Historical And Political Evolution Of Nigeria From 1900-Present Day

Britain governed indirectly through the existing local institutions. Sir Frederick Lugard’s Indirect Rule worked well in the North and the West where Traditional rulers were already in place. It however, failed woefully in the East where there was no tradition of central governing authority. What the British did therefore, was to create artificial chiefs whom they called “Warrant chiefs”. Because of the alien authority so created in the East and because some of them were actually insignificant people, the warrant chiefs commanded little or no authority. People either ignored them or protested their rule. One of the upshots of this anomaly was the ‘Aba Riots’ of 1929, led by women who were protesting in the main, the imposition of tax by a warrant chief.

THE CLIFFORD CONSTITUTION OF 1922

The Governor of Nigeria at this time, Sir Hugh Clifford had earlier attacked the National Congress of British West Africa, a political party which was formed and led from the Gold Coast by Casely Hayford, for having sent a petition to the secretary of state for the Colonies in London. One of the agitations of the educated minority in Lagos and Calabar areas was for proper constitutional representation, and the petition was rejected by Lord Milner, the secretary of state. Clifford himself had attacked the National Congress of British West Africa as a whole, but he fully appreciated the need for reform and especially for increased participation of Nigerians in the government of their own country.

One of the political consequences of the Clifford Constitution was that the introduction of elective principle in the Legislative Council stimulated political activity, particularly in Lagos, which had three seats. Political parties and newspapers were founded, though some were short-lived due to personal rivalries and inadequate funding. That was the early stage of Nigerian nationalism. Herbert Macaulay founded the first Nigerian political party – Nigerian National Democratic Party (NNDP) – and which won all the elections of 1923, 1928 and 1933.

The supremacy in Lagos of the NNDP was not challenged until the foundation in 1934 of the Lagos Youth Movement, which changed its name to Nigeria Youth Movement (NYM) in 1936. The NYM emerged from relative obscurity at the 1938 General Elections to challenge the NNDP and it became the predominant Nigerian party under Dr. Nnamdi Azikiwe’s leadership, until he resigned from it on an internal issue of confidence in 1941, after which it faded away.

The impact of the Second World War (1945-1949) upon Nationalist movements in British West Africa was the same in all territories. The impact was threefold: military, psychological, and economic.

Large numbers of West African troops were recruited and saw military service in East Africa, in North Africa, and most particularly, in South East Asia. They were taught that they were fighting for freedom, and were promised good resettlement facilities when they returned home and were demobilized. However, West African units in South East Asia had been issued with pamphlets describing demobilization and resettlement procedures applicable to British troops …

Benefits of Short Stories

A short story is a literary work that tells a series of event in a specific setting. These series of events are the product of the writer’s powerful mind and imagination. They are the result of contemplations, and realizations done by the writer either during his gloomy or happy days. Short stories are the outlet of the writer’s emotions. It is through short stories that a writer directly or indirectly expresses his ideals, beliefs and opinions regarding issues that continually confronting the society. Thus stories are written due to several purposes such as to inspire, to educate, to entertain and to provoke one’s emotions.

Whichever the purpose of a particular story, one thing that is very much sure is that stories have lots of benefits to everyone.

For children stories teach them moral lessons which will be planted in their young minds and that they can ponder upon as they grow older. Other than that, they help in the enhancement of children’s imaginative thinking which leads to creativity. According to some experts, children are being trained to think imaginatively while listening or reading stories in accordance to how the writer describes the setting, characters, and events that took place in the story. More than that, children are taught to focus their attention to a specific topic so that if they will be engaged to more complicated brainstorming or emersions they won’t have any difficulty. One thing more, their vocabularies will be developed. As a result,, this will help them develop their communication skills both in oral and written communication.

For older person, stories especially with those that contain humor entertain people. Short stories would also provoke questions in the minds of people regarding life and society. Short stories enables them see realities even though the events in the stories did not happen in actual scenes; but there are several situations in life that can be related to those events. The readers are made to see and think of the realities in life. Another thing is that stories teach people to appreciate the beauty of life. This is because through short stories that the adventures of people are told. These characters are used to symbolize things in the real society. It is through them that writers relate the message they wanted their readers to grasp. Despite the fact that these characters shown in these stories don’t exist in real life, their struggles can be compared to someone in real life.

Those benefits mentioned above are only among the many benefits of reading short stories. Seeing those benefits that stories can give, it is just correct to conclude that reading short stories is helpful to all.…

Book Summary – That Used to Be Us – By Thomas L Friedman and Michael Mandelbaum

Thomas Friedman is a NY Times bestselling author. He wrote The World is Flat and Hot, Flat and Crowded which are excellent books. This book is a must read for anybody who cares about our country. It outlines the problems and discusses the methods for getting us back on track as a world leading innovative nation.

