Social Control During the Roman Empire – Politics

Politics are a central instigator for social control as they set out the guidelines for how a culture is directed. During ancient Rome a number of political themes were in evidence as part of gladiatorial spectacles that exhibited social control. The rhetorician and advocate Fronto (no date) was well aware of the political power of the gladiatorial spectacle. He provides a fascinating insight into the political structure of the time, claiming that:

the human drives that lead men to demand the grain dole are less powerful than those which lead them to desire spectacle (Fronto no date, Letters 2.18.9-17)

Fronto is inferring that the power of spectacle outweighs that of life itself; in order to live the Romans require the grain. This is possibly a slightly exaggerated view point expressed by Fronto, as without life the Roman people would not be able to view the spectacle, however it does provide a useful indication as to how powerful the spectacle could be. In the same letter Fronto (no date, Letters 2.18.9-17) also points out the political significance of the spectacle:

that only the people eligible for the grain dole are won over by handouts of grain, and at that individually, whereas the whole people are won over by spectacles

Here Fronto is pointing out that the grain has an impact on the populace on an individual level, however the spectacle can win people over on a collective level. As the Roman games developed through the late Republic and into the empire the Roman games became increasingly more spectacular and more politically charged. Upon the formation of the Empire, Kyle (2007) argues that the Roman people surrendered any freedom that they had and succumbed to autocracy, both of which were substituted for spectacle and free food.

Political Status

Social control through gladiatorial spectacles could be used to enhance political status, via admiration of the populace and the acquisition of votes. Poliakoff (1987, p109) states that “the arena most clearly displayed the power and control of its organisers”. Fronto (no date, Letters 2.18.9-17), while discussing Trajan, highlights this further, stating that Trajan’s rule was endorsed by the populace as much for the gladiatorial spectacles that he put on as for more serious matters. Fronto also commented on the neglect of both these aspects stated that “serious things are neglected with greater loss, but games, with greater resentment” (Fronto no date, Letters 2.18.9-17).

The abolition of the Republic and formation of the Empire meant there was no longer the need to compete for votes, so the focus of gladiatorial spectacle changed to “fit the Emperor’s agenda” (Futrell 2006, p29). The gladiatorial spectacle provided Emperors with the opportunity to stamp their own authority on the people, Poliakoff (1987, p109) states that the Emperor was “the arbiter of life and death”.

Julius Caesar was fully aware of the power of the spectacle in determining his political status. Plutarch (75 CE) puts forward that he “entertained the people with three hundred and twenty single combats” and …

Global Language of English – The Importance of Learning English

English has become one of the most important languages in the world. It has trickled even into lesser known countries as something that is needed to communicate with others. English is used in politics, business dealings, and everyday life. Many people are finding it hard to get by without knowing English. The global language of English is found in popular music, television programs and even on the internet. As a whole, there are more websites made in English than anywhere else. Realizing the importance of English, many people have taken it on as a second language.

Politics is one arena where English is important. In order for countries to communicate with each other, they must learn the native language. Since English speaking countries are a very important part of the global economy and its advancement, other political and country leaders must either learn English or find someone who knows English to interpret for them. Since it is considered bad manners to have things communicated through others, political leaders opt to learn the global language of English. This makes it easier for them to talk to their peers on matters of serious concern without feeling inadequate.

The business world has need for the global language of English as well. Many companies are expanding overseas. American companies are setting up shop in other countries, and there are companies that wish to transfer over to America. The language barrier must be broken somehow, so people in the business world are learning English. This makes it easier to broker deals, or tell potential partners what is expected of them. It is also a good way to communicate with potential employees. It is often the tradition of the business world that you need to know your potential partner’s native tongue. So if an American wants to initiate a deal with a Japanese business partner, the American needs to know Japanese. It’s considered proper business etiquette. With other countries wanting to set up businesses in English speaking countries, or needing to appeal to English speaking customers, they need to learn English.

