Law is said to be the ultimate science. Law keeps societies functioning and in order. It is one of the most basic social institutions of society and without it society would destroy itself. Laws tell the members and governors of society about the manner in which they must act. These rules are enforced by police forces. Laws can be changed by popular demand or by the government. Lawyers and judges interpret the law and they’re duty is to act as an intermediary between the people and the law.
The law is divided into two main branches. These are – Public Law and Private Law. These two branches can be divided further but the distinction between the branches of private and public law is very small. The branches often overlap and it is only by convention that the branches exist.
The branches of public law are as follows:
1. Criminal Law: deals with crimes. These crimes can range from theft to murder. The laws under this section define the offences, states the rules of arrest, and the possible punishments. In most countries laws are defined by the constitution and the central or federal government. However in some countries like the United States, states have their own laws as well.
2. Constitutional Law: defines the rules and code of conduct for the government and its various departments. It also states the most basic rights of the people. These rights such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion are guaranteed to all citizens of that country. These rights are upheld by the courts throughout the country.
3. Administrative Law: governs the operations of government agencies. These are the agencies that regulate various aspects of our lives like banking, communications and trade. It also includes social welfare programs, social security and insurance.
4. International Law: This law is meant to make dealings among nations easier. This law is more like protocol and is very hard to enforce.
The branches of private law are as follows:
1. Contract and Commercial Law: These laws deal solely with matters that involve contracts among people. By definition a contract is a legal agreement among persons or people. Contracts are needed in order to carry out daily business. Disputes arising from contracts are dealt with under this section of the law.
2. Tort Law: These laws deal with injuries caused to a person by other individuals or companies. This includes the illegal use of a person’s property such as his or her name.
3. Property Law: As the heading suggests this section deals with the ownership and use of property. This property could anything from a building to a car.
4. Inheritance or Succession Law: These deal with the rights of inheritance of property. These laws are different in all countries.
5. Family Law: These govern the legal aspect of the family, such as the rules of adoption, marriage, divorce and child support.
6. Corporate Law: deals with business and stockholders. This branch is often classed together with …