Why is this important to me? I ask this question as if I am sitting in your shoes. This book in my humble opinion is a must read. The lackadaisical nature of the masses along with the political gridlock is paralyzing the nation and that affects all of us. It makes no sense for China to have better rail systems than us, and Singapore having better airports than us. And we just learned that China now has the fastest supercomputer on Earth – that used to be us. President Obama – 11/3/2010 Thomas and Michael outline the significant problems and some of the positive energy that still existing in the U.S. For the sake of time, I will summarize each of the 5 parts. The big four challenges we face in the U.S. are: how to adapt to Globalization, how to adjust to the IT revolution, how to cope with huge budget deficits because of growing government and how to manage in a world of rising energy demands and climate change.

1. The Diagnosis – If you see something, say something. Humans have a unique way of adapting to the environment. Unfortunately, we adapt to bad things and start to accept them as normal. The authors profile a story where it has taken over 6 months to fix two escalators with 21 steps on each in the New York Subway station. The politics, red tape and bureaucracy have basically killed the project. Yet in China, they can build a world class convention center in 32 weeks. The scary part of all of this is that – “People have gotten used to it.” Pretty soon we get numb to really stupid things and start accepting the red tape provided by people who get paid regardless. This is a very scary habit to fall into because the gap between the U.S. and the rest of the world is widening and we are falling farther behind. The infrastructure of the country is falling apart. A personal example – our building is located in Southfield Michigan and we pay $50K a year in property taxes. The street in front of our building will destroy the front end of your car if you go faster than 20 miles per hour because the road is so screwed up.

2. The Education Challenge – This is no secret. We are funding education with investment dollars and it is not effective. We can fist fight all day on who is responsible but the point is that the family has to take a proactive approach to education or kids will die on the vine. The key learning requirements are critical thinking, collaboration and …

Social Efficiency versus Democratic Equality

Larabee describes social efficiency as an educational framework in which the school sees its role as that of preparing the students to become workers. Curriculum responds to society’s needs in a pragmatic manner; hence, it is seen as a public good designed to meet collective needs. Society depends on the school to meet its human capital needs in all phases of economic life. In this model, schools must necessarily adapt to existing socioeconomic and social structures. While maintaining the status quo, they realize their full educational, political, and cultural impact.

Society has the responsibility of enhancing productivity in all phases of life. This means that schools must seriously prepare students of all levels, for all levels. However, some very interesting assumptions are taken for granted. It is implicit that all societal positions are not equitable. The objective of social efficiency is not to elevate or demote people socioeconomically, or socially. It is the overall, collective benefit of the public that is being served. Hence, schools are induced to replicate, with unerring accuracy, society’s hierarchical form and complete structure. Tasks in the society need to be done by everyone. So it is everybody’s place to contribute and do what needs to be done for the public good.

To get this model to work, certain institutions had to be artificially contrived. Tracking, on the basis of perceived abilities and preferences, vocationalism, ability testing, educational standards, and other forms of stratification were all instituted with one aim. They separated students into different groups to fill different societal roles. Many of the roles were based on society’s historical perceptions of which groups of people should be performing what tasks, or on actual abilities and talents the students possess. Hence, the question came down to whose children should be educated for what roles in society. People upholding the social efficiency ideology can be perceived as blocking chances for social mobility and political equality.

As said earlier, social efficiency is not designed to alter the status quo of society members. In other words, children of the elite will not be trained to fill societal roles not already consistent with their status. Nor will children of people working in menial positions be expected to be trained for those held by the elite. These would be taught vocational skills for different array of jobs, and would be channeled directly into these jobs. In this sense, education can be seen as a duplication of what already exists. The education is designed to predict working class job roles for working students and to prepare them so precisely as to render all other options impossible. Some would see this as not being unfair since it does not rob those who already have nothing. What specific groups had previously is what they continue to have. Society’s needs are met, and things continue to run as they always have.

But not so, some say. Democratic equality must prevail. It must be interpreted to mean equal access to all students for all possible positions. …

5 Most Influential Law Enforcement People in History

Narrowing down the list of famous law enforcement leaders to the 5 most influential people in law enforcement history is difficult. Many people have influenced law enforcement around the world since the ancient Egyptian and Greek societies. The following men, however, may be 5 of the most recognizably influential people from the recent law enforcement history of the United States:

Eugene Biscailuz: As the 27th Sherriff of Los Angeles County in 1932, Biscailuz was instrumental in a variety of revolutionary changes in California law enforcement that were influential around the nation. He founded the California Highway Patrol among other things.

