Effective Negotiation

INTRODUCTION

The whole cosmic economy is interactive phenomenon of animate and inanimate objects. In addition, the objects are interdependent on each other for growth and survival. Human beings are epitome of Divine Creative Activity. The interactive feature of mankind is vital aspect of Divine Scheme of Creation. A rational-moral human interaction quickens / softens evolution of individuals & groups. Mankind faces multiple challenges during varied interactions. The most complex, harmful, and frequent problem of interactive life is miscommunication. It creates mutual hatred and distrust among individuals / groups / nations and leads towards conspiracies, rivalries, and wars. The very basis of miscommunication are Perceptual Errors.Perceptual errors produce misconception among individuals / groups so that miscommunication is surfaced. Consequently, the people involved brake contacts with each other and opt long silence or confrontation or indifference. The unwanted situation can be solved through negotiation. Negotiation is helpful in every sphere of interactive life; it is used to bridge the gaps between husband and wife, parents and children, entrepreneurs and workers, business partners, political leaders, etc. In order to realize successful negotiation we must understand ins and outs of negotiation. Negotiation is the conflict management process of communication to make a compromise/better solution.The successful negotiation is called Effective Negotiation. Effective negotiation is knowledge based, manner driven, and wisdom led negotiation. It creates pragmatic and satisfactory solutions for each party.

PERCEPTUAL ERRORS

Man is intelligent creation of Absolute Intelligence. The distinctive human trait, intellect or perceptual intelligence, make the human being supreme creation of universe. But, intellect can misjudge/misinterpret due to ignorance or lustful tendencies of human nature. Perceptual errors or intellectual mistakes lead to biases in information processing / final judgments. There may arise three types of perceptual errors in a communication process.

Generalization: –Small amount of information are used to draw universal conclusions, e.g., old people are conservative, this person is old so that is conservative, or a humble person is judged to be more honest than a scowling person, even there is no consistent relationship between conservativeness & age or courtesy and honesty. The multiple social rifts such as family rifts and neighborhood rifts are surfaced due to unscientific generalizations.

Projection: –It occurs when people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they have, for instance, a person feels that he will be frustrated if he were in the other position, then he is likely to perceive that the other person is frustrated. People respond differently to similar situations so that projection of own feeling to other may be incorrect. The multiple political mis-communications are generally due to wrong projections.

Power: – Power is an important leverage during interactions; it gives edge to one party over the other. Power develops the perception that you have power and you can impose a verdict, the power-perception limits viable options or can make someone wrongdoer, because, power has germs of corruption-development – in Acton’s words, ‘Power tends to corrupt and absolute powers corrupts absolutely.’ The major sources of power are – Information and Expertise, Control over resources, Location / Position in an organization. Power tactics should be used only as last resort. Ignoring temporal suitability of power tactics may create chaos in the environment; a chaotic situation has certain aftermath for the power user.

CHARACTERISTICS OF NEGOTIATION PROCESS

The prominent characteristics of a negotiation process are:

Interdependence: – In negotiation both parties need each other to arrive at some solution. This situation is called interdependence. Interdependence leads towards mutual adjustments during negotiation.

Mutual Adjustments: – Negotiating parties know that they can influence the other’s outcome and the other can in turn, influence their outcome. This mutual adjustment continues through out the negotiating process. Mutual Adjustments persuade the negotiating parties towards flexibility and concessions.

Flexibility and Concession: – Flexibility and concession is necessary for a settlement. In order to arrive at some acceptable outcome, it is essential to know what we want and what we are prepared to give to get something. It sounds simple but most people enter negotiations without planning their desired outcomes and believe that it is a matter of power or tactics The lopsided approach may lead towards failure. It is noteworthy that a lenient approach on concessions may lead towards unfair demands while strict approach towards concessions may create angry environ. An optimal mix of perceptual intelligence, emotional intelligence, & intentional intelligence is invoked for honest/accurate flexibility and concessions. A negotiation generally encounters two dilemmas:

  • Dilemma of Honesty: –The dilemma is concerned how much of the truth is to tell to other party. On the one hand, telling the person everything about your situation may give that person the opportunity to take advantage of you. On the other hand, not telling the other person anything about your needs and desires may lead to a deadlock due to lack of information. A principle stand towards information sharing is extremely effective for successful negotiation. It is noteworthy that the forgery of information/emotions is uncovered ultimately.
  • Dilemma of Trust: – The second dilemma is concerned with how much to believe of what the other party tells you. If you believe everything that the other party says, he/she may take advantage of you. If you believe nothing, there would be deadlock. The trust depends on many factors such as reputation of party, past experiences, and present circumstances. The principle, “truth is ever green” is very much relevant for successful negotiation; otherwise one has to speak countless lies to conceal one lie even then truth is exposed ultimately.

PATTERN OF NEGOTIATION PROCESS

There is no standard and scientific pattern of successful negotiation; however, a general outline can be prepared to start any negotiation.

Framing: –It is the conceptual platform by which the parties in a negotiation define the problem. For example, Kashmir issue between India and Pakistan can be negotiated on religious frame or on historical frame.

Goal Setting: –It gives foundation to negotiation. It is necessary for successful negotiation. Goal setting includes stating goals, setting goal priorities, identifying multi-goal packages.

Planning: –Effective planning requires hard work on number of steps, such as:

  • Defining Issues, (agenda) – Controlling the number and size of issues in the discussion,
  • Desirability of the defined issues – Enhancing the desirability of the options and alternatives that each party presents to the other,
  • Define Common interests / needs – Establishing a common ground on which the parties can find a basis for agreement on issues,
  • Research – It includes consulting related stakeholders, gathering information, developing supporting arguments, and analyzing the party.

Developing Strategy: –Strategy is an intentional work-pattern to achieve some goals. It is based on good planning. Strategy formulation modal of effective negotiation identify four elements to formulate effective strategies:

  • Choice: – negotiation is voluntary, i.e., a matter of choice and the solution cannot be imposed.
  • Constraints: – Negotiation outcomes are subject to some constraints. The modal suggests pragmatism over doctrine.
  • Interdependence: – Parties motives are interdependent,
  • Imperfect Information: – Parties have imperfect information about each others strengths / weaknesses.

TYPES OF NEGOTIATION

Distributive Negotiation

In win-lose / distributive bargaining parties seek their own maximum advantage through concealing information, misleading or using manipulative tactics. All these actions may lead towards bitterness or hostility. It is noteworthy that effective negotiation is an attempt to resolve a conflict with reason or without force. The second type of distributive bargaining is accommodative or lose-win strategy. One party is ready for some loss for the time being or in short run to achieve some long-run benefits.

