How Socrates Influences Our Lives Today

Socrates (ca. 470-399 BC) is not just another "dead white male" despised by our university elite but a man who philosophical breakthroughs reverberate down through the centuries and significantly affect us today. Athens in the fifth century BC was the age of Pericles. The grandiose construction projects undertaken by Pericles such as the Parthenon were being built during Socrates' lifetime.

Philosophically, Athens was in a time of confusion, flux and disarray. The pre-sociological philosophers, particularly the sophists such as Protagorus, Gorgias and Thrasymachus were teaching moral relativism in their philosophical schools. The term "sophist" means "wise man" and these wise men implicitly regarded their own personal wisdom as the foundation of understanding right behavior.

Protagorus, Gorgias and Thrasymachus were not native to Athens and had traveled extensively. In their travels they had seen that what was hidden in one culture was permitted or even encouraged in another. This led them to the erroneous conclusion that morals are relative and there is there is no foundation of truth or firm way of determining right and wrong.

The term "sophistry" today has negative connotations as well it should. Since the sophists believed morals were relative they descended into philosophical pragmatism which is the idea that the best philosophy is that which is practical or that which "works" regardless of its moral implications.

Pragmatism is very popular in western civilization today. The pragmatist philosophy of the American philosopher William James is a flowering of modernist sophistry. In the West we now have a situation similar to that of ancient Athens. The ancient sophists charged high fees for their courses of instruction and this too was a departure from Athenian tradition which had always maintained that philosophers not charge for their instruction. Socrates was trained by the sophists but could only afford the short course.

The sophists taught rhetoric which is the art of verbal persuasion. Since the sophists made no firm truth claims so they just taught how to persuade. Each man made up his own truth and the more clever could persuade others.

Socrates saw the emptiness of this and feared for his city that the sophists, through their relativism, would destroy the foundation of morals and ever lead to an extinction of ethics and a return to barbarism. Socrates' approach to the situation was to look to the intellect to try to discover the foundation of truth. He looked to the human conscience. Socrates had stumbled onto one of God's ways of giving revelation to man.

The Bible in Romans 2: 14-15 tells us that Gentiles who do not have God's written book, the Bible, do have their consciences which tell them right from wrong.

All people through human history have the inward witness of conscience which regardless of cultural training gives witness to God's will. The Bible also teaches that all people have the witness of nature (Psalm 19: 1-3; Romans 1: 19-20) which reveals things about God. Socrates had no Bible but was not totally without access to revelation …

Philippine Local Government Unit – As Defined by a Novice

A Local Government Unit could be defined in many ways- as a political subdivision (de Guzman and Tapales, 1973), a municipal corporation (Martin, 1970) and for some, in terms of geographical area. A scholar or a college student may appreciate and recognize this variety of definitions but if a novice would read an article about an LGU, she/he could have not understood the whole picture of the story. Hence, what is important for that person to fully comprehend the meaning of the story is for her/him to know the requisites of an LGU. This article, although short, could tell us a lot about a Local Government Unit.

First, an LGU, obviously, must have a name. A name signifies the existence of a place, if it has a name, then it exists. Second, an LGU has inhabitants. What good is a place, if there are no one to take care of it? Third, an LGU has a place or territory. The fact that there is a name, follows that there is a territory for its sole purpose. Fourth, an LGU has legislative powers. The passing of an ordinance like ‘Integrated Environment Code’ of Angeles City, means that the said city has legislative powers. In a nutshell, the requisites of an LGU include having a name, inhabitants, place or territory and legislative power.

Local government also has levels. For example, in the Philippines, Roxas City is in the province of Capiz, and Roxas City has about 22 barangays. Upon reading of other resources, there are five levels of local government; the barangay, municipality, city, province and region. Although most powers were devolved to LGUs upon passing of the Decentralization Act, it is still apparent that there is an existence of a relationship between a local government and the national government. We must not forget that LGUs are still dependent on their (IRA) internal revenue allotment, distributed by the national government. Hence, it follows that the city is a political subdivision of national government.Following this, the article tells us a little about where do the local government get funds for its projects and payables for its duties. The answer is from the IRA or internal revenue allotment.

Lastly, aside from the requisites and the nature of Local Government Units, there are many functions that has been devolved to LGU. For example, in a certain province where the main issue was the waste segregation, it is therefore the duty of the city to provide ordinances and programs for proper waste management which also includes the responsibility of dealing with waste collection.