Tourism is another area where English has been embraced. Many English speaking people like to visit different countries on vacation. It’s important for businesses in these countries to learn the global language of English since they will, in fact, be benefiting from the presence of tourists. They’ll spend their money to buy souvenirs from their businesses, sample and eat the food, and take tours. This benefits their economy as a whole.…

Effective Negotiation

INTRODUCTION

The whole cosmic economy is interactive phenomenon of animate and inanimate objects. In addition, the objects are interdependent on each other for growth and survival. Human beings are epitome of Divine Creative Activity. The interactive feature of mankind is vital aspect of Divine Scheme of Creation. A rational-moral human interaction quickens / softens evolution of individuals & groups. Mankind faces multiple challenges during varied interactions. The most complex, harmful, and frequent problem of interactive life is miscommunication. It creates mutual hatred and distrust among individuals / groups / nations and leads towards conspiracies, rivalries, and wars. The very basis of miscommunication are Perceptual Errors.Perceptual errors produce misconception among individuals / groups so that miscommunication is surfaced. Consequently, the people involved brake contacts with each other and opt long silence or confrontation or indifference. The unwanted situation can be solved through negotiation. Negotiation is helpful in every sphere of interactive life; it is used to bridge the gaps between husband and wife, parents and children, entrepreneurs and workers, business partners, political leaders, etc. In order to realize successful negotiation we must understand ins and outs of negotiation. Negotiation is the conflict management process of communication to make a compromise/better solution.The successful negotiation is called Effective Negotiation. Effective negotiation is knowledge based, manner driven, and wisdom led negotiation. It creates pragmatic and satisfactory solutions for each party.

PERCEPTUAL ERRORS

Man is intelligent creation of Absolute Intelligence. The distinctive human trait, intellect or perceptual intelligence, make the human being supreme creation of universe. But, intellect can misjudge/misinterpret due to ignorance or lustful tendencies of human nature. Perceptual errors or intellectual mistakes lead to biases in information processing / final judgments. There may arise three types of perceptual errors in a communication process.

Generalization: –Small amount of information are used to draw universal conclusions, e.g., old people are conservative, this person is old so that is conservative, or a humble person is judged to be more honest than a scowling person, even there is no consistent relationship between conservativeness & age or courtesy and honesty. The multiple social rifts such as family rifts and neighborhood rifts are surfaced due to unscientific generalizations.

Projection: –It occurs when people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they have, for instance, a person feels that he will be frustrated if he were in the other position, then he is likely to perceive that the other person is frustrated. People respond differently to similar situations so that projection of own feeling to other may be incorrect. The multiple political mis-communications are generally due to wrong projections.

Power: – Power is an important leverage during interactions; it gives edge to one party over the other. Power develops the perception that you have power and you can impose a verdict, the power-perception limits viable options or can make someone wrongdoer, because, power has germs of corruption-development – in Acton’s words, ‘Power tends to corrupt and absolute powers corrupts absolutely.’ The major sources of …

Benjamin Disraeli – The Great British Conservative Leader Who Introduced the Public Health Act

Benjamin Disraeli, First Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-81) was a great British statesman and novelist. He was born in London and came from a Jewish family that had converted to Anglicanism.

He was a most ambitious and a larger than life individual. He dressed in colorful clothes. He always chose his words carefully and spoke only when he had something memorable and witty to say.

He began life working for three years in a lawyer’s office. He then – unsuccessfully – tried to start a newspaper.

His first big breakthrough was when he achieved fame and success as a popular novelist. His first novel was Vivian Grey (1826). The most famous of his many novels were perhaps his two political novels, Coningsby (1844) and Sibyl (1845).

Disraeli joined the Conservative Party and in 1837 he entered the British Parliament as the member for Maidstone.

His first speech to Parliament was heckled by other Members of Parliament who disliked his flowery manner of speaking and his colorful clothing. In concluding his speech, he made the famous reply: “Though I sit down now, the time will come when you will hear me.”

He became the leader of the Young England movement, which was home to that section of the Conservatives known as the Romantic Tories. The Romantic Tories were political conservatives who were critical of the effects of the Industrial Revolution that were occurring in Great Britain at that time. They believed that the monarchy and the church were the natural protectors of the agricultural and industrial working classes and were suspicious of the Industrial Revolution’s tendency to destroy the traditional protections and obligations which had been in place in Britain since time immemorial.

