The Integrated Resorts of Singapore

Integrated Resorts by definition are resorts with mixed development like hotels, restaurants, convention centre, theme park, shopping centre, casino etc. Because of the gaming component – casino, integrated resorts development has stirred a great controversy among the Singaporeans.

The Prime Minister of Singapore, Lee Hsien Long announced the cabinet’s decision to develop 2 integrated resorts in Marina Bay and Sentosa. The Singapore Government stated that the aim of the Integrated Resorts is to boast the country’s tourism industry. There has been very keen competition from the neighboring countries like Malaysia, Thailand and Hong Kong. According to the Government, the Integrated Resorts are expected to create some 35,000 jobs directly and indirectly.

There has been debate among the Singaporeans on the plan to build Integrated Resorts. Religious groups and social workers voiced their disapproval at the negative social impact of gambling.

The Government however, promised to have a proper and strict safeguard to limit the social impact of gambling, among others exorbitant entrance fee and the casinos would not extend credit to local population.

Marina Bay Sands

It is located at the Marina South of Singapore. Currently, there are a few pretigious hotels operating like Ritz Charlton Millenium, Oriental Hotel, Marina Mandarin and Pan Pacific Hotel. It will have a panoramic view of the sea and tranquil environment.

The Government of Singapore called for request for concept in December 2004. It received overwhelming response from the industry. A total of 19 bids were submitted during the request for concept.

In the formal bids later, 4 companies/consortiums submitted their tender including:- (i) MGM Mirage/Capital Land, (ii) Harrah’s Entertainment/ Keppel Land, (iii) Las Vegas Sands and (iv) Genting International/Star Cruises.

Eventually, Las Vegas Sands succeeded in their tender, by committing the highest development investmetn of S$3.85 billion. The concept was designed by Moshe Sofdie consisting of 3 layers shells containing conference halls, 3 hotel towers linked to top floor of a sky garden.

Resorts World at Sentosa

Sentosa which means transquility in Malay is a popular island resort in Singapore. Previously, it was known as Pulau Belakang Mati (Island of Death from Behind). Statistics shows that it has been visited by some 2 million people annually. It has a sheltered beach of more than 2 km in length on the Southern coast, historical Fort Siloso from World War II, two golf courses and 2 5-stars hotels.

The island has an area of 5 square kilometres. 70{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} of it is covered by secondary rainforest. It is the habitat of monitor lizards, monkeys, peacocks, parrots as well as native flora and fauna.

Since its inception of development in 1972, some S$420 million of private capitals and S$500 million Government fund have been invested to develop the island.

3 consortiums submitted their proposal on 10 October 2006. They are: (i) Kerzner International with Capital Land; (ii) Genting International with Star Cruises Universal Studios and (iii) Eight Wonder with Publishing and Broadcasting Limited, Melco International Development Limited, Isle of Capri Casinos Inc.

The bid were reviewed by a ministerial committee and a tender evaluation committee and results were announced on 8 December 2006. Genting International and Star Cruises won the bid. Genting committed to a development investment of S$3.85 billion.

With these 2 Integrated Resorts completed and in operation by late 2009, Singapore will be placed at a totally better position in tourism industry in the region as compared with its competitors.

Substantial Similarity in Copyright Law


The Copyright Law is made up of all the legal principles and rules envisaging the protection of those who produce intellectual works in the field of literature, music and the fine arts, including photographs, films and performance of artists. It is in essence concerned with the negative right of preventing the copyright of physical, material, existing in the field of literature and art. Its object is to protect the author of an original work from the unlawful re-production of its material. Copyright is a man's inherent right over his intellectual property which emanates from the deep recesses of the human mind and assays complex form called his works. Nothing can be called a man's property than the fruits of his brains. The property is an article or substance accruing to him by reason of his own mechanical labor is never denied him: the labor of his mind is no less arduous and consequentially no less worthy of protection of the law.

The various requirements for a work to be eligible for copyright include:

1. The work must be original

2. The copyright subsists in the expression of ideas and not in the ideas, no matter how genuine and novel the work is.

3. The work must be fixed in some tangible form for more than a transitory period.

The United States Supreme Court, in Fiest Publication, Inc. V. Rural Telephone Service Co., Inc., articulated the elements of copyright infringement as

1. Ownership of a valid copyright

2. Unauthorized copying of constituent elements of the work that are original

Not all copying is a copyright infringement. Particularly, actionable copying requires appropriation of protected elements of the work.