Integrative Negotiation

It is win-win / cooperative negotiation. It allows both sides to achieve their goals. The multiple business links such as partnership and varied social linkages such as kinship are generally based on win-win approach, i.e., both parties get benefits from contact. The approach behind integrative negotiation is synergy, i.e., to expand/create possibilities so that benefits will be increased for all parties.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Negotiation is extremely complex phenomena. It demands knowledge, wisdom, and courtesy to arrive at some acceptable outcome for the negotiating parties. The decision-making process in negotiation passes through four phases:

Orientation In orientation phase, group members socialize, set up certain rules of communication, and agree on their reason for meeting.

Conflict In the conflict phase, parties begin to discuss their positions on the problem, the environment is filled with arguments / confrontation / war of words.

Emergence In the emergence phase, members arrive at some acceptable solution and put aside the differences and objections because they are convinced.

Reinforcement In the reinforced phase, group feelings are rebuilt, outcomes of negotiation are summarized for each party, and solution is implemented in a way to block future conflicts.

The negotiating parties come up with three solutions – win-win, win-lose, and lose-win. The principle behind the win-win strategy is that the parties in conflict can better solve their problem by working together than by waging war. The principle behind the win-lose strategy is that the parties in conflict can reap more benefits by manipulating the situation than by developing consensus. The decision about manipulation should be based on pure reason subject to certain moral values. Otherwise, it would be harmful for manipulator. The principle behind the lose-win or accommodative strategy is that the one party in conflict can reap more benefits in the long run by accommodating the other party in the short run. The decision about accommodative bargain should be based on pure reason subject to certain scientific evaluation; otherwise, it may be harmful for the accommodating party.

As Civilization Advances Culture Declines

Civilization and culture are two constellations that lie in the same continuum. Each influences and is in turn influenced by the other. Civilization is an advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record-keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions. This is basically a state of affair in a society at a particular time frame. The definition above suggests the advanced state of affair… in common parlance… but civilization may be traditional or not advanced.

People say Indus valley civilization or Egyptian civilizations which are primitive civilizations. On the other hand, culture means the ways of thinking, acting, behaving that people have internalized in them and which are transformed into reality through their actions in the society. For example, respecting the elders or treating guests as the God; as in “Atithi devo bhava” are examples of particular cultural traits. Here before proceeding any further one needs to understand the various constituents of the culture.

When one studies culture, two things can not be neglected; cultural traits and cultural complexes. Cultural traits are the individual acts that defy any scientific reason but are simply followed on the basis that they are rooted in tradition. The examples of cultural traits are folding hands in front of a deity or touching the feet of elders. The inter-related cultural traits form a cultural complex.

For example while performing a “pooja” one lights an “agarvati”, chants some hymns or devotional songs, offers “Prasad” to the lord etc. All these activities constitute the cultural complex. The inter-play and interaction of the different cultural complexes form the substratum of culture. With so much of epistemological differences between culture and civilization one needs to see what separates the both. Culture refers to those intrinsic and intangible elements that engulf human whereas civilization includes all the physical objects that are the exemplification of some objective realities.

Civilization is the human creativity, intellect and volition translated into reality whereas culture is the morality and intellect that remain as the under current of human thought. Civilization progresses thorough the vehicle of knowledge and technology whereas culture thrives in human mind and proceeds through tradition. But when one says they lie in the same continuum means culture determines the civilization. For example, that society where the dominant culture is heroism and hero-worships like the Sioux Indians their substrata of civilization is based on heroism, physical prowess.

Their chief industry is making weapons for hunting and defending own clan members. And their structure of authority and leadership also hovers around this principle only. But at the same time civilization also influences culture in many ways. The technical developments and objective rationality in knowledge inquires the truth among the traditional customs. Reinterpretation of cultural complexes and superstitions from a scientific point of view makes room for reinterpretation of culture. So culture and civilization influence each other. The present write up requires an analysis if the advancement of civilization makes way for decline of culture.

As described earlier culture is morality and civilization is reality. Culture resides in ideas and civilization spurns out of ideas. So it is quite easy to see the pre-occurrence of culture vis-à-vis civilization. But such a concomitance is not that easy as once civilization is formed it tends to affect the ideas or the culture which is the substrata of its very own self. The advancement of civilization affects culture in many ways. And the very common notion is that the advancement of civilization declines culture. But to analyze the statement one needs to understand what does the “word” decline mean here.

Decline means as usual lessening of importance given on culture. But it also means that the earlier cultural axioms which have been adopted without question by all, comes under the hammer of reason. And all such preconditions about culture which are rooted in irrationality are increasingly given up. For example with the spread of awareness and knowledge among the mass the traditions like “sati” etc are given up. But this cannot be called a s a decline of culture because it is a constructive effort to eradicate a social evil from society.

So when one tries to establish a concomitance between civilization and decline of culture one needs to have a thin line approach, where one needs to separate the constructive and beneficial changes in culture and the decline of culture. One needs to see what is implied by advancement of culture.

The very phrase “advancement of culture” refers to a dynamic process; a change. Why on earth there is a change in civilization. There is a change from one state of affair to the other when 1. The preceding state of affair has some contradictions inherent in it or 2. When there is a better or new way of doing things which are superior to those in the preceding state of affair. Both of these above reasons refer to two different epistemological paradigms but what connects the both is the thread of rationality or objectivity which in common parlance called as scientific understanding.

Civilization, as stated earlier the material developments of human beings, proceeds from a state of less scientific to more scientific one. One can go to history to trace the brief advancement of civilization. The earliest form of civilization was the human horde in the pre-historic ages. This was a civilization where man was last rational and succumbed to the nature. But gradually rationality and scientific inquest impinged the earlier man also and he devised such rudimentary tools to defend himself against the adversities in a forest life and also hunt animals for subsistence. The first historical act of human being “production” was also his first step towards rationality. And for the rest of history man is trying to increase rationality of thought, behavior and action.

The next civilizations be it the civilization of Egypt or Mesopotamia or the Indus valley all developed because man made more scientific inventions and used his reason to overcome the nature. This civilization took man’s intellect to a newer and higher level. His earlier horde culture was replaced by a family culture and the civilization influenced the culture. Of course the very birth of a civilization or in general an idea occurs in the human mind which is a purely cultural concept but when it becomes really existent it starts molding human mind and thereby culture.

Man’s progress from Bronze-iron ages to feudal age or industrial age or the modern age of today is the progression of rationality of thought from a lower level to a higher level. One cannot say that as civilization advances man becomes more rational. Rather when man becomes more rational civilization advances. And when civilization advances rationality creeps into society and culture comes under the hammer of scientific inquiry. So the irrational elements of culture are progressively shed off and hence the hold of culture on human mind declines.