He also opposed the free trade policies of his fellow Conservative, Sir Robert Peel. Peel engineered the repeal of the Corn Laws (1845-46), which controlled the price of wheat and of other types of grain via the imposition of protective tariffs on the import of foreign grain. Instead, Disraeli favored protectionism to protect British agriculture and industry. In later days, Disraeli stopped supporting protectionism to a large extent, having come to the view that the Corn Laws had mostly favored the interests of landowners and hurt the poor.

While in Parliament, Disraeli became Chancellor of the Exchequer three times and then became the leader of the Commons (the lower house of the British Parliament). In the latter role, he introduced the Reform Bill of 1867.

Disraeli served as prime minister of the United Kingdom for two terms – first, in 1868, and then, later and more extensively, in the period 1874-80. During his second prime ministership, he promoted British imperialism (that is, the extension of the British Empire) and a forward foreign policy. In 1876 he passed legislation conferring on Queen Victoria a new title: Empress of India.

Disraeli led Britain into the Second Afghan War (1878-79) and into the Zulu War (1879), and he sought to lessen the power and influence of Russia.

He showed much skillful diplomacy …

How to Layout an Effective Palm Card Design For Your Political Campaign

The ultimate goal of your palm card layout and design is to deliver a candidate image and message that is clear and consistent to voters. Also called push cards, palm cards are an effective form of campaign advertisement. You should communicate your main talking points as well as background, education and such other relevant information all while being visually appealing to your desired demographic.

Designing a campaign palm card consists of several facets. First is the use of color. When ordering your push cards, remember to use the colors that are specific to your campaign. Red, white and blue are traditionally the most popular colors among political hopefuls, but if you have a pre-existing color scheme use those colors.

This leads us into our second design point; be consistent. Do not change your color scheme or election slogan halfway through the campaign. It is important to be consistent with all of your campaign materials in regards to color, font and style of design. When building a campaign image, or brand if you will, uniformity is key to accomplishing this successfully.

Third, choose palettes of colors that are complementary to each other. In the age of digital printing, voters expect to see full color printing, and an appealing palm card. Be creative with your color choices. Also make the text, especially your name, easy to read. Your name should be the first thing that the voter sees in respect to your push card. The font you select should be clear and large. Gothic and fancy script-type fonts should be avoided due to their lack of clarity.

The fourth facet of designing your campaign palm card is presenting your message. Make sure your message is clear and simple. Don’t confuse your voters by throwing legal jargon or complex phrases at them. Use simple words and concise sentences to get your point across. There should be a natural flow of information that is easy to follow. Remember, if the voter does not read your message, you have wasted your time and money.

Pictures are an essential staple to have on your palm card. It is important to have a headshot of the front on your palm card so your voter can put a face with a name. For local offices, this may be the only time the voter sees you. You might also include a nice family photo on your palm card under the family section. If available, include some action shots of the candidate in the community. Choose the best quality pictures available. Most printers will not accept anything less than 300 dpi at print size (4″ x 6″). If you are unsure about the terminology used here, your photographer or printer should be able to help you. Remember, a picture is worth 1000 words!

There are many layout and design options available when designing your push card, but you must take your quantity of information into account when deciding which layout works best for you.…

Techniques Used By An Advertising Agency In Modern Times

In the modern world, with the rapid growth in technology, brands, lifestyle, etc., it is very important to sell and promote the products and services of your business effectively. The traditional methods of television, radio and newspaper are just not enough, anymore. The creative minds of modern day advertisers have to be quick, smart and efficient. They have created new ways and have gone above and beyond the old traditional ways. These days, any advertising agency provides all the services and uses specialized techniques, to promote your brand adequately.

Some of the latest techniques used by these advertisers are as follows:

Consumer Advertising – This technique is informative as well as persuasive in nature. It is used by a full service advertising agency, to advertise the FMCG (Fast moving consumer goods). This technique is used in every medium like T.V., radio, newspaper, internet, etc. Consumer ads are done to pull in the customers who buy products like soaps, shampoos, biscuits etc., on a regular basis.

