Fidel Castro And the Cuban Revolution – 51 Years of Tyranny

1960s A Pro-Soviet Tyranny

1959-1960: Following Fidel Castro’s overthrow of the dictatorial Batista administration, a host of people, including children and women, welcomed the arrival of guerrillas, but they turned the Island — about the size of Tennessee– into a place of repression. On the other side, Raúl Castro had been hand-picked by his brother, Fidel Alejandro Castro Ruz, as the second leader of the Cuban Revolution. In the meantime, in the early years of the new regime, up to 3,200 Cubans had been slaughtered by Fidel Castro and his family. On the economic side, Castro nationalized all U.S. businesses (without compensation). In fact, these events marked the beginning of one the world’s worst undemocratic governments. Toward the end of 1960, Washington imposed an embargo on Cuba.

1960-1980: As a consequence of the totalitarian policies, over one million Cubans had fled to America (chiefly Florida), Canada, Mexico, Venezuela, Spain and Italy.

1960-1982: Inspired by the People’s Republic of China, Albania and other Communist tyrannies, Cuba’s undemocratic state had decimated the country’s tourism industry.

1960-2007: In one of Fidel Castro’s many dictatorial reforms, hemade his sister-in-law, Vilma Espín, President of the Federation of Cuban Women –a key organization on Cuba. Espín, Raúl Castro’s wife, was leader of the feminist organization until her abrupt death on June 18, 2007.However in time, she, a former Marxist guerrilla, was known as the “First Lady of the Cuban Revolution”. Over the decades of the Soviet Empire, she had strong links with radical feminist movements from Eastern Europe, Asia, Latin America and sub-Saharan Africa.

1960-2010: World-famous dancer and choreographer Alicia Alonso Martínez became one of the key women, alongside Haydée Santamaria Cuadrado, Vilma Espín Guillois, Celia Sánchez Manduley and Mireya Luis Hernández, in the Cuban Revolution. Since then, she used her fame and prestige to clean up the Island’s bad image. By the early 60s, Fidel Castro gave Alonso $200,000 to set up the Cuban National Ballet. From then on, the Ballet Nationalbecame an open door for Cuban influence in the Third World and Europe.

1961: The Island’s history took sudden turn in this year as the provisional rule declared the country a Marxist stateand began a close relationship with the Kremlin -the USSR was one of the first states to recognize Cuba’s tyranny–and their allies, including the German Democratic Republic (GDR), North Korea and Czechoslovakia. From then on, Moscow played a key role in the Cuban Revolution. Nonetheless, after Cuba became a pro-Soviet dictatorship, the political relationship between the States and the Island worsened. On January 3, 1961, the tensions between both governments came to a head as America severed diplomatic ties with the rule of Cuba.

1962: The Republic of Cuba was suspended from the Organization of American States (OAS), which was founded on April 30 1948 in Bogotá (Colombia), over its dictatorial rule.

1962- 1990: Unlike many Marxist states in sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, including Ethiopia (the world’s poorest nation), Guinea, Laos and Cambodia (Asia’s poorest country), the Island’s human development, from employment …

Who Is Responsible for India’s Jobless Growth?

The push for structural reforms in the past few years – including unprecedented moves to curb black money, relaxation in FDI norms, introduction of the ripe and ready GST, and digitization of services – has helped improve the credit profile of the country, and thus ease its high-debt burden.

The nation’s progress is also reflected on the charts with the Annual Growth Rate scaling much higher than the forecasted growth rates of more than 7 per cent in the past two quarters. It is only in the first quarter of this year that the growth rate has slowed down to 6.1 per cent.

While most of the indicators of growth, viz., strengthening of rupee, stabilization of inflation and increase in FDIs (foreign direct investments) show an upturn to the realization of the promise of ‘Acche Din’, there remains one that reveals the flip side of the ‘Indian Success Story’- the Employment Data.

A critical analysis of the employment scenario across various sectors shows that India is slowly slipping into a long-lasting phase of jobless growth. By industry, the service sector has been the biggest contributor to the Indian economy’s growth.. Trade, hotels, transport and communication, financing, insurance, real estate, business services and community, and social and personal services account for more than 60 per cent of the country’s GDP. Agriculture, forestry and fishing together constitute around 12 per cent of the output, but employs more than 50 per cent of the labor force. Manufacturing makes a contribution of 15 per cent in the GDP, while construction adds another 8 per cent. Mining, quarrying, electricity, gas and water supply build the remaining 5 per cent (Source: MINISTRY OF STATISTICS AND PROGRAMME IMPLEMENTATION, GOI, update – June 2017).

