The Media and Social Problems

The mass media plays a large role in modern society. Indeed, many have argued that people spend more time watching television than in actual human interaction. The film industry is a billion dollar a year enterprise and most individuals tune in daily to their favorite radio station. With all this power, one would think that the mass media would be in an excellent position to initiate social change, positively affect social problems, and help combat social ills that are considered deviant. However, the mass media has largely failed in addressing social problems and if anything, has contributed to the problems that exist in this society. As seen through its presentation of the three major variables of race, class, and gender, the mass media has actually contributed to the social problems it covers, reinforcing them and the various stereotypes that exist, creating a vicious cycle in which these problems continue.

Television has become perhaps the primary vehicle that society receives its information and presents its values and expectations. One of the most important roles television plays is its presentation of news and information. What a station chooses to present as newsworthy can play a strong role in how people view their society and the world around them. Often, television news sources have a tendency to only broadcast negative images of minorities. On a nightly basis, individuals are bombarded with stories of minorities engaging in robberies, murders, and rapes, as if minorities are the only ones who monopolize these types of crimes. Very rare are the stories of the inner-city minority male youth who is a scholar or the young mother, who in spite of the odds stacked up against her, graduates from college. In this way, the television media plays a strong role in formulating racial problems. With the constant display of these negative images, two problems quickly emerge.

First, these minority groups become subject to stereotypes as the images presented become fixed mental images and are exaggerated and applied to the group as a whole. Whites, who are the dominant culture, watching the news, learn that minority groups are less intelligent, more violent, and generally less human. Additionally, the minority groups themselves can develop reactions that are turned inward and create a sense of hopelessness, despair, and self‑doubt that can lead into even more sociological problems in the form of alcoholism, drug abuse, aggression, and crime. Thus, the images presented by television news help contribute to this vicious, self‑reinforcing, cycle and offers little, if any solutions for the problem of racism.

Closely linked to race becomes issues of class. Since the lifestyles of poor, inner-city minorities are portrayed and viewed negatively; a flight of capital and economic activity develops in conjunction with the stereotypes. Those with capital avoid neighborhoods seen as violent or dangerous, and money is not spent or invested in these communities. Once this happens, minorities become trapped in an economic isolation that is devastating. Jobs quickly disappear, and welfare reforms are doomed to failure without hope of potential employment. Once the welfare system fails, the United States will further divide into two societies: one multiracial and reasonably prosperous; the other, disadvantaged and often dark skinned, living in semi‑permanent poverty. As inner‑city minority neighborhoods become increasingly poor, there will be more sensational, negative stories of minorities while at the same time, ignoring other methods to present the problems of the inner‑city and offer feasible solutions.

In regards to gender, although the television news media has been much more successful in promoting gender equality, as a whole, the mass media does not provide a balanced picture of the diversity of women’s lives and their contributions to society. The advertisement industry, which is a billion dollar a year enterprise, often emphasizes sexuality and the importance of physical attractiveness in an attempt to sell products, and this places undue pressure on women to focus on their appearance. These same advertisers use television as its main tool to send information to the public. Because of this obvious bias in advertisement, diseases such as bulimia and anorexia afflict millions of women and young girls, who are often made to feel insecure because of the constant stream of images of picture perfect women.

Mainstream television programming that reinforces women’s traditional roles is equally limiting to women in society. On a regular basis, rap music videos featuring nearly naked minority women, whose only role is to serve men, are seen by millions of people, reinforcing the myth that minority women are nothing more than sexual creatures that are “down” with whatever. These images do not help the rampant amount of sexism that exists in this society and creates an even wider chasm in the relationship between men and women, particularly amongst minorities. Also, according to an Associated Press release published in the Chicago Sun-Times, the three major television networks had fewer stories covered by minorities in 2004. This disturbing trend has occurred for the last three presidential election years in which minority journalists have reported only ten percent of the nightly newscast featured on ABC, CBS and NBC.

According to Robert Lichter, director of the Center for Media and Public Affairs, networks turn to familiar faces when it comes to covering presidential campaigns and for minority correspondents, familiar is a synonym for white.