Industrial Advertising – The manufactures and distributors of industrial products demand for this technique to target industrial buyers. Products like plant and machinery, fabricated machine parts, raw materials, etc., can be promoted. Industrial advertisements are seen on trade publications, and attracts factory owners and businessmen, on a large scale.

Financial Advertising – This technique is used by the financial industry to advertise financial products like bank loans, mutual funds, shares, etc. These type of advertisements are seen in newspapers, magazines, theaters, and now-a-days, outdoor advertising is also used. Financial advertisements are not only issued by the advertisers, but also by the banks. This type of advertising educates the audience on any financial matters.

Political Advertising – This technique is used by politicians to gain votes. It is specially done on mass media, and generally targets the common man. It is a new trend of gaining votes by the political parties. The demand for this political advertisements are high, especially around the time of elections. This technique is a challenge to agencies, as they have to think of an ad campaign carefully, keeping in mind the sentiments of the people of that area.

These are the various techniques in which the product is advertised by any creative ad agency. There are many other techniques to advertise products, according to the category that they belong to, like lifestyle, B2B, classifieds, retails, etc. These techniques are used in the present competitive markets to target the appropriate audience and increase the sales of products and services for your business.…

The Barriers to Effective Communication

D.E. McFarland has defined Communication as the process of meaningful interaction among human beings. More specifically, it is the process by which meanings are perceived and understandings are reached among human being. But there may be some faults /barriers in the communication system that prevents the message from reaching the receiver, these barriers are as follows:-

1. Language Barrier; – Different languages, vocabulary, accent, dialect represents a national/ regional barriers. Semantic gaps are words having similar pronunciation but multiple meanings like- round; badly expressed message, wrong interpretation and unqualified assumptions. The use of difficult or inappropriate words/ poorly explained or misunderstood messages can result in confusion.

2. Cultural Barriers: – Age, education, gender, social status, economic position, cultural background, temperament, health, beauty, popularity, religion, political belief, ethics, values, motives, assumptions, aspirations, rules/regulations, standards, priorities can separate one person from another and create a barrier.

3. Individual Barrier: – It may be a result of an individual’s perceptual and personal discomfort. Even when two persons have experienced the same event their mental perception may/may not be identical which acts as a barrier. Style, selective perception, halo effect, poor attention and retention, defensiveness, close mindedness, insufficient filtration are the Individual or Psychological barrier.

4. Organizational Barrier: – It includes Poor Organization’s culture, climate, stringent rules, regulations, status, relationship, complexity, inadequate facilities/ opportunities of growth and improvement; whereas; the nature of the internal and external environment like large working areas physically separated from others, poor lightening, staff shortage, outdated equipments and background noise are Physical Organizational Barrier.

5. Interpersonal Barrier: – Barriers from Employers are :- Lack of Trust in employees; Lack of Knowledge of non-verbal clues like facial expression, body language, gestures, postures, eye contact; different experiences; shortage of time for employees; no consideration for employee needs; wish to capture authority; fear of losing power of control; bypassing and informational overloading, while Barriers from Employees includes Lack of Motivation, lack of co-operation, trust, fear of penalty and poor relationship with the employer.

6. Attitudinal Barrier: – It comes about as a result of problems with staff in the organisation. Limitation in physical and mental ability, intelligence, understanding, pre-conceived notions, and distrusted source divides the attention and create a mechanical barrier which affects the attitude and opinion.

7. Channel Barrier: – If the length of the communication is long, or the medium selected is inappropriate, the communication might break up; it can also be a result of the inter-personal conflicts between the sender and receiver; lack of interest to communicate; information sharing or access problems which can hamper the channel and affect the clarity, accuracy and effectiveness.

To communicate effectively one need to overcome these barriers. Working on breaking the barrier is a broad-brush activity and here are certain measures.

DO’S FOR BREAKING THE BARRIER:

– Allow employees access to resources, self expression and idea generation.

– Express your expectations to others.

– Use less of absolute words such as “never”, “always”, “forever”, etc.

– Be a good, attentive and active listener.

– …

Building Your Business – Are Politics and Peacemaking Mutually Exclusive?