Competition Pressure

After years of steady, consistent growth, many Indian IT companies have faced massive competitive pressure. This has pushed them towards the trend of ‘cost cutting’ in the past few years. According to the National Association of Software and Services Companies (NASSCOM), the rate at which jobs are generated in the IT industry is terribly lower than the average year-on-year growth of the industry itself. It is, thus, evident that the Indian IT industry, while moving towards greater automation, is fast becoming a job-less proposition.

Skilled yet un-skilled

While most try to corner the Government on the issue, as I recall from the discussion at the Parliamentarian Youth Conclave, held in March at Delhi, ‘growing un-employment’ was a persistent undertone of the questions put forth by the youth delegates to most of the Cabinet Ministers from Shri Prakash Javadekar to Shri Piyush Goel. Addressing the concerns, Shri Prakash Javadekar commented, “.. It is also a result of the youth today looking for high-paying options, rather than a good job. This herd mentality is at the root of this crisis”. Dr Bindeshwar Pathak, Founder of Sulabh International and a celebrated social reformer, also stated, “There is no dearth of jobs for those who really want to work and understand the importance of growing one …

Characteristics, Types and Importance, or Reasons for Population Census

Characteristics

1. It must be conducted by government of the state or country where the census is taking place.

2. It must be conducted at the same time (simultaneously) throughout the country.

3. It must involve regular counting at specific intervals of time, eg, United state of America’s population taken in 1790, 1800, 1810, 1820… 2010 which is an interval of 10 years.

4. It must reveal the population of a country at a specific period of time e.g America’s population census as of 1790 was 3,929,214; as of 1890, it was 62,979,766; as of 1990, it was 248,709,873.

5. It must involve the physical counting of people rather than by proxy.

6. It must involve experts who are knowledgeable in population studies and they must be of high integrity.

Types of population Census

There are two main types of population census and they are:

1. Defacto Population census: This is the type of population census which involves the counting of only those who are present physically during census. In this group, only those who are present physically or seen are counted.

2. De jure population census: This is the type of population census which involves the counting of people who have been permanent residents of a specific area. It does not matter whether the person is present of not. This is population census commonly referred to as counting by proxy.

Importance or Reasons of Population Census

The importance or reasons for conducting a population census include:aiding the government to know the number of people living in the country and the structure of the population; helping in the determination of taxable adults so as to know the amount of revenue expected from that sector; enabling the country to forecast her future economic needs eg, housing, food etc and the provision of statistics to the government to determine the level of unemployment in the country

Further importance could be: its assistance in the determination of the standard of living of the people in a country through per capital income; using the statistics of the number of people in a country to formulate economic policies eg, revenue formula is at times based on population figures; the estimation of the number of immigrants in a country, the assistance to the government in the distribution of resources eg, areas of high population will get more resources than areas of Low population; giving the government an idea of the different population in various parts of the country and this can help in the provision of social amenities like housing, water, electricity, roads, schools, hospitals etc. It doesn’t just end there, Population census is also very vital in giving detailed information to the government on areas of the country where population per land area is high or low; reveals level of man power by helping to reveal the total number of people who are working-when the level of manpower is high, the economic development of the country is assured and assists international agencies and governments in …

Learn Dicipline and Patiotsm at Philippine Military Academy in Baguio City in the Philippines

Located in Fort del Pilar after Loakan Road, the Philippine Military Academy serves as the training ground for future officers of the Armed Forces of the Philippines. It was then known as “Officers’ School of the Philippine Constabulary when it was still located in Intramuros, Manila.

Tracing The Roots of the Academy

On October 25, 1898, “Academia Militar” was established in Malolos, Bulacan by General Emilio Aguinaldo. Majority of the teachers were former members of the Spanish Guardia Civil handpicked by the government to train Filipino soldiers.

During the establishment of the Commonwealth government, the Philippine Military Academy took over from the Philippine Constabulary Academy through the enactment of the National Defense Act on December 21, 1936. It was authorized to offer and grant Bachelor of Science degrees to its graduates after completing their four year courses.

The Curriculum

The curriculum and military training offered by the Philippine Military Academy was influenced by the US Military Academy. For several years, the curriculum of the Philippine Military Academy concentrated on mathematics, sciences, and engineering, as a reflection of the reputation of West Point as the training ground of civil and railroad engineers who established the American West.

At first, theAcademy offered courses under the tri-service curriculum: Management, Naval Systems Engineering, and Aeronautical Maintenance Engineering for the Army, Navy, and Air Force, respectively. PMA Classes of 1995 and 1996 were conferred with these degrees. The reason for offering majors to cadets was for advanced studies and to educate the cadets based on their natural inclinations.

