Wisconsin Contract Law – What Makes a Legally Binding Contract?

As a business owner, you probably enter into contractual relationships every day. Many of you deal with written contracts on a fairly regular basis. However, do you understand the basic concepts of contract law and what makes a legally binding contract? Do you know what to look for when reviewing contracts prepared by the other party, or your own attorney that make it a legally binding contract?

Under Wisconsin contract law, legally binding contracts, whether oral or written, require three basic components: offer, acceptance, and consideration. An “offer” requires that one party offers to provide something of value to another party, which is then “accepted” by that other party. “Consideration” is what the two parties are obligated to exchange with each other as part of the contract. Consideration must be something of value, and the consideration must be mutual, i.e. both sides must provide something of value under the contract. For example, an agreement whereby a party agrees to pay you $1,000.00, without receiving anything in exchange, is by definition not a contract.

Typically, consideration takes the form of money paid in exchange for the provision of goods or services. This holds true for multi-million dollar transactions between international conglomerates, and when you take your car in for repairs by a mechanic. One corporation agrees to pay millions of dollars for another corporation to develop specific software or some other product, and you pay your mechanic to replace your spark plugs. In either case, there is an offer, acceptance, and consideration, and therefore an enforceable and legally binding contract. Keep in mind, however, that legally binding contracts may require consideration other than money, for example when two parties agree to exchange parcels of real estate.

Under Wisconsin contract law, all contracts also come with an implied duty of “good faith and fair dealing” on the part of both parties to the contract. While this is admittedly a rather broad phrase, in essence it means that, once an agreement has been reached, both parties have an obligation to make reasonable efforts to fulfill their respective obligations, and to avoid taking actions that would hinder the performance of the contract.

Parties to contracts have the right to enforce them in courts of law. Generally, the remedies for breach of contract take one of two forms, either specific performance or monetary damages. Specific performance is an equitable remedy most often awarded in cases involving real estate transactions, and consists of the Court ordering the breaching party to fulfill its obligations, i.e. “specifically perform” the contract.

In most cases, the remedy for breach of contract is money damages, usually in the form of “consequential” damages. Consequential damages are those damages that flow naturally from one party’s breach of a contract, and can include the cost to replace a product that was never delivered, the cost to repair a defective product, and any resulting lost profits. However, consequential damages must be “reasonably foreseeable” at the time the contract was created in order to be recoverable.…

How Does a Panama Foundation Work?

One of the world’s best means of asset protection is a Panama private interest foundation. A Panama private interest foundation is an effective holding entity for assets. What follows is an overview of how such an entity works and how to set one up. As with all legal matters consult a competent authority to set up and maintain a Panama Foundation. Deal with or through someone who speaks your language. Make sure that you understand every step you take and why you are taking it. That having been said let’s start with what it will cost.

Cost of a Panama Private Interest Foundation

  • $300 per year to government, typically less than $400 a year to attorney
  • Minimum Capital Investment: $10,000
  • Attorney cost to set up: Less than $2,000

These are typical costs. Part of this is payment to the government and part is to the attorney. If prices you are quoted seem to high don’t be afraid to comparison shop. By all means make sure that you are comfortable with whom you deal with from the outset as these entities are meant to last for a very long time.

What a Panama Private Interest Foundation Is Used For

Use a Panama foundation as a holding entity for asset protection and privacy. Overseas assets of a Panama foundation are not taxed in Panama. The only taxation related to a Panama foundation would be if the foundation owned a business operating in Panama. In that case the business would be taxed, not the foundation. The foundation could receive post-tax dollars from the business. Consider joining a foundation with an offshore corporation, in Panama or elsewhere, for increased asset protection.

A Panama foundation can own assets anywhere in the world. This includes bank accounts, patents, real estate, companies, personal assets such as airplanes, cars, etc., royalty rights, stocks and bonds, and collectibles such as coins and stamps as a partial list.

An example of the asset protection of a Panama private interest foundation is that there is a three year statute of limitations on “fraudulent conveyance.” That is after three years no on can successfully challenge you in a Panamanian court for transferring assets to the foundation. Thus a Panama foundation will provide long term asset protection free from challenge of foreign jurisdictions after the initial three year period.

The Foundation’s assets can only be frozen if the foundation itself is accused of doing something illegal it its own business dealings. Standard advice for a Panama foundation is to use the foundation as a holding company. If a company owned by the foundation has to deal with legal issues they do not spill over into other foundation business.

