The Real Purpose of Government Grants

We all know that government grants are a way for the citizens of a country to get free money from the tax payers, but the question is what's the whole point of doing that? Many people work very hard and do great things with their intelligence and business acumen, but get no help from the government at all. Why provide government grants to some people and not others if we all pay our fair share of taxes? The real purpose of government grants is so that the government can make a political decision of where to invest its money for the greater good of the country. It's their decision making that helps excel certain programs that can compete against foreign countries. It's intent is to continue to be a super power by putting money where it is needed.

For instance, one way government grants are offered through small businesses. In the economic downturn, President Barack Obama needed to do something to help stimulate the economy again. People were losing their jobs and everyone was saving their money causing business to go down. The issuing of grants helped small businesses get back on their feet. These businesses now had the opportunity to hire more workers which provided more jobs to everyone. Money was being spent because people were getting their jobs back. The use of these grants can do great things if pointed in the right direction.

Many grants are also offered to help research facilities and technology developers to get their ideas rolling. The use of this money can help pay for a lot of expensive equipment that can expedite these companies' course of plan. If the United States is the first to discover something new, the government grants have done its job. It could not hurt to attempt to apply for these grants. Being honest and convincing can help you beat out your competition. If you are truly good at what you do and know your ideas can be put to good work, you should definitely apply for government grants to help make your dreams a reality.

The Advantages and Disadvantages of Seized Car Auctions

Nowadays, if somebody drives a posh car, it doesn’t necessarily mean that the person is rich – the luxury vehicle might have been bought at one of the numerous seized car auctions held regularly.

As the name suggests, seized car auctions offer vehicles that were seized by the government or the police due to some illegal activity. Apart from criminals, automobiles at repossessed vehicle auctions come from people failed to pay the mortgage, defaulted on tax payments, etc. The goal of the government is not to cash on these vehicles, but rather get rid of them quickly and avoid storage and maintenance expenses.

Seized car auctions as well as other types of similar auctions have their own advantages and disadvantages. Being aware of them will help you decide whether or not this is the way you want to purchase your vehicle.

Advantages of Seized Car Auctions

1. Unbelievably low starting bid. You can expect 80 and even 90{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} discount – a great bargain if you compare it with the retailer price.

2. Good condition. Most vehicles sold have been in use not more than 5 years. Quite often, there are cars in a “close to new” condition.

3. History reports available. Ideally, every such auto auction will provide free Car Fax VIN reports. Additionally, you can use an Auto Check Vehicle History to make sure that the car was not damaged in an accident.

4. Possibility to find a rare model. If you are on a lookout for a particular model, especially rare or imported one, chances are you will find it at such an auction. Check online seized car auctions as well – they have an impressive number of listings, so it is really not so hard to find what you want.

Disadvantages of Seized Car Auctions

1. Sold “as is”. After acquiring a vehicle, it is impossible to exchange or return it for a refund. Therefore, take time to assess the vehicle’s condition and check its history.

2. Hard for beginners. If you are a first-timer, a repossessed vehicle auction may seem to be a tough place to you. Needless to say, it is difficult to keep up with experienced car dealers. A friend who is not new to seized car auctions would be of great help. Or, turn to online auto auctions – they are easier to control the bidding process.

3. Time consuming. Searching for the seized car auctions in your area, registration, preliminary checking, attending one (especially if it is quite far from your place), and getting all the necessary paperwork done later may take up to a few weeks. Again, participation in an online auction is easier, though involves more risks and concerns.

With these knowledge in hand, you are in a better position to buy a vehicle that is auctioned. For more details on where and how to pick up your dream car from seized car auctions, read up my blog.

New Zealand – Common WEALTH or Common STEALTH?

To many people, New Zealand is one of the most sought-after countries for many English folk to move to, either to emigrate, or retire.

Why? Because we think that the whole country and its massive natural resources belong to us. But why should we think that? What about the people that lived peacefully there since the beginning of the first century – the Maori peoples from Polynesia?