The curriculum of the Philippine Military Academy composed of three components: Core Curriculum, which offered general education to allow the cadets to receive basic knowledge of the arts and sciences; Major Area Elective so the students can concentrate on areas where they have special inclinations or knowledge; and a Professional Courses Program, which offers basic military training required to be junior officers in their chosen major service. The Major Area Elective offers three areas of concentration namely Management, Information Systems, and General Engineering.

In order to be admitted to the Philippine Military Academy, candidates must be at least 17 years old. They should be natural born Filipinos, at least 5’4″ in height for males and 5’2″ for females. They should pass the written and psycholometric exam, with a GPA of at least 80{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} in their high school years. Foreign students seeking admission in the PMA should satisfy the same admission requirements.

Students of the Philippine Military Academy are granted full scholarship benefits. The government allocates P2.3 million pesos for every cadet by the time they graduate. Aside from that, they receive free tuition fees, medical and dental care, school supplies, complete access to modern educational and training facilities, board and lodging. Likewise, they are given monthly stipends.…

Cayenne Pepper and Heart Health – Is Cayenne a Cure For Heart Disease?

Cayenne pepper is one of the most powerful and beneficial herbs known to mankind, but unfortunately very few know of its efficacy. Cayenne pepper and heart health should be synonymous for anyone with heart disease or cardiovascular issues but it is not. Due to the power and might of Big Pharma and their unholy alliance with the United States government, many Americans are simply unaware of natural herbs that can dramatically improve their heart health.

“If this is true, then why haven’t the masses heard of it?” you may ask. A fair question. In a word, money. Literally billions of dollars have been spent on heart disease care and research, not to mention the billions on pharmaceutical drugs fighting cholesterol.

In fact, the number-one-selling drug in the US is Lipitor — ostensibly sold to reduce cholesterol and by extension heart disease. Cayenne could eliminate all that and that is why the medical establishment doesn’t want people to know about it.

Before discussing the benefits of cayenne pepper and heart health however, let’s consider the result of the billions that have been “invested” in the name of curing heart disease for if there is one fundamental criterion by which government and medical institutional spending should be judged, it should be by the results.

According to a May 25th, 2006 report by the BBC, heart disease is the biggest killer in the United Kingdom. Across the pond in the United States, the National Heart Foundation says, “Coronary heart disease is the single greatest cause of death for both men and women in the US, eclipsing all other causes, including cancer and lung diseases. Every year more than 479,000 Americans die of coronary heart disease.”

Clearly, the current allopathic (traditional Western medicine) approach is lacking.

The unholy collusion between government, pharmaceutical interests and institutional medicine, with its powerful financial influence, pervades nearly every facet of society. Homeopathic medicine is not only derided but persecuted and even criminalized while allopathic medicine is deified as the only way to health.

In reality, the joining of the best of allopathic and homeopathic interventions would be ideal, but for that to happen, results would have to be the final arbiter as to an intervention’s effectiveness, not corporate and governmental interests.

Background Info

So, what is cayenne? You probably recognize its name as a potent condiment often used in cooking, but its value lies well beyond its culinary uses. It is an herb that is nothing short of amazing.

It is a multi-talented herb that is also known, although obliquely so, as African red pepper, American red pepper, Spanish pepper, capsicum, and bird pepper. Cayenne is derived from two related plants. Specifically, the American variety (Capsicum minimum) is distinguished from its African counterpart the African birdseye cayenne (Capsicum fastigiatum) although both are highly beneficial to man. The African birdseye cayenne is the most pungent with small, yellowish red pods while the American variety is distinguished with its herb-sized plants and larger fruit or pods.

The food value …

Patent Administration in India

The administration of patent related matters in India is looked after by Patents and Trademarks Office. This office comes under the purview of Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion, which falls under the Ministry of Commerce, Government of India. The Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks is responsible for administrative processes related to Intellectual Property Rights including Patents. There are four patent offices located at four different places in India to facilitate filing of patent applications among Indian researchers and scientists. The head office of Patents is located at Kolkata whereas Brand offices are located at Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai.

These four offices have jurisdiction over different states of the country. The hierarchy of Patent office includes Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trademarks who is supported by Senior Joint Controller of patents and Designs. Joint Controller of Patents and Designs reports to Senior Joint Controller. Joint controller monitors the functions of Deputy Controllers who monitors Assistant controller of Patents, Designs and Trademarks.

The examination of patent applications is carried out by Patent Examiners. The government of India has set up a Patent Information System (PIS) at Nagpur that provides services for patents and patent search. PIS provides information to researchers and scientists. Intellectual Property Training Institute (IPTI) was established in 2002. IPTI imparts training to personnel engaged in the field of Intellectual Property and also conducts awareness programs for attorney and researchers.