It is extremely difficult to prove copying by direct evidence. Therefore, to prove the same, recourse is taken to the defendant's access to the work and "substantive similarity" between the original work and the accused work. To prove an infringement of copyright in a particular work, there must be an element of misappropriation. The degree of similarity necessary for a court to find misappropriation is not easily defined. Indeed, "the test for infringement of a copyright is of necessity vague".

Further, we need to reach to the kernel of the work which is more commonly referred to as the "core copyrightable material".

The underlined need to be removed:

1. ideas

2. facts

3. substances from the public domain

4. substances which come under the purview of the doctrine of merger, where an idea and its expression are inseparable, that is, the idea can effectively be expressed in only one way.

5. such expressions which have become "standards" for describing a particular idea, elements which are referred to as scenes a faire,

From the alleged infringed work to come up with nugget of such work. The kernel of the alleged infringed work, so obtained, is to be compared with the alleged infringing work to decide factually and circumstantially, the infringement. The latter would be proved true if there is substantial similarity between the two works under question.

Various tests

1. The lay observers' test

2. The extrinsic-intrinsic test

3. The abstraction-filtration-comparison test

Have evolved over the years through different judicial pronouncements to help Courts come to the conclusion concerning substantive similarity.


The traditional test for substantive similarity is known as the "ordinary observer" or the "audience" or more appropriately, the "lay observers'" test. The basis for the test is "whether an average lay observer would recognize the claimed copy as having been appropriated from the copyrighted work." The ordinary observer is taken as the benchmark against which the presence or absence of fundamental similarity is determined. The origins of the ordinary observer test may lie in an 1822 English decision, West v. Francis, quoted by White-Smith Publishing Co. V. Apollo Co.,: "A copy is that which comes so near to the original as to give every person seeing it the idea created by the original." The phrase "every person" could not literally have meant every possible person, but it is presumed that it referred to a hypothetical person. Unlike trademark infringement, though, in copyright infringement cases, survey evidence is not permitted.

It was said in Atari, Inc. V. North American Philips Consumer Elecs. Corp. That the test for substantive similarity is "whether the accused work is so similar to the plaintiff's work that an ordinary reasonable person would conclude that the defendant unlawfully appropriated the plaintiff's protectionable expression by taking material of substance and value." The touchstone of the analysis is the "overall similarities rather than the minute differences between the two works."

As was mentioned in Arnstein v. Porter, as a rare ratione for the ordinary listener test,

"Whether the defendant unlawfully granted dates, too, is an issue of fact. The proper criterion on that issue is not an analytic or other comparison of the relevant musical compositions as they appear on paper or in the judgment of trained musicians. Protected interest is not, as such, his reputation as a musician but his interest in the potential financial returns from his compositions which derive from the lay public's approval of his endeavors. What is auspicious to the ears of lay listeners, who compose the audience for such such popular music is composed, that defensive wrongfully appropriated something which belongs to the stainiff. "

As can be seen the question as to the possibility of infringement relating to the inquiry if the potential market of the alleged infringed work is taken over by the impact of the alleged infringing work, as determined by those who comprise the market.

The case of Dawson v. Hinshaw Music Inc. Saw the departure of the so-called "market" being consulted of lay public to a more "specialized" observer. The Fourth Circuit set forth a modified test requiring the ordinary observer to be the "intended" audience for the particular work. Relying on previous decisions by both the Ninth and Seventh Circuits, the court in Dawson stated:

"[I] f the lay public fairly represents the intended audience, the court should apply the lay observer formulation of the ordinary observer test. Should focus on whether a member of the intended audience would find the two works to be substantially similar. "

Here, the plaintiff's Gospel music arrangements were sold only in sheet music form to choral directors. Those choral managers were, therefore, the relevant market, since forming more specialized observers rather than mere lay observer in order to decide upon infringement issues. The recent case of Johnson v. Gordon, which was a music infringement case, saw the employment of lay observer's test.

Altering some parts of the original work will not avoid an infringement when application of the ordinary observer test leads to the conclusion that more than a trivial amount of the original work has been copied.

The challenge faced by this test is to determine what happens when a work is not directed to an audience possessing specialized expertise, and at what point a work once intended for a specialized audience becomes accepted by the general public.


For the purpose of determining "substantive similarity" in most works, the US Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals has devised a test, known as the Extrinsic-Intrinsic Test. This test is usually held to be applicable to most literary works, such as books and scripts. But it has also been applied to musical compositions, artwork and utilitarian work.