Those cultural ideals which were prevalent in the yester years are rendered rather irrelevant by the progression of science and technology. In earlier days the farmers used to indulge in festivities to impress the Goddess of fertility to have good harvest. But now-a-days the farmer rather invests more money on tractors, insecticides and hybrid seeds than in cultural festivities to have a better yield. An epidemic like cholera or chicken pox is not perceived as a wrath of the presiding deity but treated by medically approved norms and procedures. So the advancement of civilization has created awareness among the mass and people are beginning to stride the kingdom of reasons.

The advancement of civilization is coincident with the advancement in science and technology. New technology and new methods of production requires a definitive change in the existing division of labor in society. And thus associated changes do occur in the cultural aspect of the economic society. With the prevalence of factory mode of production the labor forces have become mobile instead of the fixed labour in case of feudal economy. Mobile labor force gives rise to urban culture. So the earlier human culture which was predominantly rural has been diversified into a urban culture.

Certain norms and values of the rural society are not applicable in the urban society. So a certain amount of changes do occur in the culture. Some cultural traits are negated and some new cultural traits specific to the urban area people do develop. The earlier joint family structure breaks to give rise to the new neo-local nucleus family structure. Religious rituals in the daily life go to a back stage. And new subcultures like shopping mall culture, multiplexes and other agencies of entertainment become important in case of city life. So as culture advances there occurs a change in the culture.

In some cases the old cultural elements are thrown to back burner, new cultural traits arise or in some cases the old cultural elements are reinterpreted in a radically different way. But one has to agree that the advancement of civilization effects changes to the culture.The change in culture with associated advancement of civilization is not always in a constructive way as depicted above. Advancement of civilization especially the rise of urbanism as a way of life has effected some irreparable damages to our olden culture.

The most pronounced change in the culture is the break down of family. In the earlier societies the family was the most important unit of society. As it was also an economic unit there was not much division of labor in society and all the family members are involved in the same economic pursuit. There were greater dependence with each other along with greater volume and density of interaction amongst them. Family acted as a conditioning device in which people can bank on each other at times of stress. But the new urbanization has made family an atomistic entity as imagined by Zimmerman.

As the volume ad density of social interaction decreases due to the break down of the extended family the expectation of people from each other increases manifold in a nucleus family. So family instead of a soothing device becomes a pressure cooker as remarked by David Cooper in his master piece the death of family. Other psychologists like Robert Laing talk that the family itself has become the biggest enemy of man by putting him into a catch 22 situation of immense pressure and enormous expectations. So individual in the family itself is at the receiving end.

This results in break down families, divorces and other familial discord including domestic violence. So urbanization has clearly broken down the earlier existing harmonic family culture. The effect of the advancement of civilization is also felt in the sphere of the morality in society. The earlier society has prescribed certain moral codes of conduct. But with the advancement of civilization and progress of scientific thoughts the moral codes are under attack. Some of the moral codes are, no doubt, established in irrationality; but they help to represent the collective conscience and preserve the social harmony. But scientific thoughts do not think in that direction.

Moral codes are discarded like anything in the new society. The simpler norms like honesty, punctuality, integrity, brotherhood, camaraderie etc are forgotten and in turn importance is given on individuation. Too much individuation results in less degree of integration with the society. This results in individual conscience influencing the collective consciousness more and more. This results in deviant behavior, corruption, dishonesty and other such social evils. Advancement of civilization throws up new values and techniques which also give way for social mobility. New level of stratification are created, older levels are destroyed and modified.

This reduces man to a marginalized one. A marginal man does not know about norms to follow and what norms to abhor. He is in a state of flux which is rightly said as the state of anomie. Culture is an integrating force. But certain development in the level of sub-stratum like at the level of civilization weakens the impact of culture. This makes the socialization process unhealthy and weak. This causes a lot of strain in individual. In a society the individual has a very limited existence.

Compared to the enormity of the society the individual is minuscule and powerless. His existence depends on the collective representation. But the new norms of the modern civilization weaken the collective representation and man becomes less integrated with the society and feels great stress. Besides the modern values bring out some such basic changes in the existing culture that the culture that the morality of society is endangered. Adoption of western values and life styles, though they are not at all harmful, but highly unsuitable for the Indian society.

They lack the collective representation of Indian mass. So the western yo-man becomes marginalized in the great Indian tradition. Certain values like freedom in sexual endeavors etc are not accepted in India even today. The so called moral police add fuel to the situation and make the situation more difficult. The adoption of western values also increase the conspicuous consumption in society and that creates a great amount of social divide and polarization among the people.

Besides in the age of globalization when a society integrates itself with the global society especially in the sphere of economics there is always threat that the existing indigenous economic base may collapse. Civilization and culture are related with each other intricately. A change in the former creates a great stir in the later. Civilization advances through the advancement of ideas. These advanced ideas are bred in the mind of a few and the rest of the society do not share such advanced ideas. They stick to the traditional ideas which form their culture of the society.

When civilization advances there occurs a conflict between the reality and the idea possessed by the majority in the society. But as the reality always scores over the ideas, the advancement of civilization brings about change in culture. The change in culture may be a positive one or a destructive one. So one cannot emphatically say that advancement of civilization does not always bring about decline in culture though change in culture is inevitable.

However the inculcation of rational thinking and reasoning among the mass weakens the blind acceptance of culture. So the importance of culture in the society declines. S one can say, the importance of culture may be reduced in a modern civilization but the very culture, its ethos can never decline but they may change to adopt new norms and values.

Adoption of new norms or values may cause a stage of confusion and anomaly in the society but one need to understand that after this anti-thesis stage (anomic stage) there comes a stage of synthesis where new culture emerges, a culture more rational one. The more the culture becomes rational the less importance it exerts on individuals in the society. So the statement again may e repeated that the importance of culture may decline in the process of advancement of civilization but culture itself can never be negated in the society.

Ten Tips to Use the Law of Attraction to Win at Casino Gambling

The Law of Attraction is the Law of the Universe that states that what you think about and focus on is what you will physically draw into your life to experience.

But what if you wanted to create more money for yourself by winning at gambling. Will the Law work for you then? The answer is Absolutely! — as long as you are vibrating in the right place mentally while you are doing it.

You see, I know this for a fact because I have been both studying the Law of Attraction for 20 years as well as enjoyed gambling for approximately the same amount of time; and I can tell you without a doubt that as my studying and learning has progressed, so has my winnings and jackpots!

While this article will mostly be focused on winning at Video Poker games in casinos (because it is personally my favorite to play and I know the most about it) I am sure you will find a lot of tips here that can help you win at other games as well.

Here are a few simple tips to help you get into vibrational alignment with winning as well.