Attorneys in Panama often suggest a Panama private interest foundation as a means of protecting you again a foreign attack on your assets as well as any possibility that Panama might ever change its laws regarding foreign ownership.

A Panama Foundation cannot engage in commercial activities in Panama but it can own a business that …

A Buyers Guide to Lima Model Trains

Ever since Lima Model Trains collapsed in 2004, collectors have been looking to stock up on the more unique models the company had to offer. What is interesting to note is the company was in the business of making train parts for the Italian rail system before they entered the industry of building model trains. The reason why this is so interesting is because the market the company entered into after the Italian rail system started building its own parts was the market of making toys. They offered boats, trains and cars. Many will argue they never stopped selling trains as toys, which is what led to the company struggling.

The reason why the models made by the company are sought after is because they are unique. The company produced over 100 different models in highly unique production runs. These were created specifically for stores such as the Cheltenham Model Centers D1015 Western Champion. This particular model is highly prized because it was one of the first production runs by the company in making trains for a specific buyer instead of just for general sale.

Another of the very popular Lima Model Trains for sale today is the General Motors 201 Class diesel locomotive. The Irish modelers desired this at the time because it allowed them to be able to create the first Irish scene specific RTR diesel locomotive. This was a production run which was created for Murphy Models of Dublin. The company has gone on to have Bachmann create a newer version of the Baby GM in 2008. The rich history has the original models being sold at high margins in auctions and is expected to go up in value over the years

Other limited edition pieces include the Class 50 Thunderer. This train immediately went up in value by 300{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} right after it hit the market. The price it is worth today is much higher because it is hard to find and if you are able to find it in good condition, you will be able to make even more money. This is a model that is best suited to sit in a scene rather than to roll down the tracks. This is partly because of the dubious quality, but also because you would do well to keep it in good condition should you want to resell it for a profit.

The original Lima Model Trains have a society of collectors, which believe they are highly valuable for a litany of different reasons. If you were looking to use the trains to drive around the tracks, you would do better to buy one of the recreated models sold by Hornby, Bachmann or Heljan. Not only will the quality be better, you will not have to worry about any structural problems the train might have. Since the trains were not made of high quality to begin with, the possibility of there being a problem with the old trains is very high. Save the original models as a collectors …

International Law Degree Benefits

There has been quite some issue regarding the type of legal degree that one can get. If you are thinking of a legal career, you have an option of the normal degree or the international law degree.

There are differences between these types of degrees. The first difference would be that a normal degree will enable you to get a job as a lawyer inside your locality.

For example, if you have studied law in the United States of America, chances are high that you will get a job in the U.S only.

On the other hand if you have the international law degree, you will most likely be able to get a job anywhere in the world.

This type of degree is the one that shows you how different laws work both in your country of residence and also in other countries.

It can be studied in any country due to the rise of demand for such a certification.

With the current rise in political crimes, there has been the formation of an International Criminal Court (ICC) which is used to prosecute perpetrators of crimes in different countries.

This court has been known to also prosecute perpetrators of crimes against humanity. In such a court, you will find that most lawyers who defend or prosecute people will have the certification of an international law degree.

Apart from the fact that there is a wider range of opportunities for international degree holders, there is also the benefit of a higher remuneration package as compared to those who have normal degrees.

An international certification in any degree or diploma program will give you a higher chance of getting a better remuneration when compared to having a normal certification of the same program.

This is why people with the normal local certification are seen studying for the international certification.

Job opportunities and increased remuneration are the main benefits of having an international certification in law.

Another benefit would be the possibility of having a wider experience. Having this certification would tend to let you experience different cases around the world.

As a result, you can have a wider experience in certain cases. This experience can in turn lead to a better performance in your field.

A better performance means that you will have a great career in a very short time. These benefits are the reason behind the buzz in international legal degree programs.…

How to Make Law of Attraction Work Fast

How to make the law of attraction work fast is one of the most popular questions for people practicing the law of attraction. We tend to practice the law, see no results, get frustrated, continue harder to apply this universal law and then get frustrated even more when we don’t see results.

1. Are your visualizations real enough?

Visualization is the main technique for applying the law of attraction. This is how you communicate your desires to the Universe and ask them to deliver what you want. But are your visualizations real enough for you to believe them? Are they real and clear enough for the Universe to know what to deliver to you?

When you visualize, you should feel the whole situation is actually happening. You should not be able to tell the difference whether you are visualizing or whether it is really happening.

You should be able to feel the temperature of the room, the human warmth, the colors of the clothes you’re wearing etc…

Having an effective visualization technique is very powerful to manifesting your desires.

