Telenursing Approach – Evidence Based Challenge

Introduction-The term “basic health services” is defined by UNICEF and WHO (1965) as a network of co-ordinated, peripheral and intermediate health units capable of performing effectively, a selected group of functions essential to the health of an area and assuring the availability of competent professional personnel to perform these functions. WHO has also proclaimed health as a fundamental right of every individual and society.

India is a developing country with a large and diverse geographical terrain, and a huge population with a great deal of ethnic and cultural variation. It has all kinds of health care providers ranging from well qualified doctors of allopathy, homeopathy, ayurveda, registered medical practitioners to untrained providers of medical aid, herbalists, and magico-religious practitioners. The importance of the involvement of practitioners belonging to different systems of medicine in the health care system has been noted by various committees and in various health related policy documents from time to time. The National Health Policy (2002) advocated expanding the pool of medical practitioners to include a cadre of licentiates of medical practice, practitioners of Indian System of Medicine and Homeopathy. It further recommended that different categories of medical manpower should be permitted medical practice after adequate training. The National Population Policy (2000) recommended the involvement of manpower from different health agencies to expand the body of effective health care providers. Shrivastva Committee (1975) recommended primary health care within the community through trained workers to keep the health in the hands of the people.

The governments of developing countries are unable to deliver free health services as the basic right of the citizen in a holistic manner.Accessibility of health agency is an important aspect of its availability; hence a vital factor affecting treatment seeking behaviour of consumers. To make provision for basic health care to all the people is a difficult task for administrators in a country like India. Thus, eliminating geographical barriers, and to help develop new strategies and services to appeal to consumers’ various needs and desires is a big challenge.In spite of a host of national health policies; the health care indices significantly lag behind those of the developed countries. The quantitative and qualitative demographic transition in the population and disease profile along with inadequate health care delivery infrastructure is a fundamental concern for the country. In India, government from time to time declared deadlines for achievement of goals in health and various related areas. At present, in addition to other time bound goals of current eleventh five year plan, some of the important goals to be achieved by 2000-2015 are to increase utilization of public health facilities, and to establish a system of surveillance, national health accounts and health statistics.

Moreover, the increased need for health care has not been matched with a commensurate increase in resource, and the imbalance is growing. In developed countries telenursing applications are available in homes, home care agencies, hospital based telemedicine centres, hospices and rehabilitation centres whereas in Indian scenario, its need for implementation is being considered vis-a-vis telemedicine. The evidence based approach can mobilize application of the knowledge generated through research to meet the consumers’ health needs to bridge the gap between what is known and what to be done. Telenursing approach can serve as a new and valuable asset to utilize telecommunications to support the practice of nursing and provision of professional nursing care to the patients, health care professionals, as well as administrators on remote residential or clinical settings. The present paper presents an evidence based challenges for telenursing approach with an attempt to assess and study the trends of utilization of public and private (formal and informal) health agencies available in different communities of the Union Territory, Chandigarh, India.

Further, implementation of a holistic national health programme would require an assessment of the available health systems. In addition there is a nation wide need to find various aspects of the utilization of health services in different populations and geographical areas which may be helpful for finding out some of the reasons why the goal of “health for all” was not achieved and the utilization of public health care services was very low. It will further aid to fulfill the time bound national health goals. Thus, the considerable promise of e-health in addressing issues of quality, efficiency, cost, and access to care should be placed at the forefront of our national effort to reform healthcare.

Need of the study-With an attempt to discover the relationship between the consumer and the health agencies; the present paper intended to investigate and address major bottlenecks that may impede effective implementation of telenursing approach. Further, the need was felt for positive return on investment by targeting the consumers’ real needs and to hunt aspects which may be helpful for finding out some of the reasons for slow or non achievement of health goals and low utilization of public health care services.

Methodology-The study was conducted through a cross sectional survey of geographical areas of the urban, the rural, the slum and the rehabilitated sector in the Union Territory of Chandigarh, India. Data about utilization of health care services, and factors affecting treatment seeking behaviour of the consumers was explored through formal and informal interviews of 600 consumers. Observational visits were made to health agencies and study areas.

Results-The study found that majority i.e. 490(81.7{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}) out of 600 subjects most often used the indigenous health agency at one time or the other.Amongst reasons for utilization of indigenous health agencies and majority consumers perceived cause of diseases to be supernatural powers,bad karma/bad nazar (bad fortune), kala jadu performed by evil people to affect their families, no cure was available in the Allopathic system of medicine, illnesses can be cured through pujas, jharas or animal sacrifices,tying of sacred thread given by sadhus/babas cures illnesses, and the treatment of ailments through yoga and pranayama.

Indigenous health agencies were nearest to majority i.e. 59.9{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} subjects which included maximum number 87.3{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the slum subjects. As the indigenous agency was the second amongst most often used health care agency; the accessibility and availability of the indigenous agencies, along with other factors, are likely explanations for their high utilization.

On the other hand, it can be seen that in spite of the indigenous health agency being the nearest health agency in the urban and the rural sector (40{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} and 63.3{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} subjects respectively) it was not the most often utilized (utilization was by 11.3{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the urban and 20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the rural subjects). The use of indigenous agencies was significantly higher in less educated people.

It was found that who utilized indigenous health agency most (53.1{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} respondents) were from lowest monthly income group (Rs.1000-5000). These included 93.3{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the slum, and 100{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the rehabilitated subjects. Chi square value of 110.617 and p value <0.001 indicated a highly significant difference in the use of health agencies in different income groups. Thus, the use of indigenous agencies was significantly higher in lower income group.Majority of people from low income group availed health services from informal health agencies, which also happened to be the cheapest agencies. Thus, from above it was found that services of indigenous health agencies were actively utilized them in the slum and the rehabilitated sector.

Recommendations-Education and documentation will bring better quality of health care services through formal recognition of standardized private indigenous health agencies and health workers as opposed to the reliance on quacks/faith healers. Thus, with greater responsibility in telecare, telenursing has to struggle a long way to replace old challenges with new possibilities in weaning consumers away from untrained private indigenous health providers and faith healers hence safeguarding the interest of the consumers. This will not only save people from being misled by superstitions and unscientific practices, but would also conform to the objective of the national health goals in developing countries like India.