Print media is another important vehicle in which social problems are developed. As in television media, there can be a large discrepancy in the types of coverage paid to issues of race, class, and gender. Newspapers, when formulating their reports and coverage, have a tendency to focus heavily on the problems of gangs in inner‑city minority neighborhoods. As a result, the print media has created an environment of great concern about gangs and gang crime in the inner‑city. The gang problem becomes a constructed image with great power in public discourse. The fight against gangs can be used to initiate social control even in areas where gangs are not a significant issue. Ironically, conformist juveniles are those most often affected by such control strategies, which take the form of curfews, dress codes, and rules of participation. Thus, the symbolic power of the gang metaphor lies in its successful application in settings where the gangs are relatively unimportant or inconsequential.

Whether it is used to justify or forbid a particular style of dress, defend skateboarding, or enhance a politician=s prospects on election day, the gang metaphor is a powerful tool for conjuring up an image that can be exploited by a host of social actors in the quest for power and the negotiation of social influence. Thus, print media can actually construct a social problem and portray it is more prevalent then reality would actually suggest. Print media also has great influence in class issues. By selecting ways in which to present a story on a labor strike, the print media can help influence the success of one class over another, and how these classes are perceived. Additionally, as described previously in relation to television news media, and linked to the issue of race is that media can further the economic difficulty of urban areas based on their coverage. Finally, print media can also reinforce and influence negative gender patterns and constructions through their coverage.

The mass media is important in examining social problems, both how they are born and how they persist. The media, through the selection of its coverage and the issues it chooses to present, is extremely powerful force in this society. Race, gender, and class are closely related as stereotypes perpetuated by the mass media about any of these three factors often leads directly to social problems in the other factors as well. The three are also closely linked in helping to explain why media operates in the ways that it does. The media may present information in the manner it does in order to perpetuate the social institutions and behaviors that have been functional for its existence up the present time.

Additionally, the media can also be seen as operating in the manner it does because the system helps to keep rich, white, males whom are the primary owners and distributors of mass media in a position of power. Although social problems have existed since the beginning of time, the media must be made more open to different perspectives and viewpoints in order to help eliminate many of the stereotypes that exist currently. Modern society must strive to make all of its media outlets a powerful tool in which the powerful voices of the oppressed can emerge to challenge different viewpoints on society.

When this occurs, this society will move closer to curing ills among the social variables that the current mass media in large part contributes to. The mass media has acted to perpetuate the social problems it covers. The mass media must be considered to be a large part of the problem in areas of race, class, and gender. In order to combat this situation, the mass media must formulate a new plan that makes itself more open to different perspectives and that will also challenge traditional models of race and class and gender.

The Treaty of Westphalia: Description, Analysis and Prescription

Peace of Westphalia, treaty, signed October 24, 1648, closed the Thirty-Years War and readjusted the religious and political affairs of Europe. It is called like that because the negotiations, which began in 1644, took place in the German cities of Münster and Osnabrück, in Westphalia. The main participants were France and Sweden and their opponents Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. By the terms of the treaty, the sovereignty and independence of each state of the Holy Roman Empire was fully recognized, making the Holy Roman emperor virtually powerless.

By the early 1640s, after witnessing so much abuse by the Hapsburg Emperor’s feudal authority against the peoples of the small and war-devastated German states; and realizing that the horrors of the Thirty Years’ War were leading toward the destruction of civilization, Cardinal Jules de Mazarin acted to shift the attention of Europe away from religious conflicts. He sought to base a peace on the economic recovery and political sovereignty of the German Electorates and States, to move them towards freedom from the tyranny of the Emperor.

According to the treaty both sides must forget whatever happened to them and each side must avoid any act of hostility towards the other side as taking revenge. Neither this side nor the other must help the other’s enemies. Both sides must try to reconstruct and reestablish the damages remained since the war.

Before the Treaty of Westphalia, according to the treaty of Augsburg (1555), the religion of each German state was to be determined by the religion of its prince-Roman Catholic, Lutheran, or Calvinist. If a prince changed his religion he would forfeit his lands; this provision was included as a method of checking the spread of the Reformation. The Peace of Westphalia marked the close of the period of religious wars. Thereafter, European armed struggles were waged principally for political ends.