2. Are you canceling out your desires?

When you are having positive thoughts and apply the law of attraction, make sure that when you stop, you do not immediately tell yourself to go back to reality and think about the worries you have. Don’t tell yourself “OK. It’s back to the real world now”.

By doing this you are canceling out the positive vibrations which you have released and you are giving the Universe mixed messages.

You should be consistent on your thoughts.

3. Do you believe in the law of attraction?

The most important element to making this secret work fast, is BELIEF.

You must have belief in yourself and in the law to manifest your desires fast. When you’re saying you have a harmonious family relationship, do you actually believe so? Do you actually go home and expect the whole family to be happy or do you think about the possibilities of having arguments?

If you truly believe something, you expect it to happen. There is no doubt. When you question something, you obviously don’t have a strong belief. The law of attraction works the quickest when you have total belief.

When you are trying to attract a nice camera, have no doubt that you’ll get it. See yourself taking pictures with the camera and expect you’ll have the camera in your possession. When you expect something it means you have faith..

4. Are you thinking now?

Thinking in the present now, will speed up the law of attraction a lot. When you’re using this law for more money, you need to think as though you already have the money. You are thinking that it is happening now.

Whenever you do visualization, you imagine things that happen now. Not in the past or in the future. This is what will make the Universe manifest your desires to you, quickly.

When you combine these 4 steps, you will see …

Is Competition a Destructive Force in Society?

Everything comes with positive and negative sides, especially if we talk about competition. On one hand, it brings plenty of hopes and advantages, while on the negative approach, it conveys ruinous jealously and gaucherie. Most people believe that competition makes their life more challenging and tricky.

One of my classmates at schooling level was often confused that why other students race with him in academics. He was an above-average student, who used to attain good marks and attention of teachers with the help of his brilliancy and knowledge, but he never was the topper in the class. I firmly believed that he was the most intelligent student of the class. Even after this, he never managed to get overgenerous marks, as he never believed in competition, in competing with other students. This approach never let him achieve what he wanted, because he never competed with anyone, as he believed that he would get whatever is in his mind, with the help of his knowledge and experience. Though, he succeeded initially in his career, but later on, his entrants, at his workplace, were blessed (or let us call it ‘cursed’) with competitive mindset, who were ready to take over his profile. They competed with him, which my friend never liked. So he started moving to new organizations and this is the sole reason behind the instability in his life. However, I still believe that he is going to get a great life ahead, but he needs to originate his competitive creature from his deep inside.

Why People Think Competition is Destructive

When I spoke to my friend about his non-competitive approach, he told me, “I hate jealously, where a person is ready to the cut the throat of others just for the sake of his betterment.”

Well, jealously is the only bad thing about competition. Otherwise, it is something, which has evolved the human race, from trees to mars. Without competition, the society would not have progressed to this height.

Why Competition is the Necessity

I strongly believe that – for a better environment and lifestyle, competition is necessary in the society. There are eight billion people on the planet. Without competing with others, you can not achieve what you want, as there are thousands of other people, who also desire to achieve the same. You can capture the scene of competition at schools, workplaces, markets, economy, and businesses, and even in your family. In the following snippets of the article, I have described some of the positive impacts of competition on our society – you can not keep away from these affirmative factors.

End of monopoly – It is a consumer-driven market, where monopoly is the greatest nuisance. When there is only one market player, there occurs domination, in which, the seller sets (hikes) the price of its poor-quality goods and services. If there will be other players, as well, in the market, there will be a healthy competition, which will pull down the exceedingly high prices. It will be …

How to Apply the Law of Attraction for Highly Sensitive People

The Law of Attraction

The Law of Attraction says that which is like unto itself, is drawn. In other words, the thoughts you have, if you think it long enough, other vibrational thoughts alike will be attracted to it. Those who speak of being broke are always broke and those who speak of prosperity have more prosperity. Even feeling and speaking of the “lack” of something that you want will attract more lack of it. If you want a companion but you focus your attention on feeling lonely, you will attract more feelings of loneliness. The saying, misery loves company is Law of Attraction in action. The point is, until you can think and speak of other subjects, you will continue experiencing the same things.