There is a need for collaboration and integration of services of the government health care agencies with private formal and private indigenous (informal) health care providers to achieve national health goals.The right mix of health care professionals can attend to people’s most frequent needs up to their satisfaction levels.

Therefore, the investment plans should be intended to meet towards today’s evidence based needs and challenges with steady progress toward a longer term vision.

Rare American Coins and the 1981 US Assay Silver Dollar

The US Assay Commission was formed by the Mint Act of 1792 and continued to function until 1971, when precious metals were no longer used in American circulated coinage.

In 1977, no members were appointed to the commission. Then in 1980, President Jimmy Carter signed legislation to abolish the Assay Commission completely.

These 1981 Assay one ounce silver dollars have become rare American coins, not produced by the US Mint.

The Assay Commission’s function was to supervise the annual testing of the gold, silver, and in its final year’s base metal coins produced by the United States Mint to ensure that they met specifications. Beginning in 1797, it met in most years at the Philadelphia Mint.

In the late 1960s, the Defense Logistics Agency had over 165 million ounces of silver in its stockpile. The Federal Government sold much of this silver on the open market in 1980 and 1981.

After the US Mint stopped using silver in circulating coinage, the US government felt compelled to sell portions of its reserves to the public in order to stabilize the high silver market partially created by the Hunt brothers hoarding large quantities of silver.

The Continental Coin Company of California purchased a great deal of this silver from the U.S. government Treasury reserves. They proceeded to mint 1oz rounds, as well as 10 oz and 100 oz bars in 1981.

They made sure that everyone knew it was made from silver that had been stored at the San Francisco Assay Office by boldly stating MINTED FROM US STOCKPILE SILVER and Formerly Stored at US ASSAY OFFICE SAN FRANCISCO. Many people who buy these bullion products continue to think they were minted by the U.S. Mint in San Francisco for the Assay Office.

The CC on the reverse stands for Continental Coin rather than Carson City, further adding to the confusion. These bullion rounds are even represented by sellers as being minted by the US Government for the purpose of public distribution.

The obverse features an American Bald Eagle flying in front of the U.S. flag. The legend above the eagle says “One Troy Ounce 31.1 Grams” and the legend below says “.999 Fine Silver Trade Unit” with olive branches between the words around the rim. The design is reminiscent of US Mint coins, but not as detailed.

The center of the reverse states “Formerly Stored at U.S. Assay Office San Francisco” with the CC logo beneath. The legend “Minted From U.S. Strategic Stockpile Silver” is around the border, and the date 1981 is flanked by 3 stars on each side.

These are only slightly more difficult to find than Engelhard Prospectors or other bullion silver rounds, but they aren’t exactly rare American coins. They are an example of American precious metal bullion history that preceded the Prospector by a year.

The 10 oz and 100 oz silver bullion bars have similar details stamped in them, but aren’t so easily confused for actual US Mint products. They look like standard bullion bars.

Diamond Symbolism and Mythology

Nowadays, we all know a diamond engagement ring is the most important jewelry purchase in a man's life and the most significant to the woman who receives it. Diamond is the birthstone of people born in the month of April and is also used as the symbol of a sixty-year anniversary, such as a Diamond Jubliee.

However, the symbolism of diamonds goes beyond romance. Through centuries diamonds have been a symbol of love, excellence and purification. Diamond, because of its remarkable hardness and clarity, also still reigns supreme in its symbolism of power, strength, brilliance and unparallel beauty. Diamonds are enchanting treasures that have fascinated mankind through the centuries. Many regarded them as magical. Not only were they rare and beautiful, no tool could cut them and even the fiercest fire would leave the diamonds unscathed.

Diamonds have been used symbolically because of their extra physical properties. It was said that the Greeks believed diamonds were tears of the gods. Romans believed they were splinters of fallen stars. In Tibetan Buddhism, also known as Vajrayana (Diamond Vehicle), diamonds are an important symbol and the Diamond Sutra is one of the most popular texts.

In ancient India, diamonds were not cut for fear that they would lose its magical properties. During the Middle Ages, it was believed that diamonds would grow darker in the face of guilt and shine brightly for the innocent. Another belief is that in the presence of poison, diamond would also change color. The rainbow colors of the prism were thought to give one magical power over Evil Eyes.

According to occultist myths, it was believed that diamonds possess several supernatural powers, eg a diamond's hardiness can only be broken by smearing it with fresh goat's blood. Or a diamond gives victory to he who carries it bound on his left arm, no matter the number of enemies.

It was also believed to have been used as a healing stone. Such as a way of detecting and detoxifying poison, opening spirituality channels and assisting calming creatures.

Today, diamonds are used to symbolize eternity and love. The first diamond engagement ring can be traced to the XV century, when the Archduke Maximilian of Austria gave the first diamond ring engagement to Mary of Burgundy in 1477. At that time, the diamond was used in its natural crystalline structure. The octahedral or eight-sided formation, like 2 pyramid joined at the base, was mounted with the lower pyramid completely hidden in the ring setting and the upper half rising out of it. Light would be reflected from all four sides of this exposed upper point. The structure of this diamond mirrors the symbolism of the Egyptian pyramids. The union in 1477 was celebrated by the exchange of a diamond betrothal ring which would have been an early example and sometimes the first royal one.

Other early example of betrothal jewels incorporating diamonds include the Bridal Crown of Blanche (ca. 1370-80) and the Heftlein brooch of Vienna (ca. 1430-40), a pictorial piece depicting a wedding couple. In the 19th century, Napoleon cave his wife Marie Louise an exquisite diamond necklace on the birth of their son. Perhaps the most published romantic diamond gifts in modern times have been the jewels given by Richard Burton to Elizabeth Taylor. These include a 33 carat diamond worth over $ 9 million and the pear-shaped 69 carat Taylor-Burton diamond.

Eastern Culture or Western Culture, Which is Better

As we see the changing of the guard of the Worlds greatest civilizations from the United States to China or India we see history repeating itself as it has so many times in the human endeavors written history. It was not much more than 200 years ago when Great Britain was the greatest nation in the World. They kept the Great in their name but the United States clearly carried the choice after that. Next it appears due to our own follies and lake of forward progression we will be passing the torch again and in doing so taking our place as a footnote on the page in the annals of mankind’s history.