Too many times, we seem to think that this whole area of the Pacific was populated by tribes of fierce savages, who knew nothing of the ‘civilized’ world, and allegedly had no idea of commerce or interaction with other nations. For many such peoples, they became ‘fair game’ to the more ‘advanced’ civilizations of the west, such as Britain, France and Spain, who would go to any lengths to secure new additions to their overseas empires.

Even if there was a lack of commercial awareness in these conquered States, what gave anybody the right to take over and attempt to destroy, the local religions, belief, and traditions of these indigenous peoples? After all, if Britain had lost the Second World War, we would probably now all be using German as our first language, and there would have been no religious freedom of expression allowed. Would that have made us a better country? I doubt it. There would have been much dissent and undertones of revolt, and a feeling that we were robbed of our heritage.

The facts are that at the turn of the 19th Century, the Maori people had established a Bank (Te Whare Awaroa Mauri Trust Bank) and a newspaper (The Native Courier) in 1808. Hardly the activities to be expected from so-called ‘ignorant savages’.

In 1816 Te Wakaminenga O Nga Hapu formed a Maori Court with laws based on Tikanga Maori (in response to the lawless and unruly behaviour of visiting whalers, sealers and other foreigners) and enforced the laws accordingly. They further planned to unite the tribes operating on two levels by uniting the Ariki blood lines, and forming an army in a common defence policy against to ever-increasing immigration issues.

In the same year the authority of Maori Sovereignty was recognised and registered in the House of Westminster, England, as well as recognised by other nations such as America, France, Japan and Te Moananui A Kiwa. (United Pacific Nations)

The growth of settlers and whalers into New Zealand in the first quarter of the 19th Century had a devastating effect on the Maori people. Not only were they becoming outnumbered, but disease introduced from the settlers was causing massive numbers deaths from illnesses that in the Western world were just mild complaints.

A lot of settlers were carrying out illegal purchase of land in this time period, and introducing new types of crops, and new ways of fishing (especially whaling), and this activity caused a lot of friction between many of the Maori iwi (Tribes), leading to a whole series of brutal inter-tribal wars. To try and redress this situation, the Treaty of Waitangi was set up, which was also meant to establish the sovereignty of the Maori over New Zealand.

The Treaty of Waitangi, Te Tiriti o Waitangi, was an agreement signed in 1840 between representatives of the British Crown and Maori iwi (tribes). The Treaty came about because the British War and Colonial Office was determined to annex New Zealand. It believed the only legal way to do so was to initiate a treaty of cessation whereby Maori leaders would cede their sovereignty to Britain.

This was because the same Maori leaders had declared their independence in 1835. It is very interesting to note, that as the Agreement was signed, 500 Chiefs signed the Maori version, and only 49 signed the English version.

Support for the treaty was widespread right across the Maori people, spreading from the North then on to the South Island. The other interesting thing about this, is the fact that the Maori wanted to be totally loyal to the Crown, which is why, even now, over 160 years later, that with a republican movement being mooted in New Zealand, the most vociferous opponents to that movement is coming from the whole Maori people!

Sovereignty is a topic close to many people’s hearts. Nobody wants to particularly give up everything, unless they can see something coming back in return. Even in the UK today, many people are very concerned about the ‘creeping powers’ of the European Union, slowly one by one, removing UK Sovereignty over the legal system, fishing and agriculture, even usurping the UK’s own Parliament, and also eyeing up removal of the UK’s military independence, and also trying to control the monetary supply by pushing them towards the Euro Zone.

The Maori version of the Waitangi Treaty included the concept of their continuing sovereignty, but the English one didn’t, which is where the whole ‘Common Stealth’ has become a major cause of concern for the Maori people for nearly 200 years.

By 1840, the British Monarchy had ceased to have any real political power.

The newly crowned Queen Victoria was a constitutional monarch and the government of the day was led by the Whig party Prime Minister Lord Melbourne. In 1839 his Colonial Secretary the Marquess of Normanby sent Captain William Hobson to the Bay of Islands with detailed instructions on establishing New Zealand as a British colony.

On February 5, Hobson presented English and Maori versions of the Treaty to Maori. Following some discussion as to what the Treaty would do for Maori, it was signed by a gathering of Iwi leaders on February 6. It was then circulated more widely among other Maori leaders.