Bill Bratton: This former New York City Police Commissioner oversaw huge reductions in crime rates in New York City in the 1990s, which many people say Rudi Giuliani took credit for before firing him. Bratton, also a former Boston Police Commissioner, went on to serve as the chief of police for the Los Angeles County Police Department before retiring in 2009.

Daryl Gates: As the Chief of the Los Angeles County Police Department from 1978 to 1992 he was instrumental in a number of important changes such as the founding of DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education) and SWAT (Special Weapons and Tactics). He also oversaw the LAPD during a tumultuous time for race relations, especially following the Rodney King incident of 1991.

Theodore Roosevelt: Although most famous as the 26th president of the United States, Teddy Roosevelt was also the president of the New York City Police Commissioners from 1895 to 1897. He turned around a corrupt police force by establishing new disciplinary rules, creating a bicycle squad to tackle traffic problems, standardizing officers’ pistol use, implementing firearm inspections and physical exams and hiring 1,600 new recruits based solely on physical and mental qualifications.

August Vollmer: Known as a leading figure in the development of the United States criminal justice field, Vollmer got his start as the first chief of police of Berkeley, California. After a long career he was appointed president of the International Association of Police Chiefs in 1921…

So, What Is This Thing Called Edumarketing?

We Live in a Society driven by information. Information provides the building blocks upon which knowledge is constructed. Today, knowledge is the real currency of business-the stimulus that drives our economy and thus our livelihoods.

Two of the most revered thinkers of the past 100 years, Peter Drucker and Philip Kotler, were clear in their characterization of the contemporary business environment. That is, we now live in a knowledge society.

Peter Drucker noted this transformation in his book The Post Capitalist Society, exhorting, “That knowledge has become the resource, rather than a resource. Further, “This fact changes-fundamentally-the structure of society.”

According to Kotler “the passage from an Industrial Economy into an Informational Economy is introducing new considerations that question the suitability of conventional marketing thinking in developing today’s and tomorrow’s marketing strategies.”

Why Edumarketing?

The past ten years have seen tremendous tumult in the field of marketing. We live in a media-rich world in which information bombards us from all angles. In his compelling book, Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, Robert Cialdini states, “You and I exist in an extraordinarily complicated stimulus environment, easily the most rapidly moving and complex that has ever existed on this planet.”

These views suitably describe the world we live in, where information and knowledge are central to our existence. The advent of computers, the Internet, wireless communication, and other technologies are presenting new opportunities for marketing practitioners.

One of the areas is that of partnering with customers, both business-to-business and business-to-consumer, to create a learning experience in which the customer learns-both how to better define their problem and how to best solve this problem.

In this new reality, it’s the customer who, for the most part, runs the show.

Customers are using technology to learn about the company behind the product and services they purchase along with dissecting every element of the product via self-education-and that fundamentally changes everything.

Capturing the customer’s attention is no longer possible by simply putting your message “out there.” An emphasis on knowledge creation calls for bold changes.

What has to change? The way you communicate.

The fast pace of today’s marketplace-whatever your industry-has changed the way customers want to do business. Marketing has become less about pushing messages out to people, and more about empowering them to make informed purchase decisions.

Rather than engaging in a manipulative process, marketing communicators should look to inform and educate potential customers, providing them with insight and information they need to make an intelligent decision. Doing this is the new way of building customer loyalty.

This paper discusses a new method of understanding and influencing the customer through communications that inform and influence. This method is called edumarketing.

Edumarketing is the activity initiated by a company that is designed to influence changes in knowledge, skills, or attitudes of customers-whether individuals, groups, or communities.

Cognitive psychology, and particularly research dealing with how people learn, tells us that people use existing perceptual filters and mental representations when making decisions.

Numerous studies verify that thinking …

A Security Guard’s Work Environment: What Should You Expect?

The Federal Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) tracks numerous types of data about various occupations; this includes information on work environments. For many jobs, the work environment is relatively consistent; security officers, however, have to face a wide variety of settings and be able to adjust and function in each of those.

In fact, security guards have one of the most diverse job environments of any industry. While a teacher generally practices her craft in the classroom, a logger works in forests and a surgeon rules the operating theater, just about any building or location could need a guard. Schools, malls, casinos, hospitals, nuclear power stations, courthouses and airports all need varying levels of protection.