1. Don’t gamble with money you cannot afford to lose.

Now, this may sound like typical “moral” advice that anyone would tell you, but from a Law of Attraction standpoint it is especially important. The fact of the matter is, if you are playing with rent or bill money then you are playing with scared or guilt money! Playing with scared money will put you in a negative vibrational place right from the start and will make it much more difficult to draw more money to you.

If money is a little tight right now – start a JACKPOT JAR in your home. (Be sure to write Jackpot Jar on it by the way. This way every time you look at it you are giving yourself a positive affirmation. Eventually you will come to believe that that is exactly what it is. ) Put some money in it every week. It doesn’t matter if it is $2, $5 or $10. Just put a little aside until you have accumulated the amount you would like to bring to the casino with you. Maybe you can cash in the penny or change jar you have sitting in the corner of your bedroom that is doing nothing.

The point is to go on your trip with “guilt-free” or “fear free” money. You will automatically be in a better vibrational place knowing that it really doesn’t matter if you win or lose it, as long as you have fun!

2. Visualize Winning Before You Go

My father was one of the luckiest Video Poker players I have ever met. When he hit, it was usually for some pretty big amounts. I remember a $13,000 jackpot, a few $8,000 jackpots and too many $4,000 and $1,000 jackpots to count.

Now the funny thing is my father didn’t technically believe in the Law of Attraction per se, but a favorite hobby of his was to daydream (or visualize) about his next trip to Atlantic City and how he was going to win. He would say things like “First I am going to go to the quarter machine and hit $1,000 there, then I am going to take that money and go play the dollar machine and hit $4,000 there and then I am going to sit for an hour or two winning smaller amounts until I hit the big one.” (Is it any wonder I am a fan of Video Poker when I see someone win at it so easily?)

Now again, he didn’t do these visualizations as a “technique” to help him win, he just did it because it was fun for him think about. Regardless of the reason why he was doing it – I can tell you it absolutely worked!

It got to the point where if he won less than 3 jackpots in a weekend, it was considered a “slow” weekend.

Eventually he got so good at winning – the thought of losing didn’t even enter his mind. And Law of Attraction being what it is (what you think and believe is what you get) he hardly ever did lose.

So start visualizing winning before you even go. Start small if a “huge jackpot” seems too unbelievable to you. Say O.K. first, I’ll win $100 here, then win $300 there. Imagine the perfect hands that will be dealt to you. Feel the excitement you would feel as if you had really won. Envision yourself counting a huge wad of bills on your trip home and how good it feels. Do this as often as possible before your trip so you are already on a great vibrational level before you even arrive at the casino.

3. Practice at Home

If you are reading this, chances are you have access to the internet. The internet has tons of free sites where you can practice “winning.”

Find your favorite game free online and practice how winning feels. (Don’t pay attention to any losing hands in your free play) just focus on how “easy” it is to win. Feel as if you are playing with real money. Feel the excitement, feel your confidence grow as you get one winning hand after another.

Now that you are fully prepared for your trip, here are more tips for when you get there:

4. Watch Your Words

While negative thoughts can keep you from winning, those thoughts spoken aloud can be ten times more powerful. Be careful not to fall into typical “casino talk” that is so common for players. For instance:

How much are you down?

How much money do you have left?

Nobody seems to be hitting today (or the opposite).

Everybody seems to be hitting today except me.

I’m never lucky in this place.

I can’t get any play.

I can’t seem to do anything

I hate this placev

This place Sucks!

Remember, Universe is following your lead. When you utter these kinds of thoughts and feelings, universe responds as always by bringing more of it to you.

Try more positive statements such as:

My winning machine is calling to me right now, I just have to listen.

My jackpot is waiting for me here somewhere and I am going to find it.

The right machine is going to jump right out at me.

I love coming here, I always have such a good time!

5. Truly Enjoy The Game While You Are Playing

Stop focusing on the credits that are going in and out or the amount of chips left on the table and bring your focus back to the enjoyment of the game itself.

There have been many times, especially in Video Poker where I have gone into “auto-mode”. I have been playing the game for so many years, that not much thought is needed to automatically hold certain cards that are dealt in a hand. Unfortunately this leaves my attention open to focus on the amount of credits in the machine instead, and if the amount is going down, my vibration goes with it.

I have since learned to refocus on the fun of the game itself. I now slow down my auto response. I sometimes pretend to be a novice to the game. I get myself deliberately excited over something as little as a pair of 2’s that are dealt to me, wondering how cool it would be to draw another one –possibly even two more of them! Yeah! I no longer wait for only the “big” hands to get me excited. I purposely enjoy the game. The more I enjoy, the more I am vibrating positively. The more I am vibrating positively, the more good hands I bring to myself that give me something to be genuinely happy about.

So slow it down. Remember why you are there. To have fun. If you are focused on having fun, the money will come naturally.

6. Switch Up Your Game

Did you ever wonder why “beginners luck” occurs so often? I firmly believe it is because a person who doesn’t know how a game is played, can’t have any negative thoughts or resistance associated with it.

An experienced video poker player may know that 9 out of 10 times that 5th card for the Royal Flush will not come up, but a novice has no idea. So where an experienced player might not believe it is going to happen because it is usually difficult, a novice has no such mental resistance.

If you feel you are not having any luck at your usual game of choice, go play a game you have no clue about. I can’t tell you how many times I have won money and didn’t even know what I hit or did to get it. What fun! Then I take the winnings from that and go back to my usual game with a whole new winning vibration.

7. Go on a Good Luck Charm Treasure Hunt

So, do good luck charms really work? We are talking about Law of Attraction here, so obviously they will work if you believe they will.

Does it have to be a certain charm? Not at all. My mother and I have been going to Atlantic City together for years. One of our favorite things to do when things are going slow is go on a Good Luck Charm Treasure hunt.

When someone wins a machine jackpot, the casinos place little white cards in the coin slot that says “Congratulations! You are a winner!, as the person is getting paid. Quite often people leave these lying around and I love to find them and use them as my good luck charm because they already have winning associated with them. If however, after 4 or 5 hands they haven’t brought any luck, we look for other things.

Sometimes it can just be a swizzle stick lying around. I will pick it up and hold it out as if it is the Holy Grail and claim “This is it! This is the one!” and gently place it on my machine. We’ve had more fun coming up with the strangest of charms to use and experiment with.

One time we drew a little Kilroy figure on a piece of paper. (You know the guy with the big nose and hands looking over the wall?). We put him on the top of our machine and had all sorts of fun with him. We would rub his little bald head before hitting the play button. My mom would turn him over and make him face the wall if he didn’t give us the second hand we wanted. We ended up having such a good time and so many laughs, that we ended up doing very well that day.