As we pass are on the apex of the hand off, which is clearly a choice having drown our nation in bureaucracy, over regulation and disdain for change, innovation or progress; we see a difference in cultures which is vast indeed. It is obvious that Western Culture has its advantages, whether we take advantage of them or not. It is equally as obvious for anyone who studies culture that Eastern Culture has its own advantages. Some of these advantages are in conflict, while much is similar. Which is better?

Should we assume that since Eastern Culture is next up to bat with the bases loaded that Eastern lifestyle is more fulfilling than the Western Lifestyle? We know from our own short 200-year history in the United States that western worlds; capitalism and western culture lifts people up, who put in. We have seen in recent history how Socialism and Communism have tended to push people down and over run civilizations in debt and inefficiency. Yet all in all most of human history and the government structures they have chosen share many things. All these scenarios and all the hybrids of each or all, seem to involve people who are of the ruling class who are motivated by those things humans are motivated by, similarly to those they rule, who are equally motivated by such things.

So when we ask which is better; one government structure or one culture over another, it appears that one could indeed argue both sides of the point or be right no matter which side they argue. And indeed in such abstract thought it seems we are all of the same genes and all one in that regard. The only difference between you neighbor in the United States and one of Asian Ancestry is probably not more than 3000-4000 years and certainly not more than 10,000 to 15,000. We all have similar needs to fulfill self and although have been pre-conditioned to believe one culture is better than the other is more nurture than nature isn’t it? Have you thought here yet? You might next time someone says it is us against them, as that is more similar to punching yourself in the eye really? We all belong to a fairly successful species which has come quite a ways and whose future is very bright if we will dump these egocentric attitude and that goes for both sides.

In the movie about World War II a Japanese Political Prisoner in the United States was asked; “Who do you want to win the war?” In the movie his answer showed much wisdom as he said; ” If your mother and father are fighting, do you want one to kill the other or do you just want them to stop fighting?” Well with that said and if you are a God fearing individual what do you think your God might say about this? Do you really believe that a God believes that these questions of which culture is better; Eastern or Western Culture are relevant? When Gandhi was asked what he thought of Western Culture, he said; “I think it would be a good idea.” You know so do I, I wish we would live as we promise ourselves rather than in hypocrisy, how about you?

Additionally had it not been for our long and strong history of capitalists, we in the Western World would have never achieved this level of civilization, yet we condemn those who got us here and those that follow in their footsteps. How many times have you heard that Bill Gates is the Anti-Christ? That is ridiculous and he and Melinda have given more to the World than anyone else in the history of humankind and what do we do as a society? Call him the anti-Christ and tell the government to attack his company, which is providing the communication to the world and opening up the world for cross-culture knowledge and commerce? So if Western Culture is better, why do we attack it?

We should not necessarily equate Red China to communism or place a label like Imperialism as we did to the Japanese in the Second World War, but we should understand that as we live in hypocrisy in our civilization often those running other civilizations do the same. History shows many different styles of societies, but in critic of Western Civilization for Eastern Culture, we might wish to define which one. The Chinese Dynasties of days gone by, the more recent hard line Red China of three decades ago or the newest hybrid culture which is slowly emerging, which when finished will much resemble a larger and even more stable version of South Korea?

Currently I guess if I were a Chinese Peasant and the government was testing out N5H1 Bird Flu vaccine for a possible use for bio-warfare in my South Western Province, I do not think I would be a great supporter of Eastern Culture over Western? I think if this was the case that I would rather have my family to be making Nike Shoes today and driving a Chevrolet and wearing Levis tomorrow. This is an interesting point on debate of which is better; Eastern or Western Culture, but the question in itself is wrong as we are comparing apples and oranges aren’t we. Some say that the Ugly Western Culture Capitalists in their pursuit of Globalism are causing other nations to remain impoverished. Is Globalism really bad, or is it getting a bad rap? And does it really matter which is better Eastern or Western Culture as we do not even respect all we have in the United States and in our haste to point out worse problems in the world, we have taken our eye off the ball and China and/or India is ready to hit a grand slam home run, clean out of the park. So it really doesn’t matter which you think is better; click here:

Learn Chinese while you drive, sure beats road rage, yelling at fellow citizens, may as well start today:

http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/tg/detail/-/1888194170/104-0004098-8541509?v=glance

It would be wise to re-evaluate our nation, what we really stand for and move to fix those things which are not perfect now, before we allow it to all slip away embroiled in controversy, politics and chaos as we divide ourselves. Think about it.

Raul Castro Ruz – Interesting Facts!

Raul Castro- Cuba’s Dictator since 2008

An anti-American Leader

Did you know- Historically, Raul Castro is one of the most anti-American leaders in the Third World, along with Fidel, Mao Zedong, Enver Hoxha and Mengistu Haile Mariam. Following the American embargo on Cuba in late1960,Castro said: “My dream is to drop three atomic bombs on New York”. In the 1960s, he also was famous for his slogan: “Hit the Yankees hard”.

Birthdate

Did you know-Raul Modesto Castro Ruz was born on June 3, 1931, in Biran (Cuba), one of Spain’s last colonies on the American mainland. He was the fifth child born to Angel Castro, a Spanish immigrant, and Lina Ruz Gonzalez de Castro. He married Vilma Espin Guillois (1959) and they produced three daughters (Deborah, Mariela and Nilsa) and one son (Alejandro).

Human Rights

Did you know-The Venezuelan-backed government of Cuban leader Castro is one of the most dictatorial regimes on Earth. Cuba currently has one of the largest number of political prisoners and refugees in the world.

President-for-Life

Did you know- Currently Raul Castro is Head of State of one of the last five Communist nations in the world. On February 24, 2008, Fidel Castro, who had held power for 49 years, was succeeded by his brother, Raul Castro.Before becoming President of Cuba, Castro was first vice President of the Council of State and vice President of the Council of Ministers, as well as maximum general of the armed forces and vice Secretary of the Politburo and the Central Committee of Communist Party.