The extrinsic-intrinsic tests consist of two separate tests:

1. Extrinsic test, to measure whether there was similar similarity in the general ideas of the alleged infringed and infringing work

2. Intrinsic test, to measure if there was a similar similarity in the protective expression of both works.

This particular test for adjudging substantive similarity was devoted to the Ninth Circuit Court of Appeal in Sid & Marty Krofft Televisions Productions Inc. V. Mc Donald's Corporation and Needham, Harper & Steers Inc.

In the Extrinsic test it is undertaken to indentify similarity in ideas. As it is based on facts, it needs to be tried by the Trier of fact. "It is extrinsic because it depends not on the responses of the Trier of fact, but on specific criteria which can be listed and analyzed. Such criteria include the type of art involved, the materials used, the subject matter, and the setting for the Subject. Since it is an extrinsic test, analytical dissection and expert testimony are appropriate. Moreover, this question may often be decided as a matter of law. "

In the Intrinsic test if there is fundamental similarity in ideas, the Trier must move to find similarity in expression. "The test to be applied in determining whether there is similar similarity in expressions shall be labeled an intrinsic one – depending on the response of the ordinary reasonable person. Marks the extrinsic test. " No analytical dissection and expert opinion is required to conduct this test.


Judge Learned Hand, while deciding Nichols v. Universal Pictures Corp., had stated that "nobody has ever been able to fix that boundary between an idea and an expression and nobody ever can". The United States Second Court of Appeals, thus, came up with a three step test, known as the Abstraction, Filtration and Comparison Test, which was applied for the first time in the Computer Associates International Inc. V. Altai Inc .. The case dealt with as to what extent the "non-literal" elements of a computer program, that is, those aspects that are not reduced to written code, are protected by copyright. The Court pointed out that since the US statutes stated that computer programs are to be protected as literary works, then, the non-literal elements of computer programs are valued in the same fashion as other literary works.


The analytical approach adopted in the Nichols case for deciphering substantial similarity became popular as the "abstraction" test for separating idea from expression:

"Upon any work … a great number of patterns of increasing generality will fit equally well, as more and more of the incident is left out. And at times consists only of its title; but there is a point in this series of abstractions where they are no longer protected, since otherwise the author could prevent the use of his 'ideas', to which, apart from their expression, his property Is never extended. "

As applied to computer programs, the abstraction test will consist of the first step in the examination of substantive similarity. Initially, in a manner that resembles reverse engineering on a theoretical plane, the alleged copied program's structure is dissected by the Court so as to isolate each level of abstraction contained within it. The process starts with the code and ends with an articulation of the program's ultimate function. Along the way, it is necessary to retrace and map each of the designer's steps- in the opposite manner in which they were taken during the program's creation.


The purpose of the process of filtration is to eliminate from consideration all unprotectable elements such as ideas, facts, public domain information, merge material, scenes a faire material from the program under consideration. In OP Solutions Inc. V. Intellectual Property Network Ltd., the court listed the filters that the abstracted work obtained above must be passed through before reaching the point at which a a comparison is made as including:

1. a test for originality,

2. whether there has been a merger of the idea and the expression or the related scenes a faire doctrine applications and

3. Whether a public domain exception applies.

The doctrine of merger developed in Becker v. Selden is that "when there is essentially only one way way to express an idea, the idea and its expression are inseparable and copyright is no bar to copying that expression"

The scenes a faire doctrine excludes from copyright protection those elements that follow naturally from a works theme rather than the author's creativity. The doctrine was applied, for example in Computer Associates International Inc. V. Altai Inc. As part of the filtration stage to eliminate consideration of any features that were themselves adaptable of protection. In Computer Management Assistance Co. V. Robert F. De Castro Inc. It was pointed out that the doctrine could be used to filter out hardware standards and mechanical specifications, software standards and compatibility requirements, computer manufacturer design standards, target industry practices and demands and computer industry programming practices.


The final step in the test for substantive similarity is one of Comparison where that which has been found to be suspect of protection with the alleged infringement is compared. Although traditionally it has been said that for infringement a "fundamental" part of the work must be taken, the word "substantive" has often been construed in a qualitative rather than a quantitative sense. Once the Court has sifted out all elements of the allegedly infringed program, there remains a core of protected expression. In terms of a work's copyright value, this is the golden nugget.

The court did not indicate at which of these levels it felt the idea-expression boundary was being crossed. However, from the general tenor of the decisions as a whole there is an implication that the highest level at which expression might be found is in the organization and structure of hierarchy of modules.