Now don’t get me wrong, I’m not saying it was “Kilroy” who made us win, but we were having so much fun playing with him, our mood and vibration so light and happy, that Universe had no choice but to respond in kind and matched our vibration with lots of winning hands and money. Remember it is all about the vibration you are sending out. Abundant good feelings brings more abundance in other ways.

8. If You Can’t Change Your Negative Vibe – Walk Away For Awhile

Sometimes no matter what you do, you can’t shake a losing attitude. If you find this happening to you it is time for a little mental distraction. You know the saying “No sense in throwing away good money after bad”

If you are operating from a negative place, it will only bring more negative (i.e. more losing). So it is time to walk away for awhile and change your mood in other ways. If you are lucky enough to have a hotel room go there for awhile. Rent a $10.00 comedy on the television (believe me you would lose a lot more than that if you kept playing negatively for 2 hours on the casino floor) and lighten your mood.

Maybe go window shopping in the Casino mall, listen to the live band playing in the lounge, go for a walk on the boardwalk or the strip. Go get yourself a great snack or meal you would normally not eat at home. Up your vibration, feel better and then go back and play. Again, it is all about vibration.

9. Put Your Emotion Into Your Winning Hands – Not Your Losing Ones

Let’s say you have 4 cards to a winning hand dealt to you and you do not pull the last card that you need. What is your immediate first response? Do you feel hopeful that at last the cards are starting to line up for you and a winning hand is on its way soon or do you feel disappointment or anger that you “missed” it and find yourself fuming for the next 20 minutes.

Again, your vibrational reaction makes all the difference. If you focus only on the hands you didn’t win guess what you will get? More non-winning hands. If you put your emotion into the excitement of the winning hands, no matter how small, guess what you will get? More winning hands.

Learn to change your focus and put more of your happy emotion into the winning hands only. This leads us to the last and most important tip to winning more with the Law of Attraction.

10. Gratefulness

Personally I have found that nothing helps me win more than constant gratefulness while I am playing. If I win even as little as 5 coins I will say “Thank you Universe and more of that please!” Like I mentioned above, I purposely get myself more excited about the wins and have learned to feel little or no emotion at the losses. I also make a concentrated effort to appreciate every thing around me. I am grateful for the air conditioned casino in the summertime. The fun sounds and lights I am surrounded by. The free drinks. The shouts of people winning at the craps table across the casino ( I love hearing the excited sounds of others winning! It boosts my spirits and makes me want to win even more, so I can share in the excitement.) I enjoy the company of the people I go down to the casino with, the food in all the restaurants, the clean hotel room.

Remember the reason you went was to have fun. Make that your priority and Universe will respond in kind and make sure it is fun for you.

Happy Creating!

Public Administration Vs Private Administration

Most authors differentiate public administration and private administration by educational institutions (public schools vs. private schools). Although it’s a good example to provide a comprehensive analysis between the two sectors, I found it not the quintessence for a comparative analysis. Historically, in our country, public schools have a much higher quality education than private schools, and studying economics and public administration, it is not just the nature of bureaucracies, nor the scope of public administration that the case today was reversed. While some authors identified over a dozen factors that differentiates public to private administration, Denhardt only speaks of the three fundamental differences between the two. In this paper, I would elaborate Denhardt’s three points since, together with economist Boadway’s Difference between Public and Private Sector, I found these as the most undisputable and concrete comparisons.

The most apparent difference between the two sectors is their organizing principles or goal. (Denhardt) While private administration has a definite mission, which is the pursuit of profit or stability or growth of revenues, public administration, on the other hand, has ambiguous purposes. Furthermore, the dilemma in ambiguity of purposes is exacerbated by too many unnecessary and inoperable agencies, with purposes that overlap and bloated bureaucracies. One might say that the goal of public administration is to enact public policies, but the overlapping and the main ambiguity of most of these policies, and the vagueness of the enactment of these policies make public administration’s purpose to be more ambiguous. Nevertheless, the fact that public institutions are not profit driven, should not lead us to believe that public sector employees and managers are not concerned about financial matters. As is the case with private companies, public sector units and organizations fight for funding and influence.

Another factor that makes the public sector different from the private is decision making. (Denhradt) In public administration, the decision must be and should be pluralistic. The founding fathers intentionally created a democratic republic where all key decisions are made in politicized environment. This allows for maximum participation: open debate, multiple veto points – a decision making hierarchy where consensus must be achieved at each level, ideally, an informed decision. While private administration’s decision-making is much more simple- it’s monopolistic or close to monopolistic. This type of decision-making would avoid any conflicts in interest; hence, the goal is clearly defined.

The visibility of public administrators is another notable difference between public and private sector. While a manager in a private business may work in relative obscurity, the public manager must operate in the public eye. His or her actions are constantly subjected to public scrutiny. (Denhardt) The publicness of the work of the public manager doesn’t end in merely carrying out public policy, the public manager has to respond to the demands of the public. Denhardt speaks of the “inevitable tension” between efficiency and responsiveness, the pressure to manage effectively and to be simultaneously responsive to public concerns. This pressure often leaves public organizations in a “no-win” situation, trying to serve a public that demands effective government but balks at paying for it (taxes). The public also demands accountability in government, an assurance that those who formulate, implement and administer public programs will act responsibly.

One quality that makes public sector different from private is in the form of unit analysis. (Boadway) Apart from publicly owned-companies, most public institutions are part of a larger chain of command and control where it is harder to draw a line between the different parts of the system- and where legal frameworks provide little help in this. For instance: public agencies- like research councils or directorates of health- interact closely with ministries as well as subordinate institution and “users”. The innovation activities in these institutions are heavily influenced by decisions made above and below the chain of commands. The closest parallel to private sector will be large conglomerates or multinational companies. The complex system of organizations with various (and to some extent conflicting) tasks, is one of the reasons for the inefficiency of public administration. Although, some authors in public administration, such Woodrow Wilson in The Study of Public Administration, where he reiterated that the evolution of public administration together with its complex system and increasing number of bureaucracies is to complement the population growth, but a population with sufficient number of agencies to manage them and with high marginal productivity for each public employee, is better than a bloated bureaucracy with little or zero marginal productivity, and worse, unnecessary and redundant purpose.

Lastly, although political aspect is both apparent in public and private sector, political aspect is more important in the public than in the private sector. Policy decisions normally affect companies directly and indirectly, through laws, regulations and financial support. The public sector is at least formally controlled by elected politicians. The intimate link between this governance dimension and funding of current expenses of the activities implies a very strong link between ownership and control on the one hand and the growth strategies of the subsidiary organizations.