Raul Castro’s Wife

Did you know–Vilma Espin Guillois, known as “Deborah” in the 1950s, was Castro’s wife. Like Haiti’s Michele Bennett Duvalier (Jean-Claude Duvalier’s wife) and Argentina’s Eva Duarte de Peron (Juan Domingo Peron’s wife), she was one of the most tyrannical women in the Western Hemisphere in the 20th century. She, on the other hand, studied abroad and in Cuba. With the start of the Cuban Revolution, Ms Espin was named President of the Cuban Women’s Federation. Her accession was due to the determination of Cuba’s then- dictator Fidel Castro that a female of the Castros should head the Federation. Like President of the Federation of Cuban Women, she had worked to change the country’s image as a totalitarian regime. Between 1975 and 1995, she spoke out in favor of the Cuban dictatorship during the UN conferences and summits. Ms Espin was also known as the First Lady of the Cuban Revolution.

Salvador Allende

Did you know- From 1959 to 1973, Castro and Vilma Espin had a close friendship with Salvador Allende Gossens, Chile’s first Marxist Head of State (1970-1973) and the world’s only freely elected Marxist leader.

USSR

Did you know-Since the 1960s, R. Castro took special interest in relations with the USSR (present-day Russia). Under his leadership, Cuba became one of the first Latin American countries to re-establish diplomatic ties with Moscow. He visited the Soviet Union in 1960.

What Are the Strengths and Weaknesses of These Two Law of Attraction Teachers and Who is Better?

The Law of Attraction. The Secret. As you think, so it is done onto you. These three phrases have been spoken very often in the last few years. What is the reason for that? It is the explosion of interest in the Law of Attraction caused by the hit movie "The Secret." This explosion of interest has also led to a great increase in the number of teachers teaching the Law.

Anyone who has tried the Law of Attraction for long enough has understood that you need proper instruction if you were to succeed in manifesting the object of your desires. There is just too much at stake to stick to free information and thus deprive oneself of the secret strategies that the top teachers can reveal for you. But again, with the availability of so many teachers, which should you choose? How can you make sure that your time is not wasted with below par teachers?

The above two are valid concerns and they are the major reasons that many followers of the Law of Attraction kind of give up on the idea after playing with it only a short while. This article, however, will present you the top two teachers and then give you a recommendation as to what of the two you should choose based on your needs and expectations.

So enough waiting, the two top teachers are Bob Proctor and Robert Anthony. The reason that these two were not only their long years of experience with the Law of Attraction, although that is certainly helped. The profundity of their message, as well as their charismatic and appealing personalities, coupled with their clarity of expression and vision, clearly separate them from the other teachers and make them the best two.

First, let us start with Dr. Robert Anthony. Who is Dr. Robert Anthony, you might ask, and I would not blame you. He would have been much more famous now had he not turned down the offer of Rhonda Byrnes to take part in her movie "The Secret." Anyways, he did not take part, which kept him to the side of the mainstream Law of Attraction movement. This, however, also helped to strengthen his image as the most profound and kind of unique teacher. He is not just one of the teachers of "The Secret." Instead, he is the teacher who has his own secret – "The Secret of Deliberate Creation." Therefore, he is recommended for those who are looking for a little more philosophical and not so mainstream approach to the Law of Attraction teachings.

Bob Proctor, on the other hand, certainly benefited from his participation in "The Secret." Arguably, he was the main protagonist in the movie, and this claimed in an increase in his popularity, which makes me absolutely certain that you know who he is. So what is so special about Bob and why is he so popular? What is so attractive about him is the unique mix between profundity and simplicity. He looks like a professor and yet he did not even graduate from high school. But he certainly knows how to teach you and express himself in the most understandable way possible.

So, what is the final verdict? I will not go as far as to say who of the two is best, but I will say that if you are looking for an easy to understand message, then you should go for Bob Proctor. On the other hand, if you were looking for something more philosophical and deep, you should choose Dr. Robert Anthony. Anyways, you can find both of these authors' works reviewed in the link below and make up your mind on your own. Enjoy working with the Law of Attraction!

Humility – One of the Most Powerful Allies of the Law of Attraction

When approaching any new learning endeavor in life there is a mindset that trumps all others. With the Law of Attraction the same applies and even more so than usual.

Here’s an interesting question!

Do you believe monks, presidents, CEOs and other elite people in high stations still value learning? An even better question is: Do you believe that they are humble in their approach to learning?

The simple and undoubted answer is a resounding YES.

Men such as the ones we see who have succeeded, achieved and made a name for themselves are the most ferocious learners. They learn, read, study and meditate on their fields of endeavors all of the time. You can call it their obsession. Don’t believe me? Just read Napoleon Hills work and closely monitor the men he observed – how they behaved and operated on a daily basis.

The ability to be a humble student is the key to approaching the Law of Attraction successfully.

Why?

The quality of humility is often viewed in this age of raw and hard hitting competition as a weakness. This could not be further from the truth.

Let’s use an example. The only way a parachute can operate and actually perform its function properly is when it is open. When a parachute is not fully open it can put the user’s life in danger.

The same goes for our minds. When our minds approach any subject in a full and honest hearted state of humility: this is when the mind is most open. The mind is ready to receive and soak up knowledge. This is the state when the mind dissects and processes information at an optimum level. In this state of total humility the mind becomes relaxed and open like the parachute working effortlessly as the winds of knowledge rush into it.

When this occurs several things begin to happen. With taking in of new information our current beliefs may be challenged and pushed into an uncomfortable place. In a spirit of humility your sub conscious mind does not view new material as attack on current beliefs, rather it sees the information as raw materials fit to build better and stronger beliefs.

It can be the hardest situation at times to realize that for the past say 20 years, our beliefs have been incorrect. This can hurt both our feelings and the ego. That is absolutely fine and in all honesty we have in some way all been in this situation.

When our humility toward learning is high and strong, this situation becomes effortless and rather pleasant. We instantly begin to move from an uncomfortable feeling to exciting betterment and a change for the future.

Hold on a second you might think this article was about the Law of Attraction and not a lesson from your mother. The truth is the quality of HUMILITY cannot be over emphasized enough. Do you believe men such as Donald Trump, Warren Buffet, Bill Gates and etc are still humble students? Ask yourself what made them great?

