Know the Types of Laws Prevailing In a State

It is the laws that allow a state to function in a proper order. The legal system protects the rights of the individuals so as to ensure that they are safe and secured in every way. They are the rules that govern the character and function of any individual or group. They regulate the social and economic interactions and maintain that they are smoothly conducted. They are a source of primary mediator between the relations of the people.

It is better to know that every country has its personal legal system. They are generally divided into different branches. To name them it can be said that there is corporate law, taxation law, property law, international law, environmental health law, etc. Every type of law has some or the other importance with respect to the society. Some of the major laws that need mention are as follows:

Criminal Law

The criminal law is enforced to pass a judgment over the criminal activities. They are administered by the individual jurisdictions in every place, including the self-governing territories. It is a matter of concern for the state. In certain cases, the central government of the country and the Commonwealth might also have a say in the case.

Contract Law

The contract law is something that is enforced for the encompassing of the laws or the regulations in terms of certain promises. In most countries, these are related to the common law.

Industrial Law

The industrial law is the rules and regulations that the working people gas to abide by. It also ensures to protect their rights. They also put a restriction on the organizations and mediate the relationship between trade unions, employees and employers.

Constitutional Law

The constitutional law defines different entities within a state. These are divided into three parts or wings, namely the legislature, judiciary and the executive. They are in charge of the total processes of managing the state. With them enforced the ministers, the government bodies are directed the path to their work.

Administrative Law

If any of the subjects of the state wishes to challenge the action or a decision of the state or the country or a government official or an authority they can do so with the help of this law. It is also applicable in case the person on whom one wants to challenge is not a government official but is making use of the public power.

In all the above-mentioned circumstances the judgment is passed down by the court of law and the applicants or here the citizens have to abide by them. The court, therefore, has the final say in such cases.…

Government Grants For Debt Relief – Federal Hardship Grants

President Obama has dedicated billions of dollars to the government grants for debt relief. These programs are designed for federal hardship assistance. An American citizen that is at least 18 years old can be eligible for aid if they can prove that they are financially devastated.

The Obama administration understands that there can be many different kinds of personal liabilities. That is why the government has made numerous federal hardship programs in order to help a wide variety of financial difficulties. Individuals can apply for one or several programs to help with their specific financial situations.

Here are the basic types of government grants that are available to American citizens:

Housing – There are 6 housing programs available. Some help you negotiate for a loan modification.

Business – This area has 3 programs that address most of the areas of business debt.

Education – There are 6 kinds of programs available including help with burdensome student loans.

Personal – This area has 4 kinds of programs available.

Medical – There are 9 programs available for various types of medical expenses.

The government wants to help individuals that have the worst financial conditions. You should prepare a list of your liabilities, living expenses and income to prove that you are desperately in need of a government grant for debt relief. Make sure every number and description match the ones that you put on the application. Be sure to follow the instructions exactly without neglecting any requested information.

In addition, read each application carefully because every one will have its own unique requirements. For example, the deadline dates may be different between programs. Also, some applications might require several years of tax records. You might be asked for more proof of income and assets such as bank statements, stock certificates, property deeds and rental property contracts.

Typically, the government aid can range from $500 to $20,000. These programs may pay nearly 60{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of all your liabilities. The first thing that you should pay off is the credit card with the highest rate or the biggest balance. This will save you from paying anymore high interest costs. In addition, it is one of the fastest ways to give your credit rating a boost.

The federal hardship assistance programs can dramatically reduce the amount of money that you owe and allow you to get a fresh start. Do not wait too long because the funds will not last forever.…

Machine Shops – How to Make the Small Shop Profitable

According to the US Census there are over 25,000 machine shops with less than 4 employees, not counting thousands of 1-man operations scattered across the country. Making a profit while owning a small machine shop can be tough in these economically depressed times. Here are some tips on making a profit.

Hire family or close friends and classify them as officers not employees. This will help with insurance charges. Check with your insurance agent and state for particular requirements.

Down size – Do you really need that 10,000 sf building? If possible run out of your shed, garage or barn. If not many self-storage facilities now offer storefronts.

Upgrade to CNC Milling – If you have all manual machines consider upgrading to a CNC.