4 Important Steps in Starting a Barber School

The demand for barbers and beauticians will continue to increase over the next several years. This industry will always be in high demand as long as men, woman, and children grow hair. Individuals with a barber’s license from an accredited school will always have the potential to earn top dollar with in this industry. With the demand for barbers, beauticians and stylist continuing to grow, so will the demand for schools where a potential barber can enroll and attain ample knowledge and training in order to become licensed.

The First Step: Creating a Business Plan & Raising Capital

Taking the time out to write an in depth business plan for your barber school. With this step it is imperative that you include a description and mission statement of the school. Include your marketing strategy, researched facts regarding other barber schools in the immediate area and any information on the schools insurance coverage. It is important to provide all documentation highlighting the financial records and needs. These needs should include how much capital you will begin with when the school starts and how you plan to raise the additional needed funds.

The Second Step: Raising Capital

By contacting your states Department of Education you will be able to apply for government grants and loans that are available. This is an important step to begin the process of getting the money you need to raise your start up capital. Working with a bank to complete and submit your loan applications is a must, unless you have all the money you’ll need to get started.

The Third Step: Attaining Insurance Coverage

Begin this step by speaking to local insurance providers. Be mindful that you will need to purchase enough insurance to cover damages (fire, flood & theft), as well as sufficient liability coverage. Speak with your insurance provider about employee coverage, such as workmen’s compensation, disability and unemployment benefits. Doing this will guarantee your school has ample coverage your students and instructors.

The Fourth Step: inventory

Communicate with different beauty wholesalers to get the best priced equipment for you. Comparing the costs of styling chairs, work stations, hair products, mirrors, scissors etc., will be beneficial to you when making sure you purchase enough inventory to supply sufficient training

Once these first 4 steps are complete you will be able to breathe a little easier. Nobody said this was going to be easy; however anything you work hard enough to attain will posses huge advantage when it’s all said and done. Being the owner of your own barber school will be extremely rewarding if you give it your absolute best. Providing individuals with the knowledge they’ll need to succeed in a field they love will make all the hard work worth it in the end.

The Importance of Uniform Badge Insignia in Military and Law Enforcement

Webster’s dictionary defines uniform as n: dress of a distinctive design or fashion worn by members of a particular group and serving as a means of identification. Insignia is defined as badge of authority of honor an emblem as a distinguishing mark or sign. Wikipedia’s definition also verifies, “Insignia (the plural of Latin insigne: emblem, symbol) is a symbol or token of personal power, status or office, or of an official body of government or jurisdiction. Insignia are especially used as an emblem of a specific or general authority”.

In the majority of currant applications those groups that are organized to protect something or some one all wear both uniforms and shoulder sleeve patches. This would include the military, law enforcement units e.g. police, sheriff deputies, state troopers, government security organizations, government civilian law enforcement units e.g. Homeland Security, park rangers, and private security units to name a few. The various military patches available to a person authorize to wear on their dress uniforms will tell the complete story of that person’s service.

The concepts behind uniform patches have a well-documented history going back beyond 5000 years in China and Egypt. The efficacy of the visual impact is well understood and has many reasons to be firmly established in modern day implementation. Whether it is a casual information contact or a potential hostile action a person of authority’s identity needs to be quickly and unequivocally established. Insignia on an appropriate uniform do that quickly and efficiently.

Certain U.S custom made patches are even authorized to be worn on civilian clothing of veterans, and retired veterans. It would include Badges medals and ribbon earned while in the service of their country and when worn for certain occasions relating to military functions. This use of uniform emblems and other insignia can follow a person into the grave. It is very common for a fallen comrade especially in military and law enforcement units to honored in death by being buried in the uniform.

The variety of multiple colors of the uniform emblems and the rank emblems and badges make it easy to differentiate one officer from another by the uniform and the insignia place upon it. This has been a standard for American uniforms since the beginning of the American Revolution.

The need for uniform identity in a hostile environment warrants different considerations. This also generates some identity conflicts. One has to be specifically identified, be protected from bodily harm, and at the same time not be seen. These conflicting needs have generated some novel solutions.

The vast Saunders Military Insignia inventory attracts people who are serving or have served in various Military units, military insignia collectors with a love for the military and the beauty of the uniforms and different insignia they represent. We have helped U.S. Military insignia collectors in over 30 different countries and Supplied museums and American unit enactors in several countries with the items they need to advance their programs. We have made many custom made patches including insignia for law enforcement. We have even provisioned several movies with the appropriate U.S. Army insignia representing the time period of the film story involved.

Benjamin Disraeli – The Great British Conservative Leader Who Introduced the Public Health Act

Benjamin Disraeli, First Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-81) was a great British statesman and novelist. He was born in London and came from a Jewish family that had converted to Anglicanism.

He was a most ambitious and a larger than life individual. He dressed in colorful clothes. He always chose his words carefully and spoke only when he had something memorable and witty to say.

He began life working for three years in a lawyer’s office. He then – unsuccessfully – tried to start a newspaper.

His first big breakthrough was when he achieved fame and success as a popular novelist. His first novel was Vivian Grey (1826). The most famous of his many novels were perhaps his two political novels, Coningsby (1844) and Sibyl (1845).

Disraeli joined the Conservative Party and in 1837 he entered the British Parliament as the member for Maidstone.

His first speech to Parliament was heckled by other Members of Parliament who disliked his flowery manner of speaking and his colorful clothing. In concluding his speech, he made the famous reply: “Though I sit down now, the time will come when you will hear me.”

He became the leader of the Young England movement, which was home to that section of the Conservatives known as the Romantic Tories. The Romantic Tories were political conservatives who were critical of the effects of the Industrial Revolution that were occurring in Great Britain at that time. They believed that the monarchy and the church were the natural protectors of the agricultural and industrial working classes and were suspicious of the Industrial Revolution’s tendency to destroy the traditional protections and obligations which had been in place in Britain since time immemorial.

He also opposed the free trade policies of his fellow Conservative, Sir Robert Peel. Peel engineered the repeal of the Corn Laws (1845-46), which controlled the price of wheat and of other types of grain via the imposition of protective tariffs on the import of foreign grain. Instead, Disraeli favored protectionism to protect British agriculture and industry. In later days, Disraeli stopped supporting protectionism to a large extent, having come to the view that the Corn Laws had mostly favored the interests of landowners and hurt the poor.

While in Parliament, Disraeli became Chancellor of the Exchequer three times and then became the leader of the Commons (the lower house of the British Parliament). In the latter role, he introduced the Reform Bill of 1867.

Disraeli served as prime minister of the United Kingdom for two terms – first, in 1868, and then, later and more extensively, in the period 1874-80. During his second prime ministership, he promoted British imperialism (that is, the extension of the British Empire) and a forward foreign policy. In 1876 he passed legislation conferring on Queen Victoria a new title: Empress of India.