In all honesty there is a magical power that activates the Law of Attraction when you become a humble learner and put aside your ego. This does not imply that you are weak in any way – it actually shows a reservoir of true strength.

Here is an honest disclaimer: the articles you will read from here on in are going to be rather different and approach the Law of Attraction from a very unique perspective. They will be in depth and pain staking detail. I just want us to all understand that everything written on this site is in absolute connection with the Law of Attraction. There will be no deviation from this matter even if the material may appear to do so. Humility may appear to be out of place in our discussion however without it you will not move any further. If it doesn’t make sense to you now, it really is fine; personally it took some of us quite some time to digest this point.

Yours in greater attraction.

UK Has Become a Democracy by Evolution Rather Than Revolution

Introduction

In first century B.C. Roman Empire was spread through out whole Europe including Southern Britain which including modern England. Roman Empire prevails not only by military means but also their culture, law and political system. At that time Rome was ruled by Senate, with the principles of ancient Democracy. That was a legacy of Greece to Rome. While conquering the world these Roman donate Democracy all over its territory as well as England. After the collapse of Roman Empire in 3rd century A.D. British people enjoyed some kind of independence from outer world. After some time whole island scattered to a number of kingdoms. Then, there was nothing left something called Democracy anymore. Only monarchs were left there which relies on feudalism.

Various invasions and migrations made mixed nation in Britain. British history was intermingled with dozens of cultures like Celtic, Roman, Anglo Saxon, Jute, French, Dane, Norse and Norman.

The main turning point of British history is invasion of William of Normandy in 1066.He beat the Saxon King Harold at the battle of Hastings. William and his descendants over England with violent and totalitarian regime and there was no liberal democracy. Gradually Norman Knights and those Saxons, who had some land and money, secure great power over the Kings. They had their own army as well as taxation process. Therefore Kings couldn’t rule country without their help (both military and financially).Especially the reign of inept Kings. However, the main characteristic of the British Constitution is there is no book or archive in written form. We can figure it out as series of bills consent in parliament and customs evolved time to time. These Bills and Customs built up evolution rather than revolution. From here let us consider main archives to prove that.

Magna Carta

In the reign of such inept King John in 1215,the great barons of the land rose up in mutiny and forced the King to sign an agreement called “Magna Carta”(Great Charter). They were questioned whether the King really should have total power over the country. From signing Magna Carta “the king to renounce certain rights and respect certain legal procedures, and to accept that the will of the king could be bound by law. Magna Carta was the first step in a long historical process leading to the rule of constitutional law.”

This is a revolutionary moment in British history. Probably, the preamble to the British constitution. Actually, the incident is seems like a revolutionary one, though it didn’t change structure of Monarch or abolish it. Feudalism continues. Only change was Nobles and Pope gets some power rather than before and some human rights were accepted as inviolable. Below mention the most valuable clause in the Charter even modern constitutions also added as fundamental right of human beings. That was;

“No free man shall be arrested, or imprisoned, or deprived of his property, or outlawed, or exiled, or in any way destroyed, nor shall we go against him or send against him, unless by legal judgement of his peers, or by the law of the land”.

In particular it set up the right of habeas corpus, which means the right to appeal against imprisonment. However the successors of King John broke the clauses of Charter and again move to power of absolute monarch again. Therefore Magna Carta can’t consider as a revolutionary incident of world history.

Church and Monarch

Monarch is not the only section which used the power in Medieval England; The Roman Catholic Church acted significant character in great deal. The Church owned large acres of land, had power of charge and raise taxes, and even its own system of courts to try people who had broken its laws – called Canon law. So, for on these issues there was a clash between Monarch and The Church in England.

Clear example for that, is the matter of divorce Henry VIII and Catherine of Aragon. The Church wasn’t let the king do so. The monarch turned on the Church with a vengeance. He seized Church lands, closed ancient monasteries, and took all the property of them and finally appointed himself as head of the Church, which meant the Pope was no longer be obeyed in England. This was a major turning point in English history because it increased power and wealth of the monarch, and because the Church land was sold to wealthy merchants, it also created a new group of landowners, who in time went into parliament and took part in government. This is the first event the members of the parliament took sufficient power. This is revolutionary act, but it last only in Henry’s regime, then his daughter Mary convert the country to Catholic, but again in the era of Elizabeth I, she followed Henry’s path. That demonstrated, this revolutionary act not accepted at once by people of England. This (independence from Church) was the second step of the evolution of British Constitution.

Parliament Power

The Monarch and the Parliament work together peacefully most of the British history, except some incident. Elections to the House of Commons were held regularly but only landowners got to vote.

Struggle between King Charles I and Parliamentarians is the most crucial incident happened in British history. King Charles I refuse to ruling with the agreement of Parliament, and wanted absolute monarch. In 1642, civil war broke out, Charles I defeated and executed. Finally Britain became a republic under leadership of Oliver Cromwell for 11 years without a monarchy. After his death again the country became a monarch.

From this example we see the British people react revolutions very slowly. There was no much power given to the King by Parliament after this incident. So, these two institutions have compromised there power to neutralize hostilities with each other from here. Eventually, parliament gains the power over monarch.

After the incident so called “English Revolution” which overthrew King James II and gave the throne to William of Orange is dynamic example for how much power parliamentarians gained after 1642 civil war. Before that had no power to decide and appoint the King. That showed slightly some of the King’s power slightly leaked to Parliament by passing Bills and Acts. So, King’s absolute power and divinity reduce by time but not in instant. People introduce this incident as a revolution, but still it didn’t change the former political structure significantly.

Thenceforth, despite the monarch have some power, the King or Queen would only govern the country with the agreement of Parliament. In effect, power shifted from a single monarch to the members of an elected parliament and the unelected House of Lords.

Political Parties

After the power centralized in the Parliament factions of society rose up as parties, which carried out their own policy. Not only parties, some wealthy individuals also rose up independent candidates.

The first two great political parties are Liberal Democrats (Whigs) and Conservatives (Tories).In eighteenth and nineteenth centuries these two parties’ bitter rivals, but once one party came to power they ruled the country in harmony as a one nation.