In its official category of “Security guard and gaming surveillance officer,” the BLS counts both private security officers and ones that work for the government; however, the agency makes a distinction between them and police. The main difference between the two is that police are always government employees and have the power of arrest, as well as a much more stringent training requirements.

The BLS identifies several industries that employ the greatest number of security personnel. In 2012-13, over half worked in “investigation and security services,” while government employed 9 percent, 6 percent worked in education facilities, both public and private; 5 percent were in accommodation and food services, and 4 percent protected hospitals.

Transportation security screeners and other security personnel provide services in transportation facilities such as airports, train stations and sea terminals; they work for the federal government.

Gaming surveillance officers work at casinos and other gambling institutions; for that reason, this is an occupation that only exists in jurisdictions where gambling is legal. While many in gaming security work in observation rooms and maintain surveillance with cameras, others patrol the floor in order to quickly respond to incidents. Gaming security officers are, as a rule, more highly paid than generic security guards, with an average wage premium of $7000 per year; however, they also face a higher than average rate of injury.

The work isn’t generally challenging physically, with long periods of little activity. Security officers either man a station for the duration of a shift or make rounds inspecting a facility. Both situations require most officers to be on their feet for long stretches of time, which is something to be taken into account if you have lower back pain or other health issues that could be exacerbated by standing or walking.

However, in case of theft, burglary, altercations or other incidents, a guard will be required to confront a potentially volatile or violent situation, in which case they should have both the personal skills to defuse a situation peacefully if possible, and the physical fitness to deal with a threatening individual if the former doesn’t work. This is why states require security officers to undergo training and certification, although it varies – while Florida, for example, mandates 40 hours’ training, a Connecticut security guard license only requires an 8-hour course.…

The Building of President Trump’s Border Wall

What Does Donald Trump Say About Mexicans?

Since the first day of his campaign back in June 2005, Donald Trump has been recorded several times making racially charged statements. His first speech labeled Mexican immigrants as criminals and rapists. He went further to claim that they bring drugs and crime. In the few weeks that followed, he labelled the Mexican immigrants as killers too. A few months down the campaign trail he claimed that the whole Mexican immigrant menace was part of a larger conspiracy by the Mexican government to send their bad people over the border so that the burden of rehabilitating them falls on the shoulders of the US taxpayer. Around August 2005 Trump ejected Mexican American journalist Jorge Ramos who challenged him on his immigration platform. Trump ordered him to sit down and go back to Univision, right before the suited security detail marched Ramos out of the room. Trump drew a lot of controversy when he suggested that a federal judge who was presiding over the Trump University fraud case would give a bias ruling based on his Mexican heritage.

How Necessary Is Donald Trump’s Wall?

The building of president Donald Trump’s wall became a reality on November 8th. Trump believe that a wall along the US and Mexican border will stem in the tide of undocumented immigrants flowing in through the southern border. Trump believes this recent immigrant tide are people coming to live off government subsidies or engage in criminal activity. He goes further to say that some are here to compete for high paying jobs at the expense of the American worker, His critics opposed against this project argue that Trumps arguments are based on assumptions and not facts.

Pros and Cons of Building a Wall between Us and Mexico

Pros

· Illegal immigration will greatly reduce or stop altogether. This might check some of the illegal activities that are brought about by it such as human trafficking and drug dealing.

· Border patrols will be much easier.

· The America public will feel much safer.

· The US economy is in no position to accommodate them. It’s averaged that the immigrant household receives $24721 of government welfare benefits while their annual taxes account for only $10,344.

Cons

· The estimated cost of building the wall is far higher than what Trump is suggesting. It is Americans who will bear the tax burden for building the wall.

· The wall will pass through regions that are full of immigrants.

· Illegal immigration will still remain a big challenge. The wall will symbolize racism and discrimination.

How Will Donald Trump’s Wall Affect Mexico and U.S Relations?

A growing rift has developed between Mexico’s Enrique Pena Nieto and Donald Trump as we could see by the Mexican president cancelling his scheduled trip to the US. Despite the Mexican president categorically saying that it will not pay for the border wall Trump keeps on insisting it will do so. Such contradictions put the Mexican president on …

Dangerous Dog Ordinances, Stevens County, Washington – Title 12 – Straight Talk – Know Your Rights!

Reacting to a series of dog attacks and problems in recent years in the Counties, both Stevens County and Spokane County in Washington State (and nationwide) have adopted new regulations for dealing with potentially dangerous and vicious dogs. Since I am a citizen of Stevens County, I will speak to the new Title 20 ordinance adopted in December 2007 by Stevens County.