After the Thirty-Years War which was on the independence of lands ruled by the Holy Roman Empire and on religions, each of the German states of the Holy Roman Empire became independent enough not to be obliged to obey the Empire on peace and war. In terms of religion they could have the religion they wanted to have and have private or public churches and even the Calvin followers were respected.

Despite the many results and consequences that the treaty had, I think the most important and influential result of the Treaty of Westphalia was fully recognition of the independence and territorial sovereignty of each of the states. That is since the Treaty of Westphalia, territory is the most significant and the determining factor of a state. Since then, a state is not recognized by its people or by its legitimacy or authority, but it is recognized by its territory. Territory of a state became valuable and borders got sacred.

Although Germany was not recognized as an independent state and it was a collection of many states, and despite the fact that the treaty resulted in Germany’s weakness, it had an advantage for Germany in terms of economic, commerce and trade. That is, because of the expensive tolls by the Venetians, the Dutch and the English on the Rhine River, German people could not trade and commerce. But, after the treaty of Westphalia and recognition of the states as independent it was an advantage for them. Thus, Mazarin began to play an entirely new and unique role inside the Empire by increasing German freedom in trade and commerce along the main waterways of the Empire.

So as I represent Germany, I could say that economically speaking the treaty was good for Germany and German people, while it resulted in Germany’s weakness politically and broke it down into many independent states.

When we delve into the treaties and agreements through the history, we notice that the only thing that has not into account is the rights of nations and the only important and significant thing has been what the rulers, kings, emperors and now the states have wanted. I think the Treaty of Westphalia is a practical example of this, when the importance of nations and people is put aside and the importance of territories and then borders are taken into account. While, the rulers, kings, emperors and the states must get their legitimacy from the people and then using that legitimacy start to have authority over them. Then I could conclude that the territory and borders became important so that the rulers, king, emperors and the states could govern the people easier.

President Ronald Reagan’s Keys to Public Speaking Success

Former President Ronald Reagan, our 40th President said: “America is too great for small dreams.” Reagan’s optimism can be found in his numerous speeches delivered across America while serving as president. During his tenure in the White House he faced many challenges, obstacles and adversity with great courage. As a student of rhetoric I found the delivery and content of Reagan’s speeches to be dynamic, upbeat, positive and hopeful. We can learn how to be more effective speakers and communicators by reviewing three key qualities in President Reagan’s public speaking style:

First, Reagan captivated his audiences by using a strong voice and vocal variety. Reagan’s developed his abilities as a strong speaker in his early years as a radio and sports broadcaster. Years later, he refined his delivery skills as a professional actor in Hollywood. Reagan recognized that a speech includes more than content. To be effective, speakers need strong delivery skills. Delivery is the oral and physical presentation of your speech. Effective delivery involves present your message with a sense of communication. It is possible to research, organize and write a powerful speech, yet the speech can be rendered ineffective by a poor delivery. Reagan had a strong, deep, enthusiastic voice. He utilized the concept of vocal variety. Vocal variety involves the pitch (highness or lowness) and tone (serious, humorous, happy) of your voice. Many of us can remember Reagan’s speech at the Berlin Wall in 1987 where Reagan raised his voice in his request to the leader of the Soviet Union, Mikhail Gorbachev to “Tear down this wall.” Reagan also presented his speeches using a comfortable rate of speaking. He utilized pauses to effectively highlight major ideas. Successful speakers recognized that vocal variety is more attention-getting and appealing to an audience.

Second, Reagan optimized the use of nonverbal. He was known for looking directly into the camera during televised speeches from the oval office. Eye contact is critical to effective speech delivery. Some speakers spend too much time looking down at their manuscript. This approach shows a lack of preparation and self- confidence. The tone of your remarks should be reflected in your face. Reagan’s historic speech following the Challenger Disaster in 1986 is an example of using your face to establish the tone of your speech. Reagan’s facial reactions during the Challenger Disaster speech reflected a genuine tone of sadness and tragedy, mixed with hope for the future. Posture is also very important for a speaker. Reagan was known for standing straight up during speeches. His posture during a speech reflected his confidence as a leader of the free world.