Offer reduced rate services to local manufacturers. Locale manufacturers will have contracted large shops many miles away to machine their product. There are times when they need to rework, modify or make changes on the fly. They will turn to the closest, cheapest ship in the area.

Offer reduced rate services to local Hobby Clubs – Many hobby clubs including RC Model Clubs, Model Building Clubs, and Engineering Clubs require prototypes and custom parts and accessories built. Offering a group discount hourly rate to these clubs will insure all machining requirements come to your shop.

Quote on government work – The United States Government is the largest spending customer in the world for goods and services. There are hundreds of machining opportunities everyday.

Overflow Work – Find the largest shops in town and offer overflow work. Many large machine shops love working with small shops, the reason is they can instantly expand their workforce and machining capability at a lower rate then there own. This assists them in their tight deadline critical projects.

Raw Material – Group orders together as much as possible. Never order cut lengths instead of full lengths. Full lengths of material are always cheaper then cut pieces. If small pieces are absolutely necessary ask your vendor to quote you “Randoms” These are the pieces that are left over from a previous cut order and are usually offered at a substantial discount.

Cutting tools – never order the made in china cutting tools. A $25.00 Made in USA end mill will out perform the $10.00 Import any day of the week. Expect to go through 3 import Endmills to every one domestic end mill. This will add to your cutting tool overhead, lower your per piece volume and add to tool change cycle times. Also don’t be afraid to shop around for your cutting tools. Many tool vendors are in the same boat you are in and will sell you tools at a very low mark up. If at all possible talk to someone at your vendors inside sales department. Many tools can be offered at great quantity discounts if you pool your order and just ask for a discount.

Recycle your chips – Scrap your Stainless and Aluminum chips. Also don’t forget …

Price Matters! The Role of Strategy in Developing a Winning Government Price

In these days of slashed Government budgets, price is even more a factor now then it has been ever before. Whether the procurement specifies best value or low price technically acceptable (LPTA), doing your homework and sharpening your pencil to get the most competitive price is likely to spell the difference between a win and losing an important competitive procurement.

Many companies have great technical solutions, but winning a competitive procurement requires a winning price as well as a great technical proposal. In today’s environment of lean budgets and low cost awards, Price Matters more than ever. The winning price may or may not necessarily be the low price. But more often these days, it is the low price. We seem to get involved in the mechanics of filling out the forms and spreadsheets without much of a thought to what constitutes a winning price. It takes getting information ahead of time, doing the analysis, and looking at you in the price mirror objectively.

What makes price matter so much these days is that you can win technically but lose on price. We hear this so often these days. What makes the difference? Not hoping you guess what the price ought to be. Hope doesn’t get you a win but finding out about your customer, your company and your competition will get you closer. You’ve got to make it a priority to find out what your target price range ought to be.

What most companies still do today is build up cost, slap a reasonable (or competitive) fee on the cost and submit the price. Most of the time pricing gets accomplished at the last minute with very little thought to what it takes to win. There are three parts of Price Matters – data gathering, analysis, and real decision-making about price. This process is ongoing throughout the proposal process (pre-requirement stage, proposal stage and post-proposal but before final proposal revision) and, most importantly, the process begins earlier than you think. Developing and implementing a pricing strategy as part of the win strategy is critical to a win – it can’t be accomplished at the last minute.

Most people believe that the only way to get the pricing “right” is to perform a price to win (PWIN) that will generate a target price. Let’s set the record straight here – PWIN creates a winning range rather than an exact number that translates to the winning price. PWIN activities are intended to get you to create a range of winning targets along with thoughtful actions to assess risk and capabilities – it is not an exact science or number. It’s a myth that PWIN is an exact magical number that can be calculated and used as the winning price. You weigh the prices you develop against the company capabilities and the risks your company are willing to take. The components of winning price are determined from objective data and subjective data (objective examples: current labor data, customer budget or government-generated independent …

Pollution in Kolkata – Why a Whole City is Turning Into a Health Hazard!

Pollution levels across India are some of the highest anywhere in the world. And on top of this pile of polluted places sits Kolkata. A once beautiful city has been reduced to a huge garbage yard with tons of plastic waste strewn on every square inch of the city. Along with the number of aging buses and trucks spewing smoke – the various coal fires and dusty construction sites, have made the landscape a wasteland. But what has conspired to create this situation? Why has the West Bengal government turned a blind eye to the transport contractors?