Stevens County’s new set of dangerous dog laws is designed to put the accountability on the owner and not just the animal. At this date, Stevens County does not have any designated animal control authority other than the Stevens County Sheriff. Under its new Title 20 ordinance, the Stevens County Sheriff’s Office now has more authority to find that a dog is dangerous or potentially dangerous and impose corrective actions to protect the public. Owners are given further opportunity to appeal the Stevens County Sheriff’s designation to the courts.

By definition under the newly adopted Title 20, a “potentially dangerous” dog is one that has a known propensity, tendency, or disposition to cause an unprovoked attack or to cause injury or otherwise threaten the safety of humans or domestic animals. A “dangerous dog” has caused unprovoked severe injury to a human being, or has killed a domestic animal while off the owner or keeper’s property, or has previously been found “potentially dangerous” and aggressively attacks again or endangers safety. Both the “potentially dangerous” dog and “dangerous dog” designations under the Stevens County, Washington Title 20, carry similar consequences for owners and their dog(s). Stevens County has imposed more restrictive measures under the “potentially dangerous” dog designation than under current Washington State law.

If a dog is found to be “dangerous” or “potentially dangerous”, the owner must register the dogs within 14 days of the County Sheriff’s determination, and the registration will only be accepted if the owner agrees to placement of an identifying microchip inserted in the animal, payment of the first registration fee and an annual registration fee, and to keep the dog enclosed indoors or in a proper enclosure. Proper enclosure is defined under Title 20 as a kennel that contains an enclosed top as well as sides. If the dog is allowed outside the enclosure, it must be muzzled and restrained with a 3-foot chain with a 300 lb. tensile strength. An owner cannot sell or transfer ownership, custody or residence of the dog without notifying the County Sheriff and notifying the new owner of the dog’s record with an acknowledgment signed by the new owner of the terms and conditions of his maintenance while in Stevens County, Washington. In extreme cases, presumably the County Sheriff as the animal control officer has the authority to decide if the dog must be destroyed. While I can understand the adoption of Title 20 and its ordinances and the “dangerous dog” designation and the purpose and merit behind its adoption, the “potentially dangerous dog” designation appears to be nearly impossible to regulate and this particular designation is ripe …

The Building of President Trump's Border Wall

What Does Donald Trump Say About Mexicans?

Since the first day of his campaign back in June 2005, Donald Trump has been recorded several times making racially charged statements. His first speech labeled Mexican immigrants as criminals and rapists. He went further to claim that they bring medicines and crime. In the few weeks that followed, he labeled the Mexican immigrants as killers too. A few months down the campaign trail he claimed that the whole Mexican immigrant menace was part of a greater conspiracy by the Mexican government to send their bad people over the border so that the burden of rehabilitating them falls on the shoulders of the US taxpayer. Around August 2005 Trump ejected Mexican American journalist Jorge Ramos who challenged him on his immigration platform. Trump ordered him to sit down and go back to Univision, right before the tailored security detail marched Ramos out of the room. Trump drew a lot of controversies when he suggested that a federal judge who was presiding over the Trump University fraud case would give a bias ruling based on his Mexican heritage.

How Necessary Is Donald Trump's Wall?

The building of president Donald Trump's wall became a reality on November 8th. Trump believe that a wall along the US and Mexican border will stem in the tide of undocumented immigrants flowing in through the southern border. Trump believes this recent immigrant tide are people coming to live off government subsidies or engage in criminal activity. He goes further to say that some are here to compete for high paying jobs at the expense of the American worker, His critics opposed this project argument that Trumps notifications are based on liabilities and not facts.

Pros and Cons of Building a Wall between Us and Mexico

Pros

· Illegal migration will greatly reduce or stop altogether. This may check some of the illegal activities that are brought about by it such as human trafficking and drug dealing.

· Border patrols will be much easier.

· The America public will feel much safer.

· The US economy is in no position to accommodate them. It's averaged that the immigrant household receives $ 24721 of government welfare benefits while their annual taxes account for only $ 10,344.

Cons

· The estimated cost of building the wall is far higher than what Trump is proposing. It is Americans who will bear the tax burden for building the wall.

· The wall will pass through regions that are full of immigrants.

· Illegal immigration will still remain a big challenge. The wall will symbolize racism and discrimination.

How Will Donald Trump's Wall Affect Mexico and US Relations?

A growing rift has developed between Mexico's Enrique Pena Nieto and Donald Trump as we could see by the Mexican president complaining his scheduled trip to the US. Despite the Mexican president categorically saying that it will not pay for the border wall Trump keeps on insisting it will do so. Such contradictions put the Mexican president …