Third, Reagan utilized an audience centered approach to speaking. He was familiar with each audience and his speeches were customized to each audience he addressed. Speechwriters for Reagan participated in audience analysis. Audience analysis is a term which means that the speaker will take care to understand the interests, values, beliefs, and attitudes of the audience to ensure greater success with the speech. Not only must the speaker be interested in the topic but the listeners must also, or they will not be attentive during the presentation. Reagan had a positive view of America and felt that optimism, dreams and a hopeful future were values held by his audience. In President Reagan’s 1984 State of the Union, he shared an optimistic vision of America: “The heart of America is strong; it’s good and true. The cynics were wrong; America never was a sick society. We’re seeing re-dedication to bedrock values of faith, family, work, neighborhood, peace, and freedom — values that help bring us together as one people, from the youngest child to the most senior citizen.” It is interesting to note that by taking the time to understand the audience, a speaker comes to the speech event fully prepared to discuss issues in a manner likely to bring the audience members closer to the speaker’s position. Remember that public speaking is an audience-centered activity, earning that the speaker’s purpose is to inform and influence the greatest number of listeners.

Reagan deserved the title of “the Great Communicator.” In his speeches, Reagan motivated countless Americans by his optimistic and hopeful view of America. Speakers can improve their own speaking style by paying close attention to delivery, nonverbal and speech content.

Write Love Letters Using the Law of Attraction

I recently searched the Internet to find out what people were saying about how to write love letters. I found a ton of ebooks advertised. Many of the ads talked about writing love letters to make the man or woman of your dreams fall head over heels in love with you.

One website wants nearly a hundred bucks to show you how to do this. Yeah, right. Where did I put my wallet?

My whole philosophy about how I write love letters is so different. I think of love notes as spreading love around. I don’t do it to seduce someone. I don’t scheme, plot, connive. I just beam love like sunlight and don’t live in fear of what the response will be.

Rather than thinking of writing love letters to make someone fall in love with me, I think of the process as sending out a reflection of who I am on the inside. I write from the heart and I show them my soul. I don’t play aloof or hard to get. I don’t worry about appearing too eager or too easy.

I be who I am and I figure that sooner or later the right someone is going to resonate with me. My words will have impact not because I have skillfully manipulated somebody’s emotions but because I have written what I stand for and that person likes it.

Have you seen or read The Secret? It’s about the law of attraction and how it works. Of course, the law of attraction has been around for centuries and great teachers of motivational thinking and positive psychology have been teaching it all along.

The law of attraction essentially says that you create your reality by how you think. If you constantly think good stuff, you’ll attract good stuff to you. If you constantly think about doom and gloom, that’s the consciousness and experiences you’ll attract to you.

So here’s the deal: If I geared a mate search or ran a relationship with a mentality of I have to manipulate someone to love me, that’s what I am going to get back. The whole relationship will be a fraud. The person I would want to love me wouldn’t really love me; she would love a cardboard fantasy image of me. Chances are that she would be using similar tactics in an attempt to manipulate me!

I recommend using the law of attraction in a positive way. If you don’t have a relationship, use it to attract one. If you do have a relationship, use it to energize the bond you have created.

What does this mean in practical terms? Think about what you want to happen in your love life. Think about what you want to create. Then write about it with all your heart.

Avoid thinking about what you don’t want or don’t have. Since you create your own reality through your thoughts, beliefs, and expectations, focusing on bad stuff just attracts bad stuff to you.

Common sense says that by focusing on the positive, you’re just plain going to have a happier brain. Regular consistent love letter writing keeps the creative juices flowing, not just on paper but in real life. This ritual deliberately focuses your attention on what you love, and through the law of attraction creates more of the same, more of that good stuff.

If you’ve been in love before, you probably experienced how exhilarating it is. And why is that? Because when you’re falling in love you’re much more focused on how good life is and how great love is.