Since that time there has been considerable conflict and debate over what the Treaty promised Maori. The problems have been caused primarily by the differences between the English and Maori versions of the Treaty. The exact nature of the authority that Iwi ceded to the Crown is still an ongoing debate.

Towards the end of the 20th Century, a whole new era started to open up for Maori people who by now had fallen almost to the levels of a second-class race of peoples, suffering not just from wholesale robbing of their birthrights, but were suffering almost a form of racial apartheid, which needed redressing.

This was discussed and upheld by the United Nations in their Resolution on Indigenous Peoples and their Rights as late as 2007, totally underwritten by Australia and New Zealand.

In an attempt to restore the greatness of the Maori peoples, the first thing that had to be done was to try and reunite all of the iwi (tribes) again. To this end, an International Corporation, ‘TE MANA TINO RANGATIRA O TE MATUA KARANGA O TE HUIHUINGA PUTANOA CORPORATION SOLE’ was set up in 2003.

The Founder, His Excellency Chief Charles Hohepa, being empowered by a ‘Sovereign Mandate’ from the ‘Confederation of the Chiefs of the Tribes of Aotearoa (NZ)’ and ‘Te Matua Karanga O Te Huihuinga Puyanoa Trust, Auotearoa (NZ)’ has established a world-wide organization for and on behalf of the Maori people of Aotearoa (NZ) for the reinstatement of their ancient customary culture, values, and disciplines, and uplifting the Maori peoples in a modern society.

This is known as the Matua Karanga Foundation. ‘The Foundation’ extends to other peoples and nations, the hand of friendship in the pursuit and promotion of goodwill, peace and harmony.

The Foundation is committed to humanitarian relief of all peoples and nations, giving special regard to the indigenous first nation peoples of the world, recognizing the sovereignty of those nations and as such is committed to peaceful processes, encouraging mutual dialogue between all nations but on mutual respect and trust in the integrity of all mankind.

Considering the way in which first nation people have been treated in the past, this is a brilliant way to redress these early breaches of trust, and at the same time, encouraging a better world for all of us.

Sexuality in Politics

The glass ceiling against the rise of women into positions of power have seen many great brains kept back from excelling to their full extent. In recent times women, like Helen Clark, the ex-Prime Minister of New Zealand, have put themselves forward for the role of United Nations Secretary General. There has never been a woman in this position and it is not surprising that they were defeated.

Men have such prejudicial views against women and the number of them who select the successful candidate for this position must play a role in who they elect. The Security Council recommends a candidate as worthy to the General Assembly who then vote on it.

The first is made up of primarily the five victors of WWII, they being Russia, Germany, France, England, and the USA who are the permanent members. Ten non-permanent members are then appointed to serve 2 year terms. This gives an overall number of 15 members.

In 2016-2017 the latter comprised delegates from the following nations: Bolivia; Egypt; Ethiopia; Italy; Japan; Kazakhstan; Senegal; Sweden; Ukraine; and Uruguay. One must question the prejudice of many of these nations against women in leadership roles. The predominantly Muslim and Catholic countries would have to be counted as among them.

In local politics the problem remains just as potent an issue. In Australia the recent Labour government tried to lift the glass ceiling by issuing quotas to ensure that some 50{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of its members are women. That, however, is not the same in the Liberal Party where the Prime Minister has only 3 female members in his cabinet.

The sexuality in politics is another example of how religion rules the world, as the majority of Liberal members are advocates of either Catholicism or the prejudice of their upbringing. As part of my research the role of religion was a strong focus as it all started from Babylon, the home of Islam.

How this has played out in the Word Order and the maintaining of the Establishment is part of the role of the one dubbed 666. He was Islamic and of the Amor, the people who built Roma (reverse Amor). He laid out the rules for the economy, the law, and rights of inheritance. He also formed the Catholic Church in 325 AD and put up the image of Jesus Christ (Revelation 13:12-18).

His impact has survived because of the religions that are protected by the laws he laid down. Governments will continue to be ruled by them as long as they survive. That means no one will or can break the glass ceiling against women while sexuality play a part in refusing them high office.

What Is the Tennessee Plan for Medicare Supplemental Policies?