It is easy to assume that all politics and peacemaking can be mutually exclusive. The truth is that there are many situations that in order to keep the peace, politics may be involved or even get in the way. Where there is a dispute of uncommon interests, whether it is to gain control, power or leadership that is politics. God teachers us on how "we should be" if we are to be His children. As human beings created by God we are asked to be images of the Father. In doing so, we bring peace to ourselves and to others.

In many organizations, there are internal conflicts, and even key leaders begin to make their case and use policies in what they hope may either bring the peace or put an end to what they believe is disabling their peace. Vice Presidents will threaten other departments by flexing their control should those departments not do as they are told. When we discuss politics, we discuss the policies and processes that are brought up for debt. These same policies dictate the path towards peacemaking as a societal whole. But it is also important to remember that it also brings about additional conflict within the groups and hence another opportunity for peacemaking. Take a look at what took place in Ireland in 1997.

"In August of 1997, less than a month after the second cease-fire took hold in Northern Ireland, thousands of Presbyterian pastors and lay leaders gathered in Belfast to make a, historic public provision to peace between Protestants and Roman Catholics.

Michael Cassidy, a South African evangelical influential in producing open elections and the end to apartheid in South Africa, challenged them to a new level of personal responsibility for bringing about reconciliation and tolerance. At his invitation, nearly two-thirds of the 3,000 in the audience stand up to signal their commitment to peacemaking. Earlier this year, the Anglican Church of Ireland took similar steps when its general synod voted to condemn the presence of sectarian views within their conviction and to conduct an inquiry to determine how the problem is "(Morgan, 1997).

Without politics they would not have taken the additional steps to really determine what the problem was and rededicate themselves towards peace. But there are other examples where politics and peace are not mutually exclusive. Take the military for example. Our leaders wage war on other countries that have different political views than ours. We are sent to war using force. And only as the victor can we then define what we believe peace to be. Whose war were we fighting? Whose definition of peace were we attaining? Ours, the people, another nations? …

6 Reasons Why People Become Vegetarian

While there is no one single form of vegetarianism, what all forms have in common is a lifestyle that abstains from the consumption of meat, fish, and poultry. One the more moderate end lacto-ovo-vegetarians eat both dairy and egg foods and products. On the other extreme there are the vegans who do not eat or use any animal byproduct, (i.e. meat, fish, poultry, eggs, dairy, honey, leather products…etc.). In between these two extremes are ovo-vegetarians, who eat eggs but not dairy, and lacto-vegetarians, who eat dairy but not eggs.

The reasons people become vegetarian are many. It could be due to religious/spiritual reasons, like me with Buddhism, or for political, health, ethical, environmental, practical, or aesthetic reasons. Here’s a brief rundown.

  1. Religious – The majority of Eastern religions (e.g. Buddhism, Hinduism, Jainism, Taoism) prescribe a vegetarian diet. While the Western religions (e.g. Judaism, Christianity, Islam) do not advocate a vegetarian diet, one can interpret certain lines of Scripture or morals behind holy stories or prophecies as good cause to practice vegetarianism.
  2. Ethical – A person might abstain from eating meat since he feels it is abhorrent to take the life of any living creature.
  3. Political – One may abstain from eating meats on the grounds of battling globalization, food corporations, agribusiness, trade revolving around livestock and meat.
  4. Environmental – Since livestock needs large grazing grounds, a great deal of land would have to be cleared increasing the carbon footprint. In addition, there is always the risk of overgrazing on a particular parcel of land and the methane released by cows which all have environmental repercussions.
  5. Practical – Some people just don’t have the access or resources to buy and eat meat.
  6. Aesthetic – Some people just don’t like the taste of meat, or how it looks like, or the fact that they’re eating a dead thing  

But the best and perhaps most widespread reason people become vegetarian are the health benefits. Vegetarian diets have time and again proven to be healthier and more viable than non-vegetarian diets. A vegetarian is less likely to have a high BMI, high levels of cholesterol, high levels of blood pressure, and a lower incidence of type 2 diabetes, renal failure, bone loss, and dementia. The reason for the health benefits of vegetarianism is due to the omission of meats, especially non-lean red meat, which have high levels of saturated fat and carry risks of animal-human disease transmissions as well food-borne pathogens due to poor preparation.…