The test has been subjected to challenges as well. In Lotus Development Corporation v. Borland International Inc., however, the First Circuit doubted its usefulness in cases where the issue was one of literal copying of a literal element of a program. As noted by the Eleventh Circuit, this is not surprising since the test was developed to deal with the problem of non-literal copying of non-literal elements where the court defined the literal elements of a computer program as its source code and object code only .


Substantial similarity in the works is a highly fact-intensive inquiry and varies from case to case. Trivial similarities between the alleged infringing and infringing work will not be sufficient to sentence copyright infringement nor two do the works need to be identical to each other for establishing the factum of substantive similarity. In the world of copyright litigation, how the various tests for substantiating similarity are formulated and applied by the Courts to determine infringement infringement a major impact on the outcome of the case. Much depends on if the judge or jury is asked to determine whether works before them are substantially similar or not as a whole or only with respect to protectable elements. Similarly, things may lead to much different results if the fact finder is instructed to determine whether the works are often identical rather than substantially similar.

Thus, a lot rests on the shoulders of the Courts to decide as to which test needs to be applied to which case, for most tests are "work" specific, so as to adjudicate the matter at hand at the best interests of the parties in The ends of justice.

Mass Communication And The Modern Society

It should be understood that communication is the bedrock of modern society and in fact, a most critical component of modernity and civilization. It refers to the process of transferring or transmitting a message to a large unidentified scattered group of people at the same time through a medium, which includes newspapers, television, and the Internet. With the advent of nationwide radio networks, newspapers, and magazines which were circulated among the masses, the term mass communication was coined in the 1920s to accommodate their use in communication, with its main objective of distributing information to a wide range of people. Mass Communication can also be an avenue of escape from the daily humdrum of our lives.

In academics, the term mass communications is mainly used to describe the study of the ways people and groups relay messages to a large audience. Because of the worldwide interest in the academic study of mass communications a number of leading educational institutions now offer majors in the subject. Today mass communications graduates can find jobs in the news media, advertising or public relations agencies, publishing houses and research institutes. In Nigeria today, people who major in mass communications see communication as an integral part of human interaction which manifests itself in symbols and verbal forms. Understanding mass communication helps us to understand ourselves, keep in touch with people, understand them and make us able to predict their responses to situations.

Through the process of communication, relationships are established, extended and maintained. Communication provides a means by which those in business, politics and other professions exchange information, develop plans, proposals and manage people and materials. Mass Communication however involves all transfer of message to a large unidentified, scattered people through the use of mass media at the same time. For the simple fact that information is power, it becomes difficult to ignore the role of information in our societies today. When information is allowed to flow freely, the society becomes vibrant and dynamic, thereby allowing civilization to take place.

Civilization is achieved when there is a high degree of information activities in terms of education, politics, technology, culture, etc in a society. Since the ultimate desire of every society is to be great, this lofty ambition of greatness can only be achieved when the people recognize the power of information. Concepts such as information and library science emerged as we know them today due to an effort of various societies to organize or manage the growing level of information. These concepts help to control information and keep it in an organized manner for easy retrieval and reviews.

However, Mass Communication has actually helped in the areas of career choices and knowledge of one’s environment. Since communication helps us to understand ourselves, keep in touch with other people, understand them and be able to predict their responses to situations, it becomes clear to us that society ignore its power to their own peril.

Wushu Chinese Self Defense Or Performance Martial Art?

Wushu is the official martial art taught in the People’s Republic of China. Wu Shu (“War Arts”) is practiced by millions in China, and is included as part of the training for all police and military personnel. Though it is a form of Kung Fu which has been taught in China for centuries it is a rigid system, and has no attachment to any of the mystical beliefs of the past. The government is more concern with physical aspects of the martial art and spiritual beliefs been replaced with propaganda, and political training which take up much of the student’s training time. When a student is not taking part in political training they will take part in group and partner exercises as well as weapons practice.

Contemporary Wushu was created in 1949 as part of the communist government’s attempt to create a national sport, and though the people were more than happy with the styles of martial arts they had already. All previous forms of Kung Fu were outlawed and even the Shaolin monks were greatly restricted. In recent years the government has tried to take the politics out of sports, but with limited success because of how repressive the government is in general. Still tournaments have been running since the early 1990’s, and the sport is practiced outside of China. The two Wushu forms that are practiced are Taulo and Sanda, but neither is suited for self defense.