In order to attract that which you seek, you must come from a place of non-resistance. It is easier to have consistent good thoughts in the absence of resistance. Resistance is any feelings of doubt, fear, worry, anger, resentment, jealousy, or any negative feelings that you hold towards any subject in your life be it unresolved issues, bad relationships, bad childhood, or internal conflicts. It has served its purpose which is to know what you don’t want so that you give birth to what you do want. Do you want stories or do you want results? If you want results then stop telling the same stories to validate your current situation. The more you continue telling yourself or others “what-is” the more you attract “what-is”.

About HSPs

First and foremost, being highly sensitive is a trait and not a choice. Medical studies have shown that an hsp’s brain fire different neural pathways in response to the same stimuli compared to a nonhsp. There is no magic pill that an hsp can take to biologically alter the trait. For those who are thinking of applying the Law of Attraction in hopes to phase out their sensitivity will beat themselves up before even succeeding. It’s like wanting to have green eyes when you clearly have brown eyes. How you can thrive is by applying the Law of Attraction to bring out the best in you as a highly sensitive person.

How an HSP Can Apply the Law of Attraction

If you continue telling yourself or others, “I am too sensitive to do that” or “my sensitivity limits me to only do this” – then you are right-you are too sensitive to handle more. When you avoid people, situations, or things that you fear may overwhelm your sensitivity then by the law of attraction, those very challenges will intensify. Your inner world that encompasses your mind, body, and soul becomes more fragile which then mirrors your outer world. For example, your body can’t handle certain foods it once could, or you develop autoimmune disorders, indigestion, ulcers, low energy, or you experience mood swings and anxiety-the symptoms go on. By focussing your energy on the challenges they become more challenging! Instead, entertain good thoughts that you are highly …

Tracing Chinua Achebe’s Background – His Earliest Life and Schooling in Nigeria

Nigerian novelist,Chinua Achebe,, best known for his first novel, Things Fall Apart which is the most widely-read and discussed book in modern African literature, described his writing as an attempt to set the historical record straight by showing that African people did not hear of culture for the first time from Europeans, that their societies were not mindless but had a philosophy of great depth and value and beauty, that they had poetry and above all, they had dignity.

Achebe’s novels especially so Things Fall Apart which is now 50 years old focus on the traditions of Igbo society, the effect of Christian and Western influences on it, and the clash of values during and after the colonial era.Achebe’s works portray Nigeria’s communities passing through the traumas of colonization and moving into a troubled nationhood. In bringing together the political and the literary, he neither romanticizes the culture of the indigenous nor apologizes for the colonial.

Achebe who unlike his Kenyan counterpart, Ngugi Wathiongo, wrote his novels in English, has defended the use of English, though it is the language of colonisers, in African literature. Achebe’s keen ear for spoken language have made him one of the most highly esteemed African writers writing in English. His style relies heavily on the Igbo oral tradition, and combines straightforward narration with representations of folk stories, proverbs, and oratory.

Raised by christian parents in the Igbo village of Ogidi in southern Nigeria, Achebe excelled at school and won a scholarship for undergraduate studies. He then became fascinated with world religions and traditional African cultures, and began writing stories which were published in on campus publications.

After graduating, he worked for the Nigerian Broadcasting Service which caused him to move to the metropolis of Lagos.

Achebe’s parents, Isaiah Okafo Achebe and Janet Anaenechi Iloegbunam, were converts to the Protestant Church Mission Society (CMS) in Nigeria. The elder Achebe being a teacher in a missionary school, stopped practising the religion of his ancestors, but he respected its traditions and sometimes incorporated elements of its rituals into his Christian practice.

Chinua’s unabbreviated name, Chinualumogu “May God fight on my behalf”, was a prayer for divine protection and stability. The Achebe family had five other surviving children, named in a similar fusion of traditional and English names: Frank Okwuofu, John Chukwuemeka Ifeanyichukwu, Zinobia Uzoma, Augustine Nduka, and Grace Nwanneka.

Chinua was born Albert Chinualumogu Achebe in the Igbo village of Ogidi in Nneobi, on November 16, 1930. His parents instilled in him many of the values of their traditional Igbo culture even though they were devout evangelical Protestants. They then christened him Albert, after Prince Albert, husband of Queen Victoria.. His parents standing at a crossroads of traditional culture and Christian influence made a significant impact on the children, especially Chinualumogu. As a result Achebe’s upbringing spanned both worlds, the indigenous as well as the colonial.

After the youngest daughter was born, the family moved to Itheir ancestral village of Ogidi, in what is now Anambra. state.…

How Socrates Influences Our Lives Today

Socrates (ca. 470-399 BC) is not just another "dead white male" despised by our university elite but a man who philosophical breakthroughs reverberate down through the centuries and significantly affect us today. Athens in the fifth century BC was the age of Pericles. The grandiose construction projects undertaken by Pericles such as the Parthenon were being built during Socrates' lifetime.