These two parties had their own policies, which always gave priority when they come to power. Conservatives were generally Catholic or Anglican while were from a more Calvinist or radical Protestant tradition. Religion in the eighteenth and nineteenth

centuries was a big issue and it was the root of the enmity between the two parties.

Power of Lords

House of Lords is not elected from election, though at the time, the House of Lords could in effect veto any laws drawn up by the House of Commons. In 1911, then Liberal Government introduced Parliament Act and removed veto power of House of Lords. As a result of the Parliament Act, the House of Lords has the right to scrutinize proposed laws drawn up in the Commons and to ask members of that House to think again three times. If the Lords reject a law a third time, the House of Commons can say enough and the proposed Act passes into law despite objection from the Lords. After that, the House of Commons secure their primacy over the House of Lords. This is another example for evolution of British Constitution; because they change it according to temporary demands arises at that time. Veto power is always be a threat to modern Democracy. It was indirectly reduce of the power of monarch and wealthy families, because all of Lords are appointed by monarch, and also many of the Lords are descend from wealthy families who didn’t like common people’s welfare. Whatever the matter abolishment of veto power of the House of Lords; House of Commons didn’t try to abolish that institution. For this reason we can’t pointed it as a revolution.

Earning Full Democracy

There was no full Democracy in Britain until first two decade in twentieth century. Women were granted voting power at those days. Prior to that only men had the power to vote, even earlier only for the wealthy; and also majority of population didn’t have the power to choose who govern them.

Conclusion

Today, we see Britain as one of the best democratic country of the world. It earns and continues Democracy from evolution. When comparing France, Russia and USA it took too much time to change in to one political structure to another. Their democracy still evolving and turning more freely. That democracy affects them today more harshly because any party who form a government has to make a coalition. This is very bad to country’s stability. However, they manage to keep the country safe on the name of Democracy.

Philippine Oil Deregulation – A Policy Research Analysis

I. INTRODUCTION

The Policy As An Output

Embodied in the Republic Act No. 8479, otherwise known as the “Downstream Oil Industry Deregulation Act of 1998,” is the policy of the state that deregulates the oil industry to “foster a truly competitive market which can better achieve the social policy objectives of fair prices and adequate, continuous supply of environmentally-clean and high quality petroleum products” (Congress 1998).

With deregulation, government allows market competition. That means government does not interfere with the pricing, exportation, and importation of oil products, even the establishment of retail outlets, storage depots, ocean-receiving facilities, and refineries.

It has been a decade ago since lawmakers made a proposition that deregulation would secure the Philippines from the vulnerability of oil price shocks due to its heavily dependent on imported oil. But it is now increasingly apparent that many are calling to scrap the law as six out of ten Filipinos favor the repeal of RA 8479 (Somosierra 2008).

The Policy As A Process

When President Fidel Ramos started his administration in 1992, the country had already started feeling the effects of power supply deficiencies, with major areas already experiencing power interruptions. The power crisis caused a slowdown in the national economy for nearly three years and prodded the government to initiate major reforms in order to rehabilitate the energy sector (Viray 1998, p.461-90). In response to a power supply crisis, Ramos revived the plans to liberalize the oil industry that were cut short during the Aquino administration due to Gulf crisis.

The government’s efforts to enact an oil deregulation law were also intensified in 1995 when the Oil Price Stabilization Fund (OPSF ) started to threaten the fiscal stability of the economy. Deregulation was thus seen as the solution to the recurring deficit.

The problem of the OPSF deficit was in part related to the highly political nature of oil prices, which encouraged government to defer price increases as much as possible in order to avoid public protest even at the expense of incurring a fiscal deficit. However, government mismanagement of the fund also included using it for non-oil purposes such as financing other government projects or the public sector deficit when it was in surplus (Pilapil 1996, p.12).

At the height of a strong lobbying effort for deregulation by oil companies and despite the loud opposition of militant groups, the industry was eventually deregulated in 1996 with the enactment of RA 8180 (the Downstream Oil Industry Deregulation Act of 1996) in Congress.

However, Supreme Court declared in 1997 the unconstitutionality of RA 8180. The Court decision stemmed from three provisions in the law that were deemed to inhibit free competition and therefore, violated the anti-trust mandate of the 1987 Constitution (Supreme Court 1997). But administration Congressmen quickly re-filed the oil deregulation bill leading to the new oil deregulation law. RA 8479 was then enacted to pave the way for the full deregulation of the oil industry. Since then, government has no longer control over the industry. What it can do is only monitoring.

Applicable Models

The policy model that best describes the policy process is Vig and Kraft 1984 model where policy stages/phases are characterized by five elements: 1) agenda setting, 2) policy formulation, 3) policy adoption, 4) policy implementation, and 5) policy monitoring.

On the other hand, the model that best describes the policy approach is Mixed Scanning because the Ramos administration resorted to rational planning process and incrementalized on liberalization plan of the Aquino government.

II. THE POLICY IN THE CONTEXT OF THE POLICY SYSTEM

The Policy Environment

Identified policy environment includes the regime characteristics of Ramos Administration, socio-economic structure in 1990’s, and the prevailing international financial influence on the country’s economy and politics.

The Policy Stakeholders

Identified as stakeholders in this policy are the Filipino people, the President, Legislators, Supreme Court, DOE, DOJ, DTI, NEDA, the oil companies, NGO/advocacy groups, and media.

The Interrelationships Between Policy Environment And Stakeholders

Despite a strong opposition coming directly from ordinary people, transport groups, and NGOs, the oil deregulation policy was still pushed through. It was formulated and instituted under the regime of President Ramos who, in his flagship program called the Philippines 2000, envisioned to make the country globally competitive by pursuing the thrusts of deregulation, market liberalization, and privatization. The media then exposed the fact that the biggest factor that influenced the formulation of the policy was the perceived eventual bankruptcy of the Oil Price Stabilization Fund, which had been originally established by President Ferdinand Marcos for the purpose of minimizing frequent price changes brought about by exchange adjustments and/or an increase in world market prices of crude oil and imported petroleum products.