Patent Office conducts Patent Agent examination twice a year. A successful candidate then can work as an approved Patent agent. The examination is conducted at Head Office and Three regional office. …

Importance of Having a Constitution

The American Constitution was made in the eighteenth century. In 1789, the constitution became effective, since then it plays an important role in keeping the United States a safe and orderly country.

1. The first answer to the question why was the Constitution created is because to have one legal basis for the all the rights of the citizens. The American constitution contains the bill of rights. You can see the complete list of all every citizen of America can enjoy. You can still see the original draft displayed in Washington, D.C.

2. The second answer to the question why was the constitution created is because it serves as the strong framework for any nation’s peace and order. In America, the constitution addressed the urgent need of integration all the states in a unified paradigm. The constitution is the highest law that everyone needs to uphold. The United States constitution is one of the shortest constitutions you can find in the world.

3. The third answer to the question why was the constitution created is because it is the foundation of the authorities of any legal entity. The law enforcers, judges, lawyers, mayors and other politicians cannot abuse their law because they also need to follow the constitution.

4. The fourth answer to the question why was the constitution created is because it provided the United States government the right way on how to organize their government. It defined the duties of each government body in a clear and precise way. The congress is the legislative body, the president is the main leader of the executive body and the Supreme Court is the leader in the judicial department.

5. The fifth answer to the question why was the constitution created is because it gave direction to all the three main departments of the American government. The constitution gave the outline of all the powers that every government department can exercise while at the same time clearly defining what every citizen can also exercise. It defined the importance of being accountable to the government especially on court trials. This ensured the welfare of all the people by establishing what the government can and cannot do. It also established the fact that the judicial, executive and legislative bodies of the government are interdependent on one another.

6. The sixth answer to the question why the United States constitution is important is to outline all the freedom every American can enjoy namely, freedom for speech, freedom for access to the media, freedom for religion, freedom for petitions and freedom for establishing an assembly.…

The Root Causes of Youth Restiveness in Nigeria

• Marginalization: The notion appears to have gained ground that the youth resort to restiveness because of their perceived marginalisation by the ‘selfish’ elders in the scheme of things in the communities. In order to get their share of the benefits accruing to the society they resort to taking on their elders headlong, culminating in the restiveness rampant in most of our communities today.

• Unemployment: Unemployment is a hydra-headed monster which exists among the youth in all developing countries. The unemployment rate in Nigeria was last reported at 23.9 percent in 2011. The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) has put the figure of unemployed Nigerians in the first half of the year at 23.9 per cent, up from 21.1 per cent in 2010 and 19.7 per cent in 2009.

Minister for Agriculture, Dr. Akinwumi Adesina noted that Nigeria’s unemployment rate is spiraling upwards, growing at 11 per cent yearly, According to him “Youth unemployment rate is over 50 per cent. “Our unemployment rate is spiralling, driven by the wave of four Million young people entering the workforce every year with only a small fraction able to find formal employment.

The rising tide of unemployment and the fear of a bleak future among the youth in African countries have made them vulnerable to the manipulations of agents’ provocateurs”. These include aggrieved politicians, religious demagogues, and greedy multinationals that employ these youths to achieve their selfish ambitions. It is clearly evident that the absence of job opportunities in developing countries is responsible for youth restiveness with disastrous consequences.

This leaves in its trails; low productivity, intra-ethnic hostilities, unemployment, poverty, prostitution and environmental degradation.

• Exuberance: Very often, the youth are described as full of youthful exuberance. This raw energy has of late been channelled into unwholesome and socially unacceptable venture that threaten the very fabrics of the community. Also the issue of availability and accessibility of drugs in street corners which predispose the youth to abnormal behaviours when they come under their influence adds to youth restiveness.

It is also believed that some disgruntled leaders, elders and politicians in our society resort to recruiting youth for settling scores or using them against perceived enemies. With this trend, the activities of these youth have degenerated to outright criminality. Once these youth get mobilized for these nefarious activities they become uncontrollable and the society suffers.

• Poverty

Poverty connotes inequality and social injustice and this traumatizes the poor. More than 70 percent of people in Nigeria are in abject poverty, living below the poverty line, and one- third survive on less than US $1 dollar a day. This figure includes an army of youth in urban centres in Nigeria who struggle to eke out a living by hawking chewing sticks, bottled water, handkerchiefs, belts, etc. The sales-per-day and the profit margin on such goods are so small that they can hardly live above the poverty line. Disillusioned, frustrated, and dejected, they seek an opportunity to express their anger against the state. Scholars have …

Debates – Integral Parts of A Democratic Society

A debate enriches the people participating in it, thus contributing to the democratic system. Interactive argument on debate platforms allows participants to exchange views, making the right atmosphere for a consensus to develop. These debates are an integral part of a democratic society.