The hand movements are called Ba Ji, tumbling moves are Di Tang, and Tung Bi is full arm movements. The animal katas are called Xing Yi. The weapon katas for Wushu includes a large number of different types of swords, the nine-section whip, three section staffs, spears, and other ancient Chinese weapons. The central Committee of National Physical Culture must accredited all students and teachers who must embody the ideals of communism. At first glance Wushu looks impressive with a large number of moves and a large selection of weapons in its arsenal to choose from in battle. The art would seem to be a good choice to study until closer examination. For all its flash this form of Kung Fu lacks substance and won’t stand up in real world conditions.

Taulo is considered to be a form of Kung Fu, but isn’t at all like any of the effective martial arts forms of the past and is like gymnastics. It is a point based systems where points are given out based on performances that can last from two to twenty minutes, and there is no contact. While traditional weapons like swords, butterfly knives, and staffs are used they’re light weight versions and they and the routines are useless in combat. The programs are broken up into barehanded, short weapons, and long weapons portions, but include jumps, flips and other impressive routines. This style of Kung Fu is completely useless when it comes to self defense, but is a good form of entertainment.

Sanshou or Sanda the Chinese combat sport based off of Chinese boxing, wrestling, and kickboxing. Originally, the military used it as a way to test martial arts, but it developed into a competition sport in the early part of the twentieth century. Sanda draws from Lei tai martial arts matches where competitors fought barehanded or with weapons on a high platform. Fights would continue until death, injury, or one of the competitors was thrown off the platform.

In Sanda today a competitor can still win a match by throwing their opponent out of the ring. Striking and grappling are allowed, and it is much more aggressive than Wushu which it is often paired with in tournaments in China. The military has their own version of Sanda, but the sport version restricts a number of moves including elbow strikes, chokes, and joint locks. When competing internationally Sanda practitioners have fought in many style-versus-style competitions against Muay Thai, Karate, and Tae Kwon Do fighters.

Unlike the Japanese art of Jujutsu which is pragmatic Wushu is more about looking good while you perform the art. A typical student will do many impressive leaps, back flips, and strikes, but while doing so leaving themselves open to attacks, because the art lacks any real defense. In dealing with an armed attacker a Wushu student will be unprepared unless they’re carrying a weapon themselves (it isn’t very practical to carry a Chinese broadsword or spear with you on your morning commute).

If a student of combatives and hand to hand self defense was to encounter a Wushu student the combatives student may take a few initial hits, but would quickly close with the Wushu student, and would throw or grapple them and take control of the fight. If the Wushu student was armed with any of their traditional weapons they would find themselves disarmed with their weapon in the hands of the fighter who used practical self defense techniques. In the end Wushu is a performance art, and at best a combat martial art that would only get you in trouble in a street fight. The art even has its critics among modern practitioners of Kung Fu who say the government has stripped all tradition and practically from the art.

This form of Kung Fu is a sport and shouldn’t be relied on for self defense. It should also be noted that Colonel Fairbairn who fought in 600 non-training fights during his time as a police officer in Shanghai China made an extensive study of many Chinese martial arts including Kung Fu didn’t incorporate them in his many books on fighting and self defense. Fairbairn would base his many books on his experiences, and what he learned at the Kodokan while earning his black belt in Judo. The lesson is winning the fight is more important then looking good and losing the fight.

Understanding the California Red Tag Law and How It Affects Auto Loans

Last year the government officials in California passed the “red tag law” which has had a significant affect on the used cars market that consumers can benefit from. For those who are familiar with the logistics of this new law I’ll explain it simply. In its basic understanding the California red tag law requires dealers to place a red sticker on any vehicle that has been salvaged, in a junk yard, or sustained any flood damage.

These vehicles also have to be registered into a federal database that is also open to the public. With this type of law in affect it helps make people who are looking to buy a pre-owned vehicle much more comfortable about acquiring a reliable automobile. There are also people who can get bad credit car loans with the California red tag law as they will be more confident that the vehicle will last throughout the duration of the loan.

Applying for Used Car Loans in California

Most people can still qualify for auto financing in California even with a poor credit score, but very few dealers would be up for the task as they had too much to lose. Before this law if a used car dealer allowed someone to buy and finance a vehicle that had flood damage, and it broke down after a month they would be out of an investment as most lemon laws don’t require you to continue making payments.

Now that dealers can provide more reliable vehicles it will be easier to qualify for bad credit used car loans, since more credit lenders will be more relaxed. It also helps that another part of this new California law allows dealerships to charge the same fees for leases and actual sold vehicles applications. Originally car lots would only charge $45 for leases and add another $10 if you were going to make a full purchase; however, bother prices have shot up to $80 which has made many dealers happy.