Despite of this knowledge about Local Government Unit, one must also know that the performance of an LGU does not only lie on its officials, but mostly to the residents, who must follow the laws and participate the implemented programs- this fact doesn’t only go to the novice, but to all kinds of people as well.…

The Ethnic Composition of Benue State

The formation of Nigerian states after regional government failed was being thought of by General Gowon administration as the best option to help unite the various ethnic groups which were being segmented along regional divisions. This was because the regional politics made the central government very weak and on the other hand, made the dominant ethnic groups to pay more allegiance to the regional governments than the centre. It was after the abolition of the regional divisions that Nigerian ethnic groups begin to live and interact with others on states level.

The first generation of states created was twelve and the Benue as a state was carved under Benue-Plateau. The Benue-Plateau state was more or less like a sandwich of over thirteen minority tribes or ethnic groups of different inter-cultural affiliation towards one another. Dominant tribes /ethnic groups however include Ngas, Biron, Kutev, Tiv, Idoma, Igala, etc. The headquarters (state capital) was in Jos and all the representatives of these peoples (different tribes and ethnic groups) were normally sent to Jos in order to deliberate on the affairs of the state.

The second generation of states created, add-up to a total number nineteen state and it was during this time that Benue was separated from Plateau with each having its separate state. Benue state after it was created habours ethnic groups like Igala, Idoma, Tiv, Igede, and other relatively smaller ones. None of the groups mentioned above is among the three dominant cultural groups in Nigeria (Hausa, Ibo and Yoruba). These minority trbes were socially and politically brought together under one plat-form as a state to run the affairs of the state. During this period, the only radio station, Radio-Benue, will have news translation in the local languages of the different ethnic groups. During occasions of state or national event, all the cultures would have their cultural displays in form of dance and drama and other performances, first to entertain but mostly to indirectly represent their tribe and to identify with the state.

Latter on the creation of Kogi state cut away Igala and join with some parts of Kwara. This reduced the number of ethnic groups as well as cultural representation in the state. Considering the fact that Western civilization came very late within the area compare to the north and south areas in Nigeria, this also affected development in a way. There is very little industrial development within the state and the people who constitute over ninety percent of traditional farmers (peasants) make their living through farm produce. Food is practically abundant and the state is a major source of food supply to the entire nation. This alone has earned Benue state the title of “FOOD BASKET OF THE NATION”.…

The Law of Attraction Versus the Law of Reversibility

Lately, I’ve been pondering which of these two laws is more relevant in these times… The Law of Attraction or the Law of Reversibility?

In reality, they are not in opposition, but rather they work together in harmony.

Unless you’ve spent the past few years in total isolation, its very likely that you’ve heard something about the Law of Attraction (LOA).

The basic premise of the LOA, is that like attracts like. In other words, the circumstances you are experiencing in your life are as a direct result of your dominating thoughts, both conscious and unconscious. Therefore, the Law is at work at all time, regardless of your awareness of it or attention toward it.

In 2006, a cinematic release entitled “The Secret” helped to catapult the Law of Attraction into the mainstream. Many people that were newcomers to the concepts of the Law mistakenly interpreted the content to mean that all you needed to do in order to fulfill your desires was to “ask” for something, focus your attention on it, and **POOF**, you’d magically get it!

…Just make a wish!

And sadly, many people (maybe even you?) have discounted the validity of the Law because they’ve failed to achieve measurable results from their initial attempts at applying the concepts in their lives.

But it’s not your fault…

The problem is that you weren’t taught anything about the Law of Reversibility. And without a working knowledge of THIS Law, your results are likely to be marginal, at best.

Yet it’s likely that you’ve never even heard of The Law of Reversibility, right?

It’s somewhat difficult to describe, but when you officially “get it”, your life may never be the same!

First, you must understand that all transformations of force are reversible. (Heat is an example of a transformation of force, as is electricity, or controlled imagination, and so is cause-and-effect).

For example, if friction (a transformation of force) can produce electricity, then The Law of Reversibility dictates that electricity can produce friction. Is this making sense to you?

To put it another way, if a physical fact can produce a psychological state, then IN REVERSE, a psychological state can produce a physical fact.

And why does this matter? Well…think of the implications…

If you knew exactly how you would feel if you were to realize your dream or objective, and could replicate that feeling mentally, physically, and psychologically (controlling your state of mind), then the Law of Reversibility would automatically cause your objective to be realized. Make sense?

Your job then, is to assume and sustain the exact feeling associated with your dream or goal being fulfilled, until such time that your dream objectifies itself. And in order to sustain that feeling, you must live, move, and BE in that state of belief…

The belief that you already ARE or HAVE that which you desire.

“Get it” yet?

Instead of just making a wish and concentrating on your desired outcome, I want you to assume the feeling of your …