Politics has always been a prominent part of the Kolkata culture. However the excessive politicizing of every issue has made it extremely difficult for legislation to be formed. The government in its quandary chooses to sleep over the various bills in the interest of protecting the environment – rather than irk the contractors who pay for the party funds. This has led to an unhealthy environment of government apathy and general callousness, especially in taking care of the living conditions. In its mandate to “provide rights to the poor” they have totally neglected the harm being caused to the environment by the millions of poor in the city.

The classic case of rampant pollution in the city of Kolkata are the buses and trucks plying the roads. In a recent move, a number of NGOs had petitioned that the pollution norms be strictly applied to the errant bus contractors. However the ministry decided to make the announcement with a rider that “people with genuine reasons can get a reprieve from the pollution control measures”!! This kind of obvious molly coddling of the transport contractors have further emboldened them, making it impossible for the police on the ground to fine the law breakers.

Plastic bags is another area where the West Bengal government has failed to check pollution. Elsewhere in all other major cities of India, plastic bags are banned as they cause widespread pollution which is difficult to remove. But not in Kolkata – where the “poor” have to carry their daily bread in plastic bags! The result is that the drainage system is choked in the city and the roads look like an unending garbage yard. Filth and disease accumulate in this waste causing diseases and generally making the whole city an unhealthy place to live in.

The present CPIM government is on its way out. They lost in all the by-polls. Here is hoping that the new government when it arrives, will be able to get rid pf the lethargy and inaction. If the laws are not implemented soon this city is going to become uninhabitable in the next few years! It is time the West Bengal government understood that “giving rights to the poor” does not mean that the environment can be abused!…

Diploma Courses That One Can Pursue After BDS (Dental Degree)

A common question that has grown in students studying dentistry is “What should I pursue after BDS which is merely a dental degree?” This question unites all the students concerned and the final product that comes out of this question is “confusion”.

The students face problems because “BDS as a course doesn’t help them get into MNC placements.” A simple BDS degree doesn’t let a student get that necessary clinical exposure.

But for those who have not been able to gain a seat in the MDS citing multiple reasons need not worry, they can opt for diplomas and dental clinical courses. Diploma courses after BDS are of two types i.e. private and government diplomas. The basic differences between government and private diplomas are affordability (government diplomas are cheap) and Dental Council of India (DCI) approval (only government diplomas have it).

Here are a few diplomas and courses a BDS graduate can apply for:

Private Diploma Courses

There are way too many private diploma courses. In fact, many seasoned dentists are running private diploma courses with big profit margins. The course fee varies differently for different courses. Those looking for clinical experience should opt for this.

Government Diploma Courses

DCI has approved many state dental-councils to run approved dental diploma courses in lasers, endodontics and orthodontics.

In Delhi, IGNOU offers Post-Graduate Certificate in Oral Implantlogy (PGCOI) which has a course duration of 1-3 years at an estimated fees of 1, 56,000 INR.

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences (RGUHS) 2-year PG diploma

RGUHS, Bangalore offers a 2-year diploma course in dentistry. The candidate is eligible if he/she has a BDS degree or an equivalent degree from a University recognized by DCI.

The course is divided into 4 semesters in which the first two semesters deal with Preclinical Work and Applied Basic Sciences and the next two semesters deal with Clinical work.

Candidates looking for experience and degree can opt for this course.

Dental Clinical Courses

One can also opt for various Dental Clinical Courses in Delhi. These courses have multiple specialties like oral surgery, dental implants, periodontics, and prosthodontics. These courses can help you achieve specialty which is a major trend in the medical industry.

Other Courses

A wide range of opportunities lie in the dental departments in hospitals, dental clinics and nursing homes. Apart from this, the Forensic department needs dentists for identification of deceased through bite mark analysis, dental remains etc.

You can also choose to work as a Dental Hygienist or as Dental assistants to models and film artists.