Philosophically, Athens was in a time of confusion, flux and disarray. The pre-sociological philosophers, particularly the sophists such as Protagorus, Gorgias and Thrasymachus were teaching moral relativism in their philosophical schools. The term "sophist" means "wise man" and these wise men implicitly regarded their own personal wisdom as the foundation of understanding right behavior.

Protagorus, Gorgias and Thrasymachus were not native to Athens and had traveled extensively. In their travels they had seen that what was hidden in one culture was permitted or even encouraged in another. This led them to the erroneous conclusion that morals are relative and there is there is no foundation of truth or firm way of determining right and wrong.

The term "sophistry" today has negative connotations as well it should. Since the sophists believed morals were relative they descended into philosophical pragmatism which is the idea that the best philosophy is that which is practical or that which "works" regardless of its moral implications.

Pragmatism is very popular in western civilization today. The pragmatist philosophy of the American philosopher William James is a flowering of modernist sophistry. In the West we now have a situation similar to that of ancient Athens. The ancient sophists charged high fees for their courses of instruction and this too was a departure from Athenian tradition which had always maintained that philosophers not charge for their instruction. Socrates was trained by the sophists but could only afford the short course.

The sophists taught rhetoric which is the art of verbal persuasion. Since the sophists made no firm truth claims so they just taught how to persuade. Each man made up his own truth and the more clever could persuade others.

Socrates saw the emptiness of this and feared for his city that the sophists, through their relativism, would destroy the foundation of morals and ever lead to an extinction of ethics and a return to barbarism. Socrates' approach to the situation was to look to the intellect to try to discover the foundation of truth. He looked to the human conscience. Socrates had stumbled onto one of God's ways of giving revelation to man.

The Bible in Romans 2: 14-15 tells us that Gentiles who do not have God's written book, the Bible, do have their consciences which tell them right from wrong.

All people through human history have the inward witness of conscience which regardless of cultural training gives witness to God's will. The Bible also teaches that all people have the witness of nature (Psalm 19: 1-3; Romans 1: 19-20) which reveals things about God. Socrates had no Bible but was not totally without access to revelation …

Philippine Local Government Unit – As Defined by a Novice

A Local Government Unit could be defined in many ways- as a political subdivision (de Guzman and Tapales, 1973), a municipal corporation (Martin, 1970) and for some, in terms of geographical area. A scholar or a college student may appreciate and recognize this variety of definitions but if a novice would read an article about an LGU, she/he could have not understood the whole picture of the story. Hence, what is important for that person to fully comprehend the meaning of the story is for her/him to know the requisites of an LGU. This article, although short, could tell us a lot about a Local Government Unit.

First, an LGU, obviously, must have a name. A name signifies the existence of a place, if it has a name, then it exists. Second, an LGU has inhabitants. What good is a place, if there are no one to take care of it? Third, an LGU has a place or territory. The fact that there is a name, follows that there is a territory for its sole purpose. Fourth, an LGU has legislative powers. The passing of an ordinance like ‘Integrated Environment Code’ of Angeles City, means that the said city has legislative powers. In a nutshell, the requisites of an LGU include having a name, inhabitants, place or territory and legislative power.

Local government also has levels. For example, in the Philippines, Roxas City is in the province of Capiz, and Roxas City has about 22 barangays. Upon reading of other resources, there are five levels of local government; the barangay, municipality, city, province and region. Although most powers were devolved to LGUs upon passing of the Decentralization Act, it is still apparent that there is an existence of a relationship between a local government and the national government. We must not forget that LGUs are still dependent on their (IRA) internal revenue allotment, distributed by the national government. Hence, it follows that the city is a political subdivision of national government.Following this, the article tells us a little about where do the local government get funds for its projects and payables for its duties. The answer is from the IRA or internal revenue allotment.

Lastly, aside from the requisites and the nature of Local Government Units, there are many functions that has been devolved to LGU. For example, in a certain province where the main issue was the waste segregation, it is therefore the duty of the city to provide ordinances and programs for proper waste management which also includes the responsibility of dealing with waste collection.

Despite of this knowledge about Local Government Unit, one must also know that the performance of an LGU does not only lie on its officials, but mostly to the residents, who must follow the laws and participate the implemented programs- this fact doesn’t only go to the novice, but to all kinds of people as well.…