People who came together through emails and love letters often stop writing when they get together, and often, sure enough, they start focusing on what’s wrong with the relationship or what they suddenly decide is missing. And what happens then? They attract a brain full of yuck.

So when you sit down to write love letters, my advice is to think about your motives and intentions. Write with a pure heart. As you generate thoughts, remember the Golden Rule. Besides being an iconic saying, it’s also the law of attraction in action. Think and do as you would like done about and to you.

While many love letters are sweet and uplifting, some people’s passion swerves into the darkness of revenge, deception, or punishment. Go there at your own risk. Every minute that you stew in dark spaces is a minute you aren’t attracting good stuff to you.

I write love letters because I like spreading love around. It feels good to think of delicious things to write. It helps me focus on what specifically would make me very happy, and many of these things I know my partner will want, too.

I should point out that this is not just about romantic love. It can also be the love of friends (writing good friend letters) or spiritual buddies. I can be about family, too.

Love letters flow from my brain much more fluidly when I am coming from the heart, not censoring my thoughts or scheming to write what I think someone wants to read. I think of my love letters as truth letters because I am writing freely and speaking my reality.

Diploma Courses That One Can Pursue After BDS (Dental Degree)

A common question that has grown in students studying dentistry is “What should I pursue after BDS which is merely a dental degree?” This question unites all the students concerned and the final product that comes out of this question is “confusion”.

The students face problems because “BDS as a course doesn’t help them get into MNC placements.” A simple BDS degree doesn’t let a student get that necessary clinical exposure.

But for those who have not been able to gain a seat in the MDS citing multiple reasons need not worry, they can opt for diplomas and dental clinical courses. Diploma courses after BDS are of two types i.e. private and government diplomas. The basic differences between government and private diplomas are affordability (government diplomas are cheap) and Dental Council of India (DCI) approval (only government diplomas have it).

Here are a few diplomas and courses a BDS graduate can apply for:

Private Diploma Courses

There are way too many private diploma courses. In fact, many seasoned dentists are running private diploma courses with big profit margins. The course fee varies differently for different courses. Those looking for clinical experience should opt for this.

Government Diploma Courses

DCI has approved many state dental-councils to run approved dental diploma courses in lasers, endodontics and orthodontics.

In Delhi, IGNOU offers Post-Graduate Certificate in Oral Implantlogy (PGCOI) which has a course duration of 1-3 years at an estimated fees of 1, 56,000 INR.

Rajiv Gandhi University of Health Sciences (RGUHS) 2-year PG diploma

RGUHS, Bangalore offers a 2-year diploma course in dentistry. The candidate is eligible if he/she has a BDS degree or an equivalent degree from a University recognized by DCI.

The course is divided into 4 semesters in which the first two semesters deal with Preclinical Work and Applied Basic Sciences and the next two semesters deal with Clinical work.

Candidates looking for experience and degree can opt for this course.

Dental Clinical Courses

One can also opt for various Dental Clinical Courses in Delhi. These courses have multiple specialties like oral surgery, dental implants, periodontics, and prosthodontics. These courses can help you achieve specialty which is a major trend in the medical industry.

Other Courses

A wide range of opportunities lie in the dental departments in hospitals, dental clinics and nursing homes. Apart from this, the Forensic department needs dentists for identification of deceased through bite mark analysis, dental remains etc.

You can also choose to work as a Dental Hygienist or as Dental assistants to models and film artists.

Hence, there is absolutely no need to dishearten yourself post your BDS studies. You can choose your study mode from the above mentioned options. And while pursuing a diploma course you can research for further opportunities in the field and assess your options.

Three Famous Canadians Working Abroad

With high educational standards and excellent technical training programs, Canada is a popular source of skilled workers throughout the world. Almost anywhere you go, you’ll find Canadians working abroad in a variety of fields, from engineering and medical professionals to actors, artists, and musicians. In fact, it was estimated in 2014 that the total number of Canadians working abroad (or studying) amounted to nearly 3 million people. With so many citizens finding employment overseas, it’s not hard to find stories of people achieving amazing success. Here are three standouts of individuals who made a name for themselves working outside of Canada.

Mark Henry Roswell

Mark Henry Roswell is one of the most popular television personalities from Canada. This may seem odd since very few in the western world have heard of him. In China, however, where Mr. Roswell goes by the name Dashan (meaning ‘big mountain’) he is an actor, comedian, game show host, and television personality of considerable fame. Dashan studied Mandarin at the University of Toronto and, upon graduating, received a full scholarship to the University of Peking to continue his language studies. His ability to speak Mandarin with fluency and a native speaker’s diction led to him hosting an international singing competition on Chinese television in the late 1980s. Since then, he has become a star in China, appearing in numerous films and TV shows.

Andrew Bonar Law

The story of Andrew Bonar Law takes us back to the early 20th century when the New Brunswick-born Law rose to the apex of political power, not in Canada, but in the seat of colonial power: London. As a teenager, Law moved to Scotland to live with relatives. He left school at a young age to work in the iron industry where he rose through the ranks and became a wealthy man by his late 20s. He entered politics in 1900 and eventually became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, the only one in history to have been born outside the British Isles. Sadly, his time at the top was short lived as poor health forced him to retire after only 211 days in office. He resigned in May of 1923 and succumbed to his illness later that year.

Jim Carrey

The last on our list of Canadians working abroad is a name everyone will recognize. James Eugene Carrey was born in Newmarket, Ontario, in 1962. By his teens, his father was driving him to Toronto where the youngster was making a name for himself performing in comedy clubs. At one of these shows, he was discovered by legendary comedian Rodney Dangerfield who signed Carrey on as his opening act for a stint in Vegas. From there, it was on to Hollywood where he was a cast member of “In Living Color” before starring in “Ace Ventura: Pet Detective.” He’s starred in a long string of blockbuster comedies ever since.

Canadians working abroad have found great success in the countries in which they live and work. For a country with a relatively small population, its people have made a considerable impact on the rest of the world.

Don’t Mistake Crowdfunding As a New Way to Run a Socialist Economy

As a think tank coordinator, myself and our group come up with endless potential business start-up ideas, technologies, service company entrepreneurial exploits and new business models. In the last few years, I’ve noted increasing numbers of entrepreneurs favoring crowdfunding as a better source for start-up capital. Many of these entrepreneurs are fresh out of college with visions of saving the world, and their minds are often filled with socialist fallacies. They tell me that crowdfunding is like socialism in action – completely beautiful and natural democracy in action.

Wait one minute I think; “No crowdfunding isn’t socialism in action, it is capitalism in action – “free market capitalism” in its purest form.”

People voting with their own dollars investing in a business they believe in to achieve later gains by perhaps getting lucky and getting in on the new floor of something wonderful and great – the potential opportunity of a life-time to invest in the start-up before everyone notices. It is this desire, dream, and opportunity which drives it. This is free market capitalism, and any gains made in such an investment – well, the credit shouldn’t go to socialism or used by socialists to proclaim that “socialism works” because in reality it doesn’t work – but again, crowdfunding isn’t socialism anyway.

Socialism would be everyone pooling their money and the government collecting it and then deciding where to put it for everyone’s best interest, then keeping the benefits of that investment to re-invest as the government sees fit. Even in a socialist democracy – it wouldn’t be the individual’s choice, as it is in crowdfunding as to where the money would go, but rather the flickering, fuzzy, and finicky mood of the mindless masses – the suggestion of all those who vote going to the government to consider.

In this scenario – the predetermined items on the ballot created by some committee, usually a groupthink committee with individual members with specific agendas – then the government would take their so-called mandate and start picking winners or losers in the market place based on those agendas on your behalf, actually societies behalf, based on their choices.

To suggest that crowdfunding is like socialism just shows you how brainwashed our academic institutions are on our next generation of entrepreneurs, worse for socialists to suggest that crowdfunding is the culmination of their economic philosophies to counter what they call “evil capitalism” is utterly preposterous.

Further, if one is wondering why capitalism appears to have gone astray as of late – it’s simple, socialists in the government political leadership base have created an incestuous relationship with bankers, industry and capitalists to circumvent the flow of money, capital and control labor and production to serve their will.