Influenced by the International Monetary Fund, Ramos administration argued that there was a need to deregulate the industry because under a regulated environment, prices are not allowed to rise and fall with market levels. This means that when prices went up, government had to shell out money to subsidize the difference between the old and the new price.

According to the National Economic Development Authority (NEDA), had the government opted not to deregulate, OPSF obligation would have ballooned to at least P8.3 billion in 1998. The P8.3 billion is equivalent to the construction of more than 4,500 kilometers of provincial roads, 51,000 deep wells of potable water, 25,000 school houses, or free rice for 20{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of the poorest Filipinos (Bernales 1998)

The Supreme Court in 1998 ruled in favor of the constitutionality of the Downstream Oil Industry Deregulation Act of 1998. Since then, it has been the policy of the subsequent administrations to deregulate the industry. DOE, DTI, DENR, DOST are agencies mandated to serve as the monitoring-arm of the government.

Is The Policy Working?

The answer is obviously “No.” IBON Foundation reported that the Oil Deregulation Law has further strengthened the monopoly of the big oil companies as automatic oil price hikes are allowed. Consequently, other oil companies took advantage of the policy, hiking pump prices of all petroleum products by around 535{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} since the Oil Deregulation Law was first implemented in April 1996 (Bicol Today 2007). The policy is also unable to solve or, at least, mitigate the effects of global oil crisis.

III. THINKING ALOUD

A. Repeating The Process

a.1 Problem Definition/Structuring

It has been recognized that the problem with oil is far from over as deregulation policy fails to meet its goal to foster a truly competitive market and reasonable oil prices. The current president herself, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, acknowledges the fact that the oil crisis is threatening to erode the very fiber of the Philippine society.

Unlike in 1998, the crisis today seems to be more irreparable as the United States is facing what many economists describe as the worst economic crisis in its history, triggering unstoppable skyrocketing of oil prices and prices of foodstuffs around the world. As already stated, the oil crisis is a global one and has to be addressed not only at the national level, but at the international level as well.

But why is the oil crisis a global crisis? Is it really beyond the government control?

The Philippines, like many other nations, buys the oil at the spot market. By “spot” is meant, that one buys the oil at a market only 24 to 48 hours before one takes physical (spot) delivery, as opposed to buying it 12 or more months in advance. In effect, the spot market inserted a financial middleman into the oil patch income stream.

Today, the oil price is largely set in the two futures markets: London-based International Petroleum Exchange (IPE) and the New York Mercantile Exchange (NYMEX). Here, traders or investors buy or sell certain commodities like oil at a certain date in the future, at a specified price. Basically, traders invest in the futures market by buying futures contracts called “paper oil” or simply paper claim against oil. The very purpose of buying oil is not to wait for the actual delivery of the physical oil in the future, but to sell the paper oil to another trader at a higher price. That’s how investors engage in widespread speculation; and it is becoming a viscous cycle. Almost all countries, including the Philippines, buy the oil at the spot market where the price is already at its peak.

In a year 2000 study, Executive Intelligence Review (EIR) showed that for every 570 “paper barrels of oil”-that is futures contracts covering 570 barrels-traded each year, there was only one underlying physical barrel of oil. The 570 paper oil contracts pull the price of the underlying barrel of oil, manipulating the oil price. If the speculators bet long-that the price will rise-the mountain of bets pulls up the underlying price (Valdes 2005).

This only disproves the popular assumption that oil price hike has something to do with the “law of supply and demand.” In fact, as much as 60{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of today’s crude oil price is pure speculation driven by large trader banks and hedge funds. It has nothing to do with the convenient myths of Peak Oil. It has to do with control of oil and its price (Engdahl 2008).

In its recent statement, IBON Foundation cited a study conducted by the U.S. Senate Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations, which revealed that 30 percent or more of the prevailing crude oil cost is driven only by speculation. IBON further cited that speculation adds about $35 to a barrel of crude oil (Martinez 2008).

a.2 Developing Alternative

In the face of the alarming oil price hike that threatens the survival of ordinary Filipino people, a number of stakeholders call for alternative solutions: 1) amendment of the Oil Deregulation Law, 2) scrap/repeal the law, 3) removal of 12{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} vat on oil, 4) seek alternative sources of energy, and 5) engage in country-to-country oil agreement.

a.3 Options Analysis

1. Amendment of the Deregulation Law

As the public continues to hurt from surging oil prices, many policy makers call to re-examine the Downstream Oil Industry Deregulation Act of 1998. One of whom, is Ilocos Sur Rep. Eric Singson who has sought several amendments in the said law to ensure transparency in the pricing of oil products and encourage greater competition in the retail industry, which has been under the influence of giant oil companies. He cited the need to amend Sections 14 and 15 of RA 8479 to strengthen the powers of the Department of Energy (DOE) so it can effectively carry out its mandate to inform and protect the public from illicit practices in the oil industry and to provide more financial assistance for the establishment and operation of gasoline stations, which will encourage investment and fair competition (Malacanang 2005).

2. Scrap/Repeal the Oil Deregulation Law

To many, amending the law is not enough to rectify the skyrocketing prices of oil and oil-based products; they demand for the repeal, instead. A lawmaker from the Lower House, Cagayan de Oro City Rep. Rufus Rodriguez filed House Bill 4262 aiming to repeal Republic Act No. 8479, arguing that instead of fostering a competitive market, the law has only strengthened the oil cartel in the country and brought the oil prices up. The bill also seeks to re-establish the Oil Price Stabilization Fund. He articulated that dominant oil companies still dictate the price because even new oil industry players get their supply from the giants (Sisante 2008).

Militant groups and other non-government organizations have staged rallies and strikes all over the country in opposition of the deregulation policy. Kilusang Mayo Uno (KMU), one of the country’s prominent labor groups, contested that cartelization still exists amidst deregulation. In its recent statement, KMU articulated that with recent Dubai oil prices pegged at $97 per barrel (as of 3rd week of September), local price of diesel is at P49/liter; while when Dubai crude was at $97/liter on Nov. 6, 2007, diesel in the Philippines was sold only at P37.95/liter, or P11.05/liter lower than the present rates (GMANews.TV 2008).

3. Removal of 12{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} VAT on oil

Senator Mar Roxas said that government must heed calls to remove the 12{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} value-added tax (VAT) on oil and oil products as prices continue to go up despite the lowering of oil prices in the world market. Roxas had filed Senate Bill No. 1962. However, in her eighth State of the Nation Address (SONA), President Arroyo, stated that it will be the poor who will suffer the most from the removal of VAT on oil and electricity as this will mean the loss of P80 billion in programs being funded by her tax reform (Arroyo 2008).

4. Alternative sources of energy.

While many have engaged themselves in the long-running debate about amendment vs. repeal of the law, a number of stakeholders argue that Philippine government must, instead, focus on alternative sources of energy to rectify the heavy dependence on imported oil. Senator Juan Miguel Zubiri, now considered “Father of the Philippine Biofuels Bill,” has hyped biofuel as the miracle product which can lower oil prices. But more and more scientists are worried that focusing on biofuels could jeopardize food production.

The Philippine LaRouche Society, an increasingly emerging think tank organization in the country, says that biofuel advocacy is a losing proposition as it competes with food production for human consumption. The organization calls, instead, for the revival of the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant (BNPP) as soon as possible to provide the population with a cheap, reliable, and continuous source of power to subsequently free the people from dependence on oil. The organization further articulates that since that will require huge financial requirements, the Philippine government must, therefore, declare a moratorium on foreign debt payments-since much of which are onerous and merely product of “bankers arithmetic” (Billington 2005).

5. Country-to-country oil agreement

The Philippine LaRouche Society has long been proposing to the government to initiate immediate steps to establish bilateral contract agreements with oil-producing countries of not less than 12 months’ government scheduled deliveries at reasonable, fixed prices. Government can also enter into commodity-swap agreements with oil-producing countries.

As a member of the United Nations and other intergovernmental associations like APEC and WTO, the Philippine government should join the growing worldwide call for a fair and honest oil trading by de-listing oil as a commodity traded in the futures market.

a.4 Deciding the Best and Most Feasible Option

It must be known to all the Filipino people that oil deregulation, as a policy, has failed to foster a truly competitive market towards fair prices and adequate, continuous supply of environmentally-clean and high quality petroleum products. Proposed solution # 2 (scrap/repeal the Oil Deregulation Law) is therefore a better option. But repealing the Deregulation Law is not the ultimate answer to the rise in oil prices. Even if the law is repealed, the Philippines will still be subjected to the same factors-a rise in oil prices in the global market.

Proposed solution # 5 (country-to-country oil agreement) can address the issue of the oil crisis at the international level. How about the efforts to solve the crisis at the national level?

The Philippine government must revive the Bataan Nuclear Power Plant to provide the population with a cheap, reliable, and continuous source of power to subsequently free the people from dependence on oil. As proposed, government must direct enough funds, instead for debt servicing, towards the revival and upgrade of BNPP. Removal of the entire E-VAT, not only on oil, must also be taken into consideration to ease the pain of the Filipino people. By moratorium, government doesn’t have to extract a pound of flesh out of every Filipino to have the means to fund its programs.

B. Why seemingly “better” options are not adopted? The Peculiarities of the Philippine Policy System

From the standpoint of the present administration, amending RA 8479 seems to be difficult to adopt because re-regulating the oil industry would mean subsidizing oil prices-something like OPSF. To many, this does not work in an era of rising crude prices because it would entail government resources. This is where debt moratorium comes in as an effective fiscal strategy. But moratorium, to many skeptics, is unwise because they fear the blackmail or retaliation of the multinational creditors. Our leaders must learn how then President Nestor Kirchner of Argentina defied the predatory financial institutions, averring that “There’s life after the IMF.”

On the other hand, many leaders deem country-to-country oil agreement impossible to implement as the giant oil companies have still strong influence on the policy-making process in the country. On the part of the oil companies, it will be a huge loss if government will assert its power to have a bilateral agreement with any of the oil-producing country. Also, many leaders consider the Philippines as a small nation with no voice in the international assembly. But it is a matter of having “big balls,” to put it in a figurative language. After all, they are the leaders and are mandated by the Constitution to protect and promote the general welfare.

Another peculiarity of the Philippine policy system is the negative perception towards nuclear energy. BNPP has been stigmatized as being environmentally dangerous and as being associated with “corruption.” The fact of the matter is, the technology has already evolved and been modernized. The Philippine government spent $2.3 billion to build BNPP without generating a kilowatt of electricity. It is high time to revisit the old strategy to finally free the country from dependence on imported oil.

It is worth mentioning that the International Atomic Energy Agency inspected the power plant in Bataan early this year and reported that this could be rehabilitated, in full compliance with high international safety environment standards, in at least five years at a cost of $800 million (Burgonio 2008). The Philippine LaRouche Society emphasizes the importance of declaring debt moratorium as a fiscal strategy to start the rehabilitation. The organization argues that the Philippines is servicing the debt over US $10 billion per year, which is more than enough to start the full operation of BNPP (PLS 2008).

IV. INTEGRATION AND RECOMMENDATIONS: TOWARDS A BETTER PUBLIC POLICY SYSTEM

With the recognition that oil crisis is a global oil crisis, affecting the lives of all inhabitants of our planet, it is incumbent, therefore, upon the leadership of the Philippines to immediately take the following steps:

A) To immediately repeal the oil deregulation law, for the government to assert its sovereign power to have control over the oil industry and economy as a whole.

B) To propose at any international summit or assembly that oil, being a commodity, critical to the continuation of human life, be de-listed as a commodity traded in the futures market, thereby escaping the clutches of unscrupulous people and speculative financial institutions.

C) To initiate immediate steps to establish bilateral contract agreements with petroleum-producing countries of not less than 12 months’ government scheduled deliveries at reasonable, fixed prices.

D) To design a comprehensive energy development program, such as nuclear power plant being the most cost-efficient source of energy to date, for the purpose of freeing our country from complete dependence on imported energy sources. To this end, moratorium on foreign debt must be taken into account as a paramount fiscal strategy.

The crisis, which we now face as a nation, requires understanding of the problems through diligent study and concomitant courage to do what is right for the benefit of the present and future Filipino generations.