Disraeli led Britain into the Second Afghan War (1878-79) and into the Zulu War (1879), and he sought to lessen the power and influence of Russia.

He showed much skillful diplomacy in protecting Britain’s foreign interests. He stopped a war between Russia and Turkey by sending a British fleet to the Dardanelles. By such measures he checked Russian imperialism in Turkey and the Balkans.

In the 1878 Congress of Berlin, Disraeli successfully promoted a treaty that was most favorable to Britain. He persuaded Otto von Bismarck, the German Chancellor, to support his treaty and its clauses keeping Russia out of the Mediterranean Sea. His treaty, which restricted the power of Britain’s opponent, Russia, incidentally contributed to European peace at that time and was praised by Bismarck for doing so.

During his second administration, Britain became half-owner, with Egypt, of the Suez Canal (1875). This move gave Britain power over Egypt and, more importantly, over the Suez Canal, that vital but vulnerable component in the new shorter and quicker route between Britain and its colonies in Asia, East Africa and the Pacific Ocean.

Disraeli also passed legislation codifying and extending certain social reforms – for example, slum clearance and urban renewal, the Public Health Act of 1875, and more rights to workers to join trade unions and promote their interests. However, it should be noted that many of these measures had been originally initiated under the administration of Disraeli’s predecessor and great rival, the Liberal William Gladstone.

GST Implementation in Malaysia – The Argument

There were many responses when the Malaysian government first announced the Financial Budget for Malaysia, year 2010, both good and bad. But when they were undecided about GST, it sparked more conversation on whether it’ll benefit the Rakyat, or further threaten poorer communities in Malaysia.

What goods GST covers

As proposed by our dear government, GST covers all types of goods & services sold to Malaysian & non-Malaysian residents (therefore consumers) except for a common commodities such as rice, flour & sugar.

This goes to mean: Whenever you walk into your favorite hypermarket with the family to get some groceries in the future, you will be charged additional ~{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} (the proposed additional 4{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}) on top of your bill except for certain controlled items.

Further, Malaysia’s main revenue shouldn’t just live off petroleum. In other words, we shouldn’t put all eggs in one basket because petroleum revenues have risks of its own, seeing that it’s a natural resource.

What reason did they give? More funds for development and expenses.

How much would they probably get? RM1 billion (RM1,000,000,000) per annum in estimated rounded-up revenue.

Will it hurt the poor & middle class?

To a certain extent, it will somehow affect pockets of middle and lower income group Malaysians.

The arguments:

  1. Recent price hike in petrol, prices of commodities have increased drastically. And now another one called GST?
  2. Income tax brackets for high earners aren’t as ‘expensive’ as middle-to-low income groups.
  3. The Malaysian government has saved approximately RM2 billion (RM2,000,000,000) by lowering fuel subsidies – What’s the take on GST now for lower income groups?
  4. GST is tax on SPENDING. Basically, everything from parking fees to purchasing mattress. Even with GST-exempted items, this would still hit lower income groups in Malaysia.
  5. Private sectors aren’t paying much to Malaysians – Other more developed countries such as Singapore could take this hit because wages & salaries are much higher.
  6. Other countries such as Britain, India, Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore has GST – Doesn’t mean GST has to be implemented in Malaysia. Their economic status and way of gaining revenue varies from Malaysia. (GST is also called VAT – Value Added Tax in other countries)
  7. Inflation may happen. Prime Minister Mr. Najib has guaranteed no inflation – But with the introduction of GST, the chain of ‘passing the cost’ will end up usually at the hands of consumers.
  8. Corruption isn’t a rare thing in Malaysia – So businesses has already included ‘corruption prices’ in goods & services. How does that not reflect additional costs to consumers?
  9. Out of inflation pressures, higher prices for goods & services are sought.

Prime Minister Mr. Najib has promised Malaysians that they will be tabling a public discussion on GST (called the GST Bill) on December. There are also several upsides that could be seen – But until Mr. Najib tables the meeting on GST Bill, we shouldn’t be skeptical of anything yet.

Other side of the GST story

GST has been said to promise a few things:

  1. Implementation will not be abrupt. It will be a slow & steady tax preparation so that individuals and small businesses will not be adversely affected.
  2. It will replace the 10+5{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} services and goods tax. This means taxes are lower now – Consumers need not pay more for one area, but it’s divided into many other source of ‘tax’ payments.
  3. GST rates are promised at 4{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}, out of the normal 10{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} or 5{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} charged in restaurants.
  4. Implementation will not occur until middle to late 2011 or 2012. Planning time is essential to not put ‘inflation pressure’ on small businesses.
  5. Government’s coffers will increase. This will enable further development and budget control to the country, other than relying just on petroleum or income tax revenues.
  6. Tax when consumed, not when earned is much better. It allows better control. Spending influences will be “Careful” and “More controlled” when purchasing on higher prices are made rather than “taxable incomes” generated from work.
  7. It’s a broad-based tax system. Some items may be slightly more expensive & cheaper. It’s not a overall standardized taxation method.

Your opinion on GST

Of course, there are many pros and cons of the new GST system – And the implementers should look more intricately into all income groups, balance their sheets and understand what are the effects first. While we can only propose so much, there’s only so much we can do.

Here are some of the ‘preparation techniques’ the tablers of the GST Bill can adopt:

  1. Be intricate with details: Tax is a complicated subject, like a science of its own. If you make the subject complicated, it may lead to more misunderstandings and later, more arguments.
  2. Introduce ‘layman terms’ for further understanding. Giving examples always help. Examples on implementations always help. Tell a story to the public – And make it make sense to them.
  3. Use other form of publicity media: Tabling the GST Bill on national newspapers and mass media isn’t going to cut it. Find other means such as introduction campaigns Malaysia-wide.
  4. Engage community understanding: Allow certain private and public (individual or company) figures to table talks and debates on GST Malaysia-wide. This encourages engagement and allows more problems & solutions to be seen.

The Malaysian government or finance department has a long time more (approximately 15 – 20 months) to table talks around Malaysia with regards to GST.

Delegated Media Regulation Within the Context of Broadcasting in South Africa

Introduction

This paper discusses the concept of delegated media regulation within the context of broadcasting in South Africa. It briefly discusses the history of media regulation during the apartheid period; the transformation of broadcasting media from an authoritarian government, to a liberalised media, the impact of the transformation with regards to internal media policies; focusing mostly in broadcasting media policy. The paper will then discuss the formation of independent regulatory agencies by government as delegated bodies; to monitor broadcasting media. These include the Independent Broadcasting Act of 1993 (IBA), the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (SATRA) and the merger to the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA), the Broadcasting Complaints Commission of South Africa (BCCSA), and the existence of the Media Diversity and Development Agency (MDDA). In discussing these bodies, the paper will look at the role played by these organisations in regulating broadcasting media, and the impact they have in the development and monitoring of broadcasting media.

