.

Kinds

Qiyas Jali

Qiyas Khafi

Importance

The function of Qiyas is to extend the law of the text to cases not falling within the purview of its terms and not to establish a new rule of law.

5. Opinions of Muslim Jurists

Opinions of Muslim jurists are also secondary source of Islamic law.

6. Nature of laws lays down

The Holly Quran is a code of conduct laying down the fundamental principles and not the detailed provisions so in case of ambiguity reference should be made to the sunnah.

7. Naska

Nask is also secondary source of Islamic laws. It is tent of Quran and tradition which have either been totally abrogated or there application limited or modified by the subsequent text.

8. Muslalah Mursala

Muslalah Mursala means when nothing becomes clear in law after giving reasons then the course which is to be adopted according to Islamic spirit for instance. Taxation for the defence …

Using The Law Of Attraction To Get Your Ex Back – A Deep Understanding

So let’s have a discussion about using the Law Of Attraction to manifest your ex back.

I don’t want to go into the mechanics of how to do it, in this article, I would rather discuss if it’s actually possible for you to get your ex back using manifestation techniques, and what it is you’re truly searching for.

Happiness Or Your Ex?

If I ask you at face value, what is that you really want right now?

I can almost guarantee that each and every one of you reading this, will say that you want your ex-boyfriend or ex-girlfriend back again. Maybe even your husband or wife.

So why do you want them back again?

You want them back so you can be happy again!

In your mind, you believe that you need your ex back to be happy again.

Deep down, what you actually desire is to be happy, you just believe that you need your ex back to be able to feel that way again.

In your current state of overwhelming emotions, you will probably struggle to believe me.

But that is all you’re searching for.

The way the universe works is like a mirror, it is always reflecting back to you your dominant vibrations and beliefs.

So the only way you can get your ex back again is by becoming happy within yourself. By becoming happy again without them.

You were happy before you met, them, so why can’t you be happy again without them?

Your relationship with your ex will never work if you rely on them to make you happy. No relationship will work in that situation. You will put too much pressure on the other person, and only push them away again.

Why do you want to rely on anyone or anything for your happiness anyway? It puts too much power in the hands of other people and external circumstances.

So the trick is, to learn how to be happy and whole again without your ex, then if you still desire to, start working towards getting back together with them.

Is It Possible To Manifest Your Ex Back?

The short answer is yes!

But whether you will or not is another story.

This does not mean that the Law Of Attraction is inconsistent and only works in some situations and not others.

No, it comes down to you. It depends on where you are headed in life.

If you want to manifest your ex back, that is great, but you will need to go on a very personal journey as part of the manifestation process.

To succeed in getting your ex back, you will need to learn how to be happy within yourself. You will need to remove limiting beliefs about the relationship with your ex, and with life in general.

The universe will take you on this journey, giving you all the resources, insights and understanding that you need to learn. But the person you will become will be vastly different to the …