When you retire, you are faced with some important personal decisions. That is why the State of Tennessee and POMCO are working together to make one of those decisions (Medicare supplemental healthcare) easier for you. As a retiree, you may be eligible for The Tennessee Plan. This Plan is designed specifically for retired state employees, teachers and local government employees and their eligible spouses and dependents. The Tennessee Plan Can Help Fill the Medicare Coverage Gap If you have Medicare coverage, you likely need The Tennessee Plan to help cover some of the expenses that Medicare does not. The Tennessee Plan helps fill most of the coverage gaps that Medicare creates.

If you are eligible, you can enroll in The Tennessee Plan coverage, commonly known as Medigap Coverage. The Tennessee Plan is a standard Medicare supplemental policy designed to fill in the coverage gaps in your Medicare Part A & B coverage.

What Kind of Gaps Do  Medicare Parts A & B Have?

In 2010, some of the charges Medicare requires you to pay include the following:

•  A $1,100 deductible out of your own pocket each time you are hospitalized.

•  Then $275 a day for the 61st to the 90th day in the hospital and $550 a day thereafter up to a 60 day lifetime reserve maximum.   Plus a $155 deductible for approved doctors’ bills and outpatient expenses and then you must pay an additional 20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the Medicare approved charges after that.

You may be responsible for any amount over the Medicare approved charges from providers who do not accept Medicare assignment. Even with Medicare coverage, your out- of-pocket expenses can add up fast and cause financial difficulty. Coverage under The Tennessee Plan can help fill some of these gaps. There are 10 standard approved (by federal law) Medicare supplemental policies that can be offered. The Tennessee Plan offers benefits comparable to the Medicare Supplemental Standard Plan D.

Who is Eligible to Enroll?

Any retired State of Tennessee employee or Local Education certified teaching staff receiving a monthly retirement allowance from the Tennessee Consoli- dated Retirement System (TCRS), or higher education optional retirement plan who is eligible for Medicare Part A may apply for coverage under this Plan. Retired Local Education support staff and Local Government participants eligible for Medicare Part A who receive a monthly retirement allowance from the TCRS are also eligible to apply for coverage. Your legal married spouse and eligible dependents may also apply. If you qualify and enroll for coverage within 60 days of your initial eligibility, you cannot be denied coverage because of your age or health.

Who Administers  The Tennessee Plan?

The Tennessee Plan features Medicare supplemental coverage sponsored by the State of Tennessee with claims administered by POMCO. The Plan offers you quality coverage at lower group premium rates. Since the monthly premiums are not based on age, they will not increase just because you get older. Premium rates may increase due to increasing costs, which would happen with any plan. Best of all, if you have more than 15 years of service as a State of Tennessee employee or teacher, the State of Tennessee will pay part of your cost for your Plan coverage.

Less Paperwork – Because  Providers File Claims With The Plan, you don’t need to worry about paperwork! Most claims are filed for you by your doctors and hospitals if they have your Medicare and The Tennessee Plan member identification numbers. Claims are then sent directly to POMCO after Medicare has completed their part. This works out well for everyone. The providers are paid quickly and you avoid all the paperwork.

Of course, you should compare Medicare Supplemental Insurance quotes in Tennessee at Insuriffic.com.

World Disable Day

The world is moving towards progress in every walk of life. But when we look towards societies, it feels as if some thing is still missing. Money, power, lust, etc., is the wish of every human being to attain. But we can not deny this fact that we all are bounded with loads of social problems, which are hard nuts to crack. The key element of success and self-satisfaction is missing in most of the societies. Social issues are matters which directly or indirectly affect many or all members of a society and are considered to be problems, controversies related to moral values, or both. Social issues include poverty, violence, pollution, injustice, illiteracy, corruption, bribery, suppression of human rights, discrimination, and crime, child abuse, rape, dowry system, abortion, sex, etc.

Out of many social problems, I feel that the rights of Exceptional people are always being neglected by every one. No one wants to hear them. No body wants to give them proper love and care. They are being rejected from most of the societies. Due to the ill- behavior of the people, they are facing lots of trouble to explore their talents and creativity. Now, the time has arrived, when we need to re-think about our attitudes towards them. Tall talks from the government officials that special needs people will be given opportunities were held back by the previous government and still they are wiping for their rights to be given.