Brief History

Apartheid affected every single aspect of South Africa, including the media. Laws that regulated the media were tailor-made to restrict freedom of expression and subject the media to the extremes of the apartheid government. Before the rise of democracy, South Africa showed essential features of aristocracy; which consisted of whites, Indians and coloured people nominated to the legislative assembly. The ideology of apartheid brought division among the South African society along racial lines. The divisions in society and domination of the majority by the minority were reflected in policy formulation; which included stipulations that restricted the media (Fourie, 2004: 168). This was evident as the government exercised its powers in the broadcasting media. When the SABC was established in parliament, it was said to be the public broadcaster; but this was not the case. Because of political philosophies related to the political values of the society and those in power at the time, the SABC was the state broadcaster and not a public broadcaster; and as a result was said to be the apartheid state’s most powerful propaganda tool Dennis Jjuuko (2005: 3).

According to Jjuuko “The assumption to political power by the National Party in 1948 meant the Afrikanerisation of the SABC, which was achieved largely through controls of the board.” Jjuuko continues to say that during this time the SABC had to play a “significant role in the politics of the day, with no space to make independent editorial decisions.” This particularly had a negative impact on the importance on the SABC’s internal policies. As a result the SABC was referred to as “his master’s voice”, as it gave the government a platform to articulate the apartheid ideology, to control the people of South Africa; particularly blacks.

In support of this argument, one of the main laws that restricted media freedom was the one that reduced the broadcast/publication of activities of anti-government black groups. Fourie (2004) argues that from the apartheid laws “one can deduce that the public interest was very narrowly defined. (That) Many laws/policies of the apartheid regime only made provision for the interest of the minority and the security for their dominant position.”

Even though freedom of speech was in the constitution, it was not enshrined in the Bill of Rights, thus media freedom was not guaranteed. According to Fourie government/external policies forced the media to operate in a very restrictive legal framework; with more than 100 laws that restricted the conduct of journalists as well as media content. Government had the right to ban publications and to insist on the approval of media content before publication. This made the reporting of misconduct of government officials very difficult; and criticising the state was out of the question.

2. Transformation of broadcasting media

The transition to democracy during the mid 1990s raised questions on how to transform the media as an organ of “racist ideology into a forum of the advancement of national unity and equality” (Ashley Dawson). The transformation of the media incorporated issues of deregulation, liberalisation, diversification, industrialisation, convergence and privatisation. Also to be taken into account were economic issues, social and/ cultural issues, which include nationalism, local languages and cultural diversity; political issues-focusing on freedom of expression and freedom of speech, as well as the control and regulation of the media.

Early 1990, the National Party saw itself being influenced to take a liberal policy route in its broadcasting policies. This was due to the formation of a Task Group which was led by Professor H.C Viljoen, on Broadcasting in South Africa. The findings of the Task Group were not at all in favour of the apartheid government broadcasting policies. The recommendations were of a programming that “would cater for all sections of the general public” (Jjuuko, 2005). In a place of serving government, the SABC was to serve the public. The findings were clearly influenced by a functionalist paradigm and not power as was the case before.

Early 1994, the National Party (NP) and the African National Congress (ANC) agreed for the “SABC not to be used as a tool for political abuse” (Berger, 2004). Pressures rose as media practitioners were threatened by police and political activists, trying by all means to interfere with internal media policies and decisions. Media freedom was then enshrined in the constitution, as the right to information and freedom of speech.

Internal media policy

Internal policy can not be excluded from the external policy framework, for it is always formulated within the parameters of the external framework. This is due to the link between the media, economic and political structure of a country. Fourie (2001:190) states that “Internal media policy formulation takes place within the structure and operation of a medium itself. (And that) Gatekeepers are generally responsible for policy formulation on this level.”

A new political dispensation in South Africa impacted on the internal policy formulation of South Africa’s public broadcaster. There were also changes in the legal framework in the country, as the media could not broadcast nor publish certain information. “The unbanning of political organisations and political leaders in 1990 had an immediate impact on media internal policy” (Fourie). This was due to the fact that the apartheid news policy specified that the SABC would not offer a platform to opposition parties (Fourie, 2001). After 1990, the media experienced a more liberal working environment as the laws that restricted the media were amended; living more room for internal media policy.

As media democracy was in transition, government saw a need to delegate control to independent regulatory bodies to deal with media policy. These independent bodies would perform duties of allocation of frequency spectrum and licensing, the monitoring of broadcasters’ compliance with licence conditions, including content issues and competition, as well as protecting and upholding the editorial and programming independence of all broadcasters. All these changes were inevitably going to have an impact on both the power and importance of internal media policies over government external policies in both print and broadcasting media.

3. Independent regulatory bodies

3.1 SATRA – IBA – ICASA

Fourie argues that “The narrow articulation of the public interest by the previous government was also clearly reflected in telecommunications policy formulation and the implementation of this policy under apartheid.” As in broadcasting and print media, freedom to better services and access to this sector featured strongly in its policy formulation; also the application of universal service as a policy instrument reflected the historical inequalities of the South African society (Fourie, 2001).

The rise to democracy saw South Africa taking cognisance of the international trends; which included the deregulation of the telecommunications and broadcasting, and the phasing out of monopolies. Also technological developments which include convergence between broadcasting and telecommunications impacted on the regulation of both sectors.

The emergence of the first democratic elections in South Africa also lead to the transformation of the SABC as a public broadcaster; thus the formation of the Independent Broadcasting Act (IBA)1993, and the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of 1996. SATRA was established as an independent body to regulate the telecommunications industry. Also as the independent regulator SATRA had to balance the interests of consumers, and the stakeholders in Telkom as well as the market participants. The formation of these two bodies was due to the need to ensure the development of the media in areas of public broadcasting, commercial and community broadcasting, and lastly to guard against internal media policy.

As part of the transformation the IBA called for the Triple Inquiry, which stated that the independence of the media is a central public principle which ensures editorial freedom (Triple Inquiry Report, 1995). In 1995 the government indicated that it “fully recognised and accepted the role of the media to be a critical commentator on government activity in the country” and that “the media should be beyond the control of government” (Johnson, 1996: 297, sited in Steyn).

The IBA was subsequently merged with SATRA in 2000 to form the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA). The merger was to ensure effective and seamless regulation of the telecommunications and the broadcasting sectors as well as to accommodate the convergence of technologies. Through the formation of this independent regulatