Witchcraft – The Witch of Today

For centuries, the practice of witchcraft was considered an evil and foul tradition, and witches were hunted and killed, often by cruel and painful methods, usually by being burnt alive at the stake. Fear of witches and witchcraft was widespread throughout several areas of Europe and in some areas of a newly settled America. The witchcraft delusion was an epidemic affecting everyone, and even a simple accusation of being a witch, despite the absence of any real evidence, was often enough to condemn an individual to torture and death.

Thankfully, modern society has moved beyond such superstition and insanity, and today, witches are free to practice varying traditions of witchcraft openly and without fear of persecution. The Wiccan religion is perhaps the most well known form of modern witchcraft, thanks in part to movies and media attention. However, there are several forms of modern witchcraft being practiced today, though most have roots in ancient cultural traditions.

Modern witchcraft in western culture can be largely attributed to the influence and practices of three specific individuals. The first is Gerald Gardner, sometimes referred to as the Father of modern Witchcraft. In the late 1930s and during the 1940s, Gerald Gardner began establishing several covens throughout Britain in an attempt to revive the foundations of the old religion, which is closely related to modern Wicca.

Gerald Gardner was a public figure who wrote several books on the subject of witchcraft, helping to cast the old traditions in a new and positive light and reshape society’s perspective of witchcraft.

Another individual of note is Margaret Murray, a British scholar who studied ancient witchcraft and also wrote of old religions, preceding Gerald Gardner’s work by over 20 years. Her books are considered essential reference sources for practitioners of modern Wiccanism.

The third individual credited with influencing the contemporary witchcraft movement is Alexander Sanders. Alexander studied witchcraft as a young boy, as it was a family tradition passed down by his grandmother. Alexander also established several covens throughout Britain, and proclaimed himself the “king of witches.”

While Wiccanism might be the most popular tradition of witchcraft studied and followed by modern society, other old traditions still exist. Native Americans and indigenous tribes located in Central and South America still practice shamanistic magic. Similarly, tribes in Africa and Australia look to their tribal witch doctors whenever tribal magic might be needed, whether it be asking the gods for a good hunt, or seeking to expel a sickness from a tribe member.

In Louisiana and Haiti, Voodoo is practiced, and similar traditions such as Santeria in the Spanish Islands, as well as other offshoots of voodoo such as Hoodoo and Macumba.

Most forms of witchcraft share common denominators — rituals, spellcasting, and calling upon the gods for help or wisdom. Typically, most forms of witchcraft are also considered “white”, or good, and are meant for healing and positive effects, rather than to induce harm, curses, or ill will towards an individual.

While many books and resources are available …

Important Facts About the Criminal Law

Criminal law can be generally defined as the branch of law that majorly classifies crimes, treats of their nature, and provides best effective ways or approaches that can be followed for their punishment. In recent times, it has emerged as one of the few fields that are attracting many young aspirants to make their career. In fact, in the last few years the ratio of students practicing criminal law has increased rapidly. These days, many young lawyers are engaged in criminal law practice work for a governmental agency on either the federal or local level or in the non-indigent defense work for solo or small private practices. Today it is counted among one of the major vital parts of the legal system in the United States and offer rewards that are very exciting and better than any other profession. However, the field of criminal law even features some of the most important facts that are worth to be known.

Today if we talk about the criminal law then it is very important to understand the exact meaning or the classification of crimes. In simple terms, crimes can be classified as felony or misdemeanor, but there is a slight difference between felony and misdemeanor. The basic distinction between felonies and misdemeanors rests on the penalty and the power of imprisonment. Basically, a misdemeanor is defined as an offense for which a punishment other than detention or death in the state prison is followed by the law. Besides this, there are many people who often get confused with the term “degree of crime”. Now, the term degree of crime primarily relates to distinctions in the guiltiness of a crime because of the circumstances surrounding its commission.

In the United States, the power to define crimes and set penalty generally depends on the legislatures of the United States, the states, and the territories along with the principal authority associated to that of the individual states. In addition, a common-law crime is one punishable universal regulation, as distinguished from crimes specified by statute. However, these days in many U.S. jurisdictions, including those in which inclusive criminal law has been enacted the common law in relative to the criminal process.

The procedure in criminal cases is significantly similar all through the United States. If the offense is severe, the case is initially passed to a grand jury, which draws up condemnation if there is enough proof to validate the trial, or else it discharges the charged convict. However, it is really surprising to find that in the United States, the offenders proved as guilty in the criminal offence may be liable to get life long imprisonment, which can go up to 100 years. Moreover, the electric chair punishments and other severe criminal punishments have been amended in US, many years back.

If we talk about the criminal laws in gulf countries then the picture is totally different. The laws are very strict with regard to the execution of punishments. In gulf countries, the criminal laws …