I did my research for 7 years at Aga Khan Social Welfare Board for Exceptional People Committee. I joined this institute and came to know about their feelings and emotions. I later studied many books and met many children of "Borderline Category" of different schools in Karachi. The revealing truth was bitter. I realized that they were totally deprived from our society and were considered as an insane, which is not true.

I guess, no one has right to define any human in their own perception, until and without, he / she knows himself / herself deeply and perfectly. But it is a matter of despairty in Pakistan, that Exceptional Children are considered as a different being. People are trying to give their own definitions about them without knowing the proper definition of human. Human are acting like an animal and showing lack of concern towards them.

Let us try to understand, who exceptional people are?

Those persons who have IQ score which differs from the mean by two or more standard deviations are called Exceptional persons. Mentally retarded are declared as those persons who have scores two or more standard deviations below the mean. While the persons having score two or more standard deviations above the mean are called gifted persons.

Categories in respect of IQ are as follows:

O 70 above Border Line (trained and understandable)
O 70-50 Mild (educable)
O 50-35 Moderate (trainable)
O 35-20 Severe (miniman skills)
O 20-0 Profound (custodial care)

So we can say that,

"Exceptional children are those, who lacks either motor, cognitive, language, social and emotional, or self-help skill development."

Imagine yourself sitting in Japan with the Japanese students communicating only in Japanese. How will you feel? At that moment, you will be called as a disabled person who can not speak or understand their language. But this is considered by you as a normal reaction, because you know you are normal. If that is the case, then how could most of us declare other mental without judging their talents and special skills, which God has bestowed them.

What disability is all about?

"Disability" means the lack of ability to perform an activity in a manner that is considered to be normal. "

"A disability is the expression of a physical or mental limitation in a social context- the gap between a person's capabilities and the demands of the environment."

(Pope and Tarlov, 1991)

A person with disabilities means who, on account of injury, disease, or congenital deformity, is handicapped in undertaking any gainful profession or employment, and includes persons who are visually impaired as well. In short, Exceptional people are those, who either lacks one of the areas of development.

"Disability refers to the impact of injury upon the performances or activities commonly accepted as the basic elements of every day living. Disability can be used when an impairment, objectively defined, constituents a hindrance to mobility, domestic routines or the occupational and may be communicational Skills. "

According to the social model,

"Disability is the outcome of the interaction of person and their environment and thus is either person nor environment specific".

Remember that physically disabled, blind / partially sighted, hearing impaired, autism, speech impairment, learning disabled, mild, moderate, severe, substantial, borderline, etc., are some of the main categories of the Exceptional people out of many others. Persons with Exceptionality are mostly unseen, unheard and unaccounted persons in Pakistan. They are the most marginalized group. Individuals with special needs face overwhelming barriers in education, skills development and daily life.

The United Nations estimates that some 600 million people worldwide have a disability and that the vast majority of Exceptional people live in low and middle income countries. The proportion of Exceptional people in Pakistan as per census 1998 is 2.49 percent of total population, which is quite diverse from the estimates of World Bank, UN and WHO.

These children have equal right to freedom of expression, quality education and have access to a safe and healthy environment; In accordance with the Constitution of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, 1973; To have full rights and obligations as citizens as confirmed in; The UN Declaration of Human Rights, 1948, on Education for All (1990), UN Standard Rules on Equalization of Opportunities of Persons with Exceptionality (1993), Salamnca Statement and Framework for Actions (1994), Dakar Framework for Action (2000) UN Millennium Development Goals (2001) and the National Policy for Persons With Disabilities (2002) guarantee the rights of all children, both with and without disabilities, to obtain quality education adapted to their individuals needs, abilities and aspirations and full equal participation in all Other aspects of life such as participating in decisions and casting votes, etc.

But These claims proved to be false, when people unable raised their voice through media that how brutally they are being treated in Pakistani society.

Example: to attain quality education is the right for every disable, but still, no schools, colleges and universities have been setup by the government to cater their needs. Thanks to the private NGOs, who took an initiative and established few schools for the students with special needs.