That hardly sounds to me like this group of folks with such corrupt thinking on their organizational philosophy of society should be credited with the potential of crowdfunding – but, hey maybe they want to control that too, but if they do, it too will be corrupted, thus, ruined in over regulation – yet, who will they blame then? Please consider all this and think on it.

Disclaimer: I am a free market capitalist and base my findings on nearly 40 years of observation as an entrepreneur.

Understanding the Law of Scarcity

Sales trainers and speakers reference the law of scarcity as one of the fundamental laws of persuasion. The law of scarcity is simply that when someone perceives something that they desire to be in limited quantity, the perceived value of that thing or person becomes much greater than if were widely available. The law of scarcity applies to both salesmanship and in relationships and courtship.

Sales Example

You turn on the television and see a commercial for some new overly-hyped kitchen gadget. The commercial voice reminds you that "… supplies are limited" and that "… this offer will not last." This commercial is employing the use of the law of scarcity to increase the perceived value of that item. Believe it or not, it works for them.

Relationship Example

Jack and Jill have been boyfriend and girlfriend for about two years now and the relationship is getting boring. The couple both attend a party one night. Jack notices that Jill is paying attention to some other guys at the party, rather than with him. The value that Jack has placed on Jill now has increased dramatically because he fears that she might leave him for another guy.

Practical Applications

1. Sometimes people make themselves overly available to someone they are referred to by showing them with affection, but this over availability sometimes causes the opposite reaction to occur – the person actually places a lower value on the person because it is in abundance. If the other person believes that you are highly desired by others, hence, you're demand outweighs your supply, then your value will go up.

2. Increasing the price or decreasing the availability of a product or service will increase the perceived value of that product or service in the eyes of others.

3. If you want to persuade someone to commit to an appointment, then try to increase the perceived value on your own time. Instead of saying that you have the entire day free, which creates a state of abundance, instead say you are busy and have only such-and-such time free. This increases the perceived value of your own time and makes the other person take scheduling an appointment with you more seriously.

Equity Follows the Law


Equity has no clash with law neither it overrides the provisions of law. Nor it is the enemy of law. It adopts and follows the basic rules of law. It is said that equity is not a body of jurisprudence acting contrary to law but is rather a supplement to law. It is a well known rule that equity follos the analogies of law. The equity came not to destroy the law but to fulfit it, to supplement it, to explain it. Equity respect every word of law.


Equity is intended to supplement the law and not to supersede it.

Case law

Cowper vs. Cowper 1734, 2P WNS 720

The discretion of the court is to be governed by the rules of law and equity which are not oppose but each in tur to be subservient to other, this discretion in some cases follows the law implicity, in other assists it and advances the remedy; in other against it relieves against the abuse or allays the rigour of it but in no case does it contradict or overturn the grounds of principle thereof.


It has application in the following two aspects.

1. As to legal estates, rights and interest:

As regards legal estates, right and interests, equity was and is strictly bound by the rules of law and it has no discretion to deviate there from. Equity does not allow an unfair use to be made of legal rights so equity follows in regard to the rule of primogeniture.

Case Law

Strickland vs. Aldrige 1804

It was held exclusion of the younger member of a family from property according to the rule of primogeniture does not create any particular circumstances entitling to a relief at equiry, because the eldest son gets only what he is entitled to get in law.

2. As to Equitable rights and interest:

In many cases, equity acts by analogy to the rules of law in relation to equitable titles and estates. Equitable estates are guided by the rules of decent as legal estate.

Important aspects of maxim:

Following are the two important aspects of this maxim.

Equity adopts and following the rules of law in all cases where applicable.

Equity follows the analogy of law


Following are exceptions

i. Where a rule of law did not specifically apply.

ii. Where even by analogy the rule of law did not apply, equity formulated and applied it, own rules.

Ending Remarks:

To conclude it can be said that equity always follows the law in the sense of obeying it and conforming to its general rules and policy, whether contained in common law or statue law. The rules of equity can not override the specific provisions of law.

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