The only true downside of auto financing in California under the red tag law is that it has yet to be applied nationwide. It is rumored the United States government will be discussing this, but in order for it to actually go into affect they will need to get the dealerships on board as well. If they are able to accomplish this, we could see a lot more people feeling comfortable about buying used cars and applying for bad credit auto loans.

Analysis of Herbert J Gan’s "The Uses of Poverty"

In the article entitled “The Uses of Poverty: The Poor Pay All,” sociologist Herbert J. Gans discusses the strange alliance between the poor and the wealthy in American society. He states that the underprivileged in essence have kept several vocations in existence such as social work, criminology, and journalism. These vocations serve the double pretense of aiding the less fortunate and protecting society from these same individuals. He compares his analogy with that of Richard K. Merton, who applied the functional analysis theology to explain the prolonged existence of the political machine in urban areas.

Mr. Merton’s reasoning was that the political machine continued to exist because it served several positive functions in society. Mr. Gans applies this same logic to the existence of poverty in a society that had so much material wealth and concluded that poverty had 13 functions in society that was beneficial to non-poor members. They include: making sure that the menial work tasks of society will be taken care of, the creation of jobs that provide aid for the poor, and the existence of the poor keeps the aristocracy busy with charitable works, thus demonstrating charity to the less fortunate and superiority over the elites who chose to spend their free time making more money. He also give several alternatives to poverty such as redistribution of the wealth in society, putting everyone on a more even playing field, but ultimately concluded that poverty will continue to exist because disturbing the unequal balance between the poor and the wealthy in society would prove to be dysfunctional for the affluent and that will not happen.

In a hierarchical society such as in America, there will always be someone on the low end of the totem pole.

Make Dry Ice Blasting Your Small Business Opportunity

What is dry ice blasting? Dry ice blasting is a form of abrasive blasting industrial cleaning that uses a solid form of carbon dioxide known as dry ice. Pellets or ice is shot through pressurized air stream of either one hose or two hose machines.

Which System is Best? Most systems today are the single hose technology. Technology using the single hose was created by the Cold Jet company in 1986. One advantage of the single hose system is that it avoids the possible dangers of a pressurized hopper by the use of a quick cycle airlock. Another advantage of the single hose system is that it has more power and you can use a longer hose.

Making Massive Money! There are many ways to make money cleaning with Dry Ice. Many people prefer Dry Ice Blasting for paint removal, because it is less harsh than sand blasting. Another great business opportunity is to clean food processing equipment. Because it can decontaminate surfaces that could contain Salmonella and E. coli. Dry Ice can clean without residue so the Environmental Protection Agency prefers it to many kinds of solvent based cleaners. The Aerospace industry also uses Dry Ice Blasting to sensitive equipment like clean semiconductors. Manufacturers are also a great business opportunity because cleaning with cold can be used for maintaining their equipment and can drastically reduce their down time.

The Freeze Jet is just one of several different types of Dry Ice Blasting equipment. For around $ 3,000 you can usually purchase a Dry Ice Blasting machine.

What about Safety? How safe is this type of industrial cleaning? Cleaning with cold (normal pressure is -78C (-108 F) can be toxic if the concentration is over 1{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}.

Safety Equipment: Typical safety equipment will include a positive pressure blast hood or helmet. Air hoses are attached to a grade D pressurized air supply, which is mandated by Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). Also using ear plugs for hearing protection is part of the usual safety equipment. Body protection usually includes gloves and overalls as well as a leather coat and chaps.

What fees can I charge? How much money can I make in this Industrial Cleaning business? Total typical fees can range in the $ 300.00 per hour range, so it can be one of the more lucrative types of industrial cleaning.

The Benefits of Dry Ice Blasting: This type of industrial cleaning meets EPA, USDA, and FDA guidelines. Has less clean up of the waste material. Extends the life of the equipment. Cleans more thoroughly. Reduces or eliminates equipment damage. Provided a safer cleaning environment. Is Non-polluting and environmental friendly. Can destroy and eliminate bacterial and fungal growth.

How can I get started? You can get started with your small business by beginning with a business plan. A business plan is a formal statement of business goals, reasons that they are attainable, and plans for reaching them. It may also contain background information about the organization or team attempting to reach those goals. It should also contain a good marketing plan. Then apply for small business government grants or small business loans, so you can purchase equipment.