The issue of Exceptionality is gaining more and more importance all over the world as well as in Pakistan. Due the movement for a rights based society initiated by many national organizations, World Bank and other donor agencies have included this issue in their mandates. Governments haves framed various policies including accommodation jobs, concession facilities in traveling, special training institutions etc. But the question is, if these mandates were made, when it will be implemented, and who will implement it? No concession is being granted to any disable in Pakistan so far in any of the commodity, nor there is an institute, where they could learn skills free of cost. NGOs have set up institutions, which takes loads of money from the parents to support their child.

It has ratified several international conventions, promulgated the National Policy in 2002, begging revising the ordinance on employment which would raise the employment quota to two percent to ensure more job opportunities, and initiatives to develop "Inclusive Education". But so far, no initiatives have been taken by any of the government.

An infrastructure for Inclusive Education and Training was established in Pakistan in the 1980s which far surpassed that of most of the developing countries. However, despite these efforts, the sad fact is that most people with disabilities and their families remain completely un-served by government – and even NGO resources. There is dire need of more accurate data and research on causes, prevention, and curative efforts to understand the social and economic realities and possibilities with regards to disability.

The major barrier to employment and other socio economic benefits for persons with Exceptionality in our society continues to be attitudinal barriers; Stereotypical thinking and assumption about what people with disabilities can and can not do. The truth is that, the range of abilities of persons within any exceptional group is intense. We need to get rid of our stereotypical images and view each "individual" as just that "an individual".

Only limited categories of disabilities (physical disabilities such as amputations, foot and leg deformities, visual and hearing impairments) have been surveyed nationwide and most of the data has not been categorized by gender. Therefore, quantitative, nationwide, disaggregated data, by gender and age, is required for comprehensive policing and an assessment of progress. In Pakistan, there is only the ministry, responsible for social welfare and special education, which touch upon person with Exceptional issues. Moreover, Pakistani's believe that persons with Exceptionality are a social burden and a curse on the family. These beliefs lead to the misunderstanding of disability. They prevent people from obtaining appropriate information and being educated. Employment opportunities for them are very limited and so they are a financial burden for their families.

Like us, Exceptional people are also bounded with some common problems, which they face in their day to day life.

Some of the problems of exceptional people are

O Hyperactivity;
O Distractibility;
O Impulsivity;
O Anxiety withdrawal;
O Fear and Phobias;
O Eating disorders;
O Echholahia;
O Movement problems;
O Depression;
O Suicidal Behavior;
O Difficult Temperament;
O Conduct Disorder;
O Aggression;
O Obsessions and Compulsions;
O Reluctant Speech;
O Elimination Disorder;
O Unresponsiveness to Suicidal Stimuli;
O Self Injury, etc.

Individuals with disabilities face multiple social, economic, physical and political problems, which hampers their freedom of movement in society. These barriers include stigmatization and a misunderstanding of the abilities and aspirations of persons with disabilities. There is also a pronounced lack of informational data, rules and regulations, rehabilitation centers, and main streaming and specialized services for persons with Exceptionalities.

The major community problem for which I have contributed my efforts is for "THE RIGHTS OF SPECIAL PEOPLE". I have worked as a teacher / counselor / trainer of Exceptional People for 7 years. Since my childhood, I had an intention to social work for the Exceptional people, because I had a natural bond of attachment with them.

I deal with all types of student of Profound, Severe, Moderate and Mild category. But I especially worked with "Borderline" students, who want their rights; Who are facing major problem in every society and in every community; Who wants their creativity to explore in front of others; Who awaits for the love from others and wants other to accept them as a Normal Being.

I believe that every individual can make a difference. I thank God that these lovely students trusted me ,ave me the bond of relationship and accepted me whole-heartedly during my first year of Volunteer Service. They shared all of their problems with me and I thank God for giving me the special power for being accepted by them. I have heard their voices, their shivered pleadings, their wishes, their expectations. But still, they need every one in the society to hear them, to care them and to love them. While working for their RIGHTS, I also faced many difficulties in our society.

I can not do every thing alone, but at least, I have brought a little change in their lives, which is a big reward for me. The problems, which need to be resolved wholly, could only be possible, if the societies will join their hands together.

O Media should take an initiative to discuss their issues to create awareness among the masses
O Inclusive education should be made compulsory in every school as the part of their curriculum.
O Awareness campaign for students' parents' teachers' should be raised in every community.
O Job opportunities must be provided to disable people
O Their needs should be addressed.
O Awareness should be made through telecasting movies and drama on their issues.
O They should not be called special.
O Competition should be raised in every community for youngger students to make them aware about their rights.
O They must get rights to study in normal schools with special needs.
O Government should setup new curriculum for them.
O Psychological testing should be made compulsory to identify their needs and areas of development.
O They must get work place opportunity, which is lack in Pakistan. They must get jobs in government institutions also.

Every one can contribute in the society:

O By participating in International competitions to raise awareness.
O By participating in awareness campaigns.
O By developing new curriculum for them on national policy level.
O By providing them educational facilities and social justice.
O By raising funds for them and by finding more work place opportunities for them.
O By becoming the Ambassador for Exceptional People in Pakistan.
O By truly implementing the human right laws, made by UN.
O By motivating them more enthusiastically.

Agricultural Adjustment Act

The Agricultural Adjustment Act is a U.S. federal act that placed restrictions in farming by giving planters subsidies for them not to farm some portions of their lands. The subsidies were also given for them to get rid of any excesses in livestock being bred. The goal was actually to bring down surplus of produce or livestock in order to increase the value of these livestock and crops. In order to raise money for such subsidies, the government imposed a tax on farm produce processing firms. The law also paved the way for the establishment of the Agricultural Adjustment Administration which would take charge of subsidy allotment. The Agricultural Adjustment Act was actually considered a pioneering farm law in the United States.

To put the law into perspective on why this law came into being, the government wanted to do something to uplift the difficult condition of the farmers especially during the early 1930s. In order to increase the prices of their crops and thus their earnings, the Act helped to eliminate excess supply. Tenant farmers thus were contracted not to plant cotton for instance in the whole area they tilled but only on a portion of the lot. The farmers got subsidies by restricting their production. There were however disadvantages to this Act. It benefitted more the big time food processors and farmers but strongly put the small tenant farmers to a disadvantage as land owners just sought wage labourers instead of full-time farmers.

There was also an Amendment to the Agricultural Adjustment Act known as the Thomas Amendment since it was initiated by Sen. Elmer Thomas. This amendment combined new economics views with that of populist views. Through the Thomas Amendment, the president would be compelled to give powers to the Federal Reserve for the buyout of federal obligations worth US$4 billion every time a currency expansion is desired. If there is a disparity for free market operations, the head of state could also opt to allow the United States treasury to produce up to US$4 billion while reducing the gold component of the dollar by up to fifty percent. The treasury could also accept US$100 million worth of silver priced at least fifty cents/ once as payments for the borrowing of some European countries from the first World War. The Agricultural Adjustment Act Amendment or the Thomas Amendment was however seldom used so that the treasury also seldom got payments from such borrowings.

The Thomas Amendment also became the basis of Pres. Roosevelt’s ratification of the Pittmann London Silver Amendment which gave marching orders to the U.S. mints to purchase the whole bulk of silver produced for 64.5 cents. Another striking application of the Amendment happened in 1934 as the president pushed to decrease the gold component of a dollar to just 40.94{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}. Despite this policy, bulk prices continued to rise.

Perhaps, the greatest impact that the Amendment brought was the rise in government control when it comes to monetary policies. The Thomas Amendment actually aimed to bring down the quantity of silver that are held privately and instead increase its circulation in the economy.

Factors Affecting Migration and Solutions to Rural-Urban Migration, Especially to Developing Nations

Migration is the movement of people from one geographical area to another, involving permanent or temporary residence or settlement. There must be a reason or reasons of migration-either something is chasing the individuals away from their present location or there is an attraction to where they are going to. What are these influencing factors?

1. Natural disasters: The occurrence of Natural disasters like floods, famines, drought, earthquakes etc, could make people to migrate out of place to another.

2. Physical conditions: The physical conditions of a place such as climate, soils, relief may also be responsible for the migration of people, especially when such conditions are unfavorable.

3. Insecurity: Fear of insecurity arising from war, political instability etc, could make people migrate.

4. Differences in economic opportunities: As a result of these, people tend to migrate to where there are more economic opportunities like jobs and business transactions.

5. Change in status: Changes in status, eg, high level of education and wealth, could make people to migrate, eg, from rural to urban centers.

6. Differences in social amenities: Owing to difference in the availability of water, roads, electricity etc. people tend to move to where these amenities are present.

Migration has great advantages as it reduces population pressure on agricultural land at the source region; reduces population pressure on social amenities at the source region; supplies migrant labor at the receiving region; ensures the flow of capital to the receiving region; leads to the development of social amenities at the receiving region; boosts markets at the receiving region and promotes cultural integration eg, inter-marriage at the receiving region. On the other hand, it could be disadvantageous as it breeds social vices like crime and drug dealing in the receiving region; increases high cost of living at the receiving region; leads to pressure on social amenities at the receiving region; leads to the loss of able-bodied men and youth at the source region; leads to congestion in housing and transportation at the receiving region; leads to decline in production at the source region and it leads to cultural disintegration at the destination region.

Solutions to rural-Urban migrations

One of the major forms of migration that tends to create problems in all developing countries is that of rural-Urban migration. Since we recognize that this form of migration is a major problem, solutions have to be provided in order to prevent the occurrence of over population at the receiving regions. The solutions to the problems of rural-Urban migration include:

1. Provision of social amenities: The provision of social amenities such as water, electricity, cinemas, roads and telephones in rural areas will go a long way in reducing the rate at which youth move to Urban areas.

2. Transportation of traditional agriculture to modern agriculture: This will enable the youth to engage in agriculture as the system will make farming interesting.

3. Establishment of Industries: The establishment of industries, projects and businesses that will absorb the rural working population and reverse labor movement will go a long way in reducing rural-urban drift.

4. Establishment of educational institutions: The establishment of colleges and other institutions of higher learning in rural areas will also help to reduce movement to urban centers.

5. Establishment of corporate branches: Government departments, business firms and financial institutions should be encouraged to establish their branches in rural areas.

6. provision of recreation facilities: If recreational facilities like stadia, swimming pools, cinema houses, amusement parks, etc are made available in rural areas, this will reduce the propensity of the youths moving to Urban areas.

A Thought While Translating a Korean Basic Certificate

I understand if you haven’t heard of ‘Basic Certificate.’ I was, too, totally unaware of its existence for the first thirty plus years of my life. Only after I was assigned to translate the document did I have to look up what it was and found out. This article will give a brief explanation of the document and a small lesson I learned from translating it.

It is a legal document issued by the government of Korea since 2008. The name of the document is self-explanatory. It displays the most basic information about the applicant, and, of course, certifies that he or she is a Korean citizen. It starts with the name of the applicant followed by the date of birth, ID number to which every Korean is assigned at birth, and sex. A bit more detail is listed below, such as the place of birth (often the name of the hospital), the date of registration, the person applying for registration, and a state government who accepted the registration. Up to this point it might sound very much like a birth certificate but it isn’t. Korea has its own form for birth certificate. It is what follows after the information mentioned above that separates itself from others. Depending on the purpose of the document, it can contain extra information such as change of name, change of nationality or else. It is not a complex form and is often done in a single sheet. The document replaces and improves another form of document which has been very familiar to Koreans for decades. Legality and complexity behind the reason as to why the country had to make such a big step on getting rid of the previous form which Koreans have been too accustomed to might be beyond the scope of this article. Instead, I would like to finish by sharing what I realized while translating this document.

Being Korean myself, I was reminded while doing a research on this basic certificate that I know very little about legal system of my own country. Quite frankly, why this document had to replace the old one was beyond my ken, and it is why I could not further elaborate above. Of course, as a translator I am not obligated to know the whole story. I just have to translate the words to appropriate English ones and I’m justified. It was, however, an opportunity for me to think about something: when it comes to something legal, how much is done in my life with full trust without having a slightest clue. It is quite a flimsy life.