Society is an ever evolving entity and the reason behind the change is the people. It is we, the people, who prompt the change, causing the society we all live in to move on. Prevailing economic, political and social factors are behind these changes. These factors impact our lives in a profound manner, pushing us to discuss them and decide what will be better for our future.

Issues concerning us could be large or small. It could be as simple as to follow a daily talk show on the television on a given subject, or as big whether the UK must participate in any future war in the gulf. However, the debate must go on. In fact, it is the base of the democratic society as without debate, it will be autocracy and not democracy.

Democracy is the system that flows from bottom to top and not vice versa. It is people who make the Government in a democracy. An everyday man can get things to happen in a democracy and that is the beauty of this system.

A democratic society can use various platforms to debate, and each of these platforms would carry its own value. A debate could be large or small as well. A few people discussing matters in a drawing room is as much a debate as two politicians discussing Britain’s foreign policy on national television. Discussions as small as a drawing room or coffee shop level play their part in formation of a general opinion on a given matter.

Then, there is a new platform – social media. People can express themselves on social media calling a spade a spade. They can use blogs to offer their take on various subjects the society, nation and the world faces. There are online forums which can contribute to productive discussion on certain topics. People can discuss freely and even if a participant crosses the limit, the moderator can take care of it.

You can be part of the sites which are a notch higher than the usual forums and popular social media. These sites have reputed academics, who can enrich you with their issue-penetrating articles, on their panel. Reading their thoughts on a range of current issues will help you comprehend an issue in a better way. These will help you develop an analytical mind, enabling you to look on issues with the angles, you hitherto did not think of.

Any news which is worthy of making it to a debate, will find place on these sites. So if you are convinced that the issue you are in is debate news, visit these websites and you will find it. Go through the existing articles and the readers’ feedback on the given subject and …

John Dryden and Social and Literary Background of His Age

John Dryden (1631-1700), the major poet of the Restoration Age, was born at Aldwincle, a village near Oundle in Northampton shire. His paternal grand father named Sir Eramus Dryden was a baroner and his mother was Lady Pickering, the first cousin of Sir Gilbert Pickering. He received his primary education in the village school of neighbouring Tichmarsh. From Tichmarsh, he passed on to Westminster school about the year 1642. From Westminster, he went to Trinity College, Cambridge in 1650.He was close to Sir Robert Howard that friendship caused of his marriage with Lady Elizabeth in 1663, the daughter of his friend, but the marriage proved unhappy.

Undoubtedly, he was an original and discriminating critic. Dr Johnson called him, “the father of English Criticism”. Besides, he was the founder of modern prose style. He was an outstanding poet and dramatist. In his age, minor literary critics were so many with their erratic work, but the major contemporaries with significant work were Thomas Rhymer, John Dennis and Jeremy Collier. It would be better to discuss social and literary background of his age (1660-1700).

A. Social Background:

The Age of Dryden begins with the Restoration of Charles II to the throne in 1660 till the death of the poet in 1700. It will not be exaggeration to say that he was the dominant literary figure who nicely represented the period. His age was deeply influenced by the three historical events: the Restoration of Charles II in 1660, the religious and political controversies and the Popish plot, and the Golden Revolution of the year 1688. As far as the Restoration of Charles II is concerned, it increased corruption etc. It took a violent reaction against the Puritan restraints. All the values of society, what the Puritan had prevailed, were violated. The king was very odd had a number of mistresses and illegitimate children. He was irresponsible and unpatriotic who always stood against his promises, broke his treaty with the Dutch and with his own ministers and betrayed his country. His court was dishonourable and the parliament passed the bills against the church and the state with the thirst of revenge from those who were connected with the puritan government of Cromwell. The House of Lords was increased by the creation of hereditary titles, desecrated men and unabashed women. Even the judiciary was not safe.

In this era, the unpleasantness in the field of religious and political parties was strongly vivid. There were the two central political parties, the Whigs and the Tories. They divided the atmosphere of the country with their touch. The Whigs was in favour of limiting the royal power in the interests of the nation and the parliament, where as the Tories was different and it supported the ‘divine right’ theory of the kings. The both parties proved fruitful for the men of literary abilities. They were in pursuit of the support and bribed them with places and pensions. The writers of the day were not free from the political bias …