Having your own business can help you to end money worries. Having a business plan is essential to having a successful small business. Knowing how to market your small business for little or no money is an important key to your business success as well. Imagine how much more profit you can have when you do not have to budget much on advertising.

Get Colossal Cash from Government Contracts. Companies interested in selling their products and services to the federal government (the United States General Administration Administration) can prepare by fulfilling applicable requirements, and registering in the appropriate systems. Companies may also participate by seeking sub-contracting opportunities with current contract holders. The General Services Administration provides and contracts for Billions of dollars' worth of products and services for federal agencies.

In summary Dry Ice Blasting can be an extremely profitable business and helps with the environment as well.

How to Write Your KSA Answers to Get That Government Job

Today’s volatile economic environment and expected layoffs means that many people will be searching for a new job. For many of you, a U.S. government job can offer security, excellent benefits, and interesting work. But be aware: competition for these jobs is intense and you have to stand out from all the other applicants to get a placement – that is where the KSA becomes a key opportunity you can use to get that government job.

What is a KSA?

The U.S. Office of Personnel Management maintains a searchable database, called USAJOBS that lists government job openings. Once you have signed up on line, you will find that specific position openings often require completion of a detailed description of your Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities (KSA) in addition to your resume.

Each job that requires a KSA will have specific KSA questions for you to answer usually in about a page of written content. This is not an optional task. You must do it and you must do it well. Each KSA answer is scored by human resources personnel on a 0-20 scale that reflects how closely your knowledge, skills, and abilities match the complexity, impact, variety, circumstances, and interactions that characterize the job for which you are applying. KSAs are frequently the deciding factor in your evaluation for employment in the U.S. government. So, what are KSAs? According to the CDC’s Help Page on KSAs:

Knowledge statements refer to an organized body of information usually of a factual or procedural nature which, if applied, makes adequate performance on the job possible. A body of information applied directly to the performance of a function.

Skill statements refer to the proficient manual, verbal or mental manipulation of data or things. Skills can be readily measured by a performance test where quantity and quality of performance are tested, usually within an established time limit. Examples of proficient manipulation of things are skill in typing or skill in operating a vehicle. Examples of proficient manipulation of data are skill in computation using decimals; skill in editing for transposed numbers, etc.

Ability statements refer to the power to perform an observable activity at the present time. This means that abilities have been evidenced through activities or behaviors that are similar to those required on the job, e.g., ability to plan and organize work. Abilities are different from aptitudes. Aptitudes are only the potential for performing the activity.

How should you answer KSA questions to improve your chances of getting a government job?

The most effective answers to the KSA questions reflect your understanding of the job requirements based on detailed analysis of the job description and typical tasking. You should pay careful attention to the key words used in the job description and use those words in describing your knowledge, skills and abilities.

In general, knowledge is more abstract than skills and therefore can be generalized over many different tasks and responsibilities. Knowledge comes from academic and life experiences including, but not limited to, education and employment. Any knowledge that you possess that is pertinent to the job you are seeking is something you should include in your the KSA response.

It is a good idea to brainstorm by yourself and with others, what “knowledge” you should claim because you can demonstrate it via your written answers. For example let’s say the position requires “being able to organize a project”. Although your work experience did not provide the opportunity to manage a project, your experience running the PTA’s funding raising for a year, although an unpaid activity, could legitimately be claimed as “experience managing a project”. It is up to you to describe the knowledge you acquired in a way that translates to the job for which you are applying.

Think of skills as capabilities that can be tested i.e., understanding how a spreadsheet program can help manage a budget is knowledge; being able to create an Excel spreadsheet to track expenses is a skill. Extract skill requirements from the job posting and offer evidence that you possess those skills. For example, the position of Pharmacy Assistant requires knowledge demonstrated by certified training and skills acquired from previous experience handing drugs and working with customers.

How to write an effective KSA response

In responding to KSA questions, you are making assertions about your knowledge, skills, and abilities. You must then backup those assertions with believable evidence. You need to develop your KSA responses with an eye on two key variables: relevance of content and quality of presentation. The National Forest Service provides an excellent tutorial on do’s and don’ts of writing effective KSA responses.

Describe your knowledge, skills, and abilities in terms that tie directly to the job using keywords that you extract from the job posting. Then “prove” by specific examples what you can do because of what you did in the past and the context in which you did it. Put your compliance with key job requirements at the beginning of the appropriate KSA answer or the beginning of a paragraph. For example: If the job requires a degree in accounting, the first place you can say clearly, “I completed my accounting degree at XYZ University” do it; then continue to describe your experience in accounting tasks.