Hence, there is absolutely no need to dishearten yourself post your BDS studies. You can choose your study mode from the above mentioned options. And while pursuing a diploma course you can research for further opportunities in the field and assess your options.…

Don’t Mistake Crowdfunding As a New Way to Run a Socialist Economy

As a think tank coordinator, myself and our group come up with endless potential business start-up ideas, technologies, service company entrepreneurial exploits and new business models. In the last few years, I’ve noted increasing numbers of entrepreneurs favoring crowdfunding as a better source for start-up capital. Many of these entrepreneurs are fresh out of college with visions of saving the world, and their minds are often filled with socialist fallacies. They tell me that crowdfunding is like socialism in action – completely beautiful and natural democracy in action.

Wait one minute I think; “No crowdfunding isn’t socialism in action, it is capitalism in action – “free market capitalism” in its purest form.”

People voting with their own dollars investing in a business they believe in to achieve later gains by perhaps getting lucky and getting in on the new floor of something wonderful and great – the potential opportunity of a life-time to invest in the start-up before everyone notices. It is this desire, dream, and opportunity which drives it. This is free market capitalism, and any gains made in such an investment – well, the credit shouldn’t go to socialism or used by socialists to proclaim that “socialism works” because in reality it doesn’t work – but again, crowdfunding isn’t socialism anyway.

Socialism would be everyone pooling their money and the government collecting it and then deciding where to put it for everyone’s best interest, then keeping the benefits of that investment to re-invest as the government sees fit. Even in a socialist democracy – it wouldn’t be the individual’s choice, as it is in crowdfunding as to where the money would go, but rather the flickering, fuzzy, and finicky mood of the mindless masses – the suggestion of all those who vote going to the government to consider.

In this scenario – the predetermined items on the ballot created by some committee, usually a groupthink committee with individual members with specific agendas – then the government would take their so-called mandate and start picking winners or losers in the market place based on those agendas on your behalf, actually societies behalf, based on their choices.

To suggest that crowdfunding is like socialism just shows you how brainwashed our academic institutions are on our next generation of entrepreneurs, worse for socialists to suggest that crowdfunding is the culmination of their economic philosophies to counter what they call “evil capitalism” is utterly preposterous.

Further, if one is wondering why capitalism appears to have gone astray as of late – it’s simple, socialists in the government political leadership base have created an incestuous relationship with bankers, industry and capitalists to circumvent the flow of money, capital and control labor and production to serve their will.

That hardly sounds to me like this group of folks with such corrupt thinking on their organizational philosophy of society should be credited with the potential of crowdfunding – but, hey maybe they want to control that too, but if they do, it too will be …

Problems of Budget Deficits

A budget deficit occurs when Government spending is greater than tax revenues. For political reasons a budget deficit often occurs. Politicians never gain votes by raising taxes and cutting spending. With many major World economies facing a large budget deficit. It is worth considering the main economic disadvantages of Government borrowing.

Increased Borrowing

The govt will have to borrow from the private sector, in the UK the government does this by asking the Bank of England to sell bonds and gilts to the private sector.

Higher debt interest payments

Selling bonds will increase the national debt, this is currently £300 billion. The annual interest payments is approximately £23 billion, this has a high opportunity cost because it requires future generations to pay higher taxes.

Increased AD

A budget deficit implies lower taxes and increased G, this will increase AD and this may cause higher Real GDP and inflation.

Higher Taxes and lower spending

In the future the govt may have to increase taxes or cut spending in order to reduce the deficit. This may cause reduced incentives to work

Increased Interest rates

If the govt sells more bonds this is likely to cause interest rates to increase. This is because they will need to increase interest rates in order to attract investors to buy the extra debt.

If govt interest rates increase this will push up other interest rates as well.

Crowding Out

Increased govt borrowing may cause a decrease in the size of the private sector (see fiscal policy)

Inflation

In extreme circumstances the govt may increase the money supply to pay the debt, however this is unlikely to occur in the UK

If the govt sells short term gilts to the banking sector then there wil be an increase in the money supply, this is because banks see gilts as near money therefore they can maintain there lending to customers. However they will also be increasing the money supply by lending to the govt.

note the effect of a budget deficit depends to some extent on the cause. For example in a recession a budget deficit may be necessary to get the economy out of recession. If the government is borrowing to invest in infrastructure and education this can benefit the economy in the long term.…

Eva Peron – The Princess Diana of Argentina?

The latest news about the return of the famous Broadway musical Evita with Ricky Martin in a starring role has the entertainment press whipped into a frenzy. However, many of us are still wondering who Evita is, what she did, and why she deserves her own musical.

Maria Eva Duarte de Peron (1919-1952) was the second wife and political partner of President Juan Peron (1895’1974) of Argentina. She’s also popularly known by the affectionate Spanish diminutive Evita, which translates into “Little Eva”. Still a hugely popular figure in Argentina and a worldwide icon due to books, movies and musicals based on her life, many consider her comparable to another global superstar, England’s Princess Diana. Here we look at the similarities and differences of both women to see if the comparison is justified.

It’s fair to say that both Evita and Diana, despite living almost 50 years apart on different continents, had similarities;

– Both married powerful men, Diana with Prince Charles and Evita with Colonel Juan Peron. They met in 1943 when Peron had assumed the post of secretary of labor and social welfare in the military government that had recently come to power. Two years later they were married in 1945 when Evita assisted Peron with his release from prison after his incarceration by military opposition. Peron’s presidency in 1946 assumed soon after, and Evita’s close relationship with Peron gave her access to a lot of power.

– Both Diana and Evita shared an affinity for the poor and sick; during the 1946 Presidential campaign Evita directed her efforts towards the “descamisados” (shirtless poor) and her efforts for woman’s suffrage saw laws passed in 1947 that allowed women to vote in the 1951 elections for the first time in history. She also devoted several hours every day to meeting with poor people and visiting hospitals, orphanages, and factories. Additionally, she supervised the newly created Ministry of Health, which built many new hospitals and established a successful program to fight different diseases.

– Much like Diana, Evita was a figure constantly in the public eye. As a result she, like Diana, was immensely fashion-conscious. Her clothes and hairstyle were avidly studied, commented upon and copied.

– Both women died young, Evita of cervical cancer at the age of 33. In both cases, there were huge outpouring of public grief. All activity in Argentina ceased; movies stopped playing; restaurants were closed and patrons were shown to the door. The crowd outside of the official presidential residence after the announcement of her death was so dense that the streets were congesting for ten blocks in each direction. The streets of Buenos Aires overflowed with flowers that were stacked in huge piles, and within one day of Evita’s death, all flower shops in Buenos Aires had sold out.

– Just as Diana’s legacy and reputation has endured after her death, Evita’s passing doesn’t seem to have stopped her international fame. In 1980, Andrew Lloyd Weber and Timothy Rice’s Musical “Evita” won a major …

Six Types of Human Values

Human beings need different things to live in this world. However, nothing in this world is available free of cost. Everything has a price and one has to pay the right price to get ones need satisfied. However, we value the things based on our needs and the needs depends on the basis of our value system.

First, there are basic necessities like food, water, air, shelter, and clothing without which survival of the body itself is not possible. However, once these necessities are satisfied, man moves to satisfy his higher needs like the social needs, security needs or the need of self-actualization.

However, every person does not follow the same path as his path would depend on the inherent values of the person. These inherent values are acquired by the man by virtue of his nature and also by his nurture. The effect of the family, society, nation and individual makes every person unique as he develops a unique set of values. These values decide the priority and lifestyle of the person. The values make the personality of the person and decide the growth of the individual, family, society, nation and the humanity.

1. Individualistic Values

The most inherent value of a person is individualistic which means valuing the self over anything else in the world. This is also the most natural value which is inherent in every animal of the world. The animals live for themselves without much bothering about the other animals. The only exception would be the mother animal which takes care of her child animal till the child grows up sufficiently to support itself.

The modern world has been moving more and more towards individualistic values where the interest of the individual is considered to be the most “right” and needs to be protected over everything else. The individualistic value support freedom as it believes that every person has the right to decide what is good for him.

Every child starts with individualistic values and he wants everything in the world for the self and wants everyone to serve him. When the need of the child is not satisfied, he cries and do everything to get the need satisfied.

2. Family Values

The human specie may be the most powerful specie in the earth but it is also true that human specie is also the weakest specie. A human child does not learn to even walk for one year. If the child of the man is allowed to survive of its own, it just can not survive. The support of family is must for the growth of every human child. It is for this reason that human specie over the year has invented the concept of family that lives like one unit and supports a new born child till it becomes strong enough to support itself.

The concept of family has given rise to the family value where a family is considered to be the basic unit of the society instead of the individual. The …