Numbers can be your friend when it comes to providing proof to your reviewers. Instead of saying, “I wrote reports” consider saying, “I prepared monthly reports on six field trials with a lead time of two days”.

Knowledge and skills can also be demonstrated by using an overview of your previous responsibilities with examples of specific tasks, by describing training or certifications you received, and by citing awards or recognition for accomplishments. Reviewers like to see action words in your KSA answers and that requires that you write in an active versus a passive voice. You should say: “I analyzed data …” not “Data was analyzed”. You can find a great list of action verbs at Job Skills – Power verbs.

In conclusion your KSA answers must:

  • Be concise
  • Be relevant
  • Be specific
  • Have quantitative examples
  • Make it easy for reviewers to find your compliance with key job requirements
  • Be action and accomplishment oriented
  • Be well written with NO TYPOs and good sentence construction. It is a good idea to have someone else look over your answers before you send them because it is sometimes difficult to see your own mistakes.

Remember, KSA answers separate those who are qualified for a job from those who are most qualified.

Classification of Values

Education is a social process; Education is growth;

Education is not preparation for life; Education is life itself. — John Dewey

The prosperity of a country depends not on the abundance of its revenues, not on the strength of its fortifications, not on the beauty of its public buildings; but it consists in the number of its cultivated citizens, in its men of education, enlightenment and character. —martin Luther.

If wealth is lost nothing is lost.

If health is lost something is lost.

If character is lost everything is lost. —M.K. Gandhi (Father of Indian Nation)

Value is a conception, explicit, distinctive of an individual or characteristic of a group of the desirable which influences the selection from available, means and ends of action.

Values are the desirable ends, goals or modes of action which makes human behaviour selective. Value not only orients but also determines human behaviour.

Classification of Values:

It is necessary to know types of values. It is necessary to improve values in the children.

1. Gail M. Inlaw Classification

* Traditional and cultural values

* Economic values

* Political values

* Values in science and technology

* Philosophical values

* Values of the new left

* Values of the back community

2. Spranger’s Classification:

* Theoretical values

* Economic values

* Aesthetic values

* Social values

* Political values

* Religious values

3. Ploto’s Classification:

* Truth

* Beauty

* Goodness

4. Parker’s Classification of Values:

* Biological values

* Economic values

* Affective values

* Social values

* Intellectual values

* Aesthetic values

* Moral values

* Religious value

5. Gandhi’s Classification:

* Truth

* Non-violence

* Freedom

* Democracy

* Equality

* Self-realization

* Purity of ends and means

* Self-discipline

6. B.R. Goel Classification: ( Documents on Social, Moral and Spiritual Values)

1. Abstinence

2. Anti-touch ability

3. Consideration for others

4. Co-operation

5. Compassion

6. Common good

7. Courtesy

8. Democratic decision making

9. Dignity of the individual

10. Duty

11. Endurance

12. Friendship

13. Fellow-feeling

14. Forward look

15. Gentlemanliness

16. Honesty

17. Appreciation

18. Citizenship

19. Concern for others

20. Cleanliness

21. Common cause

22. Courage

23. Curiosity

24. Devotion

25. Dignity of manual work

26. Discipline

27. Quality

28. Faithfulness

29. Freedom

30. Good manner

31. Gratitude

32. Helpfulness

33. Humanism

34. Initiative

35. Justice

36. Kindness to animals

37. Leadership

38. National consciousness

39. National integration

40. Peace

41. Punctuality

42. Purity

43. Resourcefulness

44. Respect for others

45. Sincerity

46. Social justice

47. Self-help

48. Self-confidence

49. Self-study

50. Self-control

51. Social service

52. Sense of discrimination between good and bad

53. Socialism

54. Secularism and respect for all religions

55. Team work

56. Truthfulness

57. Universal truth

58. Value for national and civic property

59. Hygienic living

60. Integrity

61. Kindness

62. Loyalty to duty

63. National unity

64. Non- violence

65. Obedience

66. Proper utilization of time

67. Patriotism

68. Quest for knowledge

69. Regularity

70. Reverence for old age

71. Simple living

72. Self-discipline

73. Self- respect

74. Self-support

75. Self- reliance

76. Self-restraint

77. Solidarity of mankind

78. Sense of social responsibility

79. Sympathy

80. Spirit of enquiry

81. Team spirit

82. Tolerance

83. Universal love

7. In generally, values may be classified as personal, social moral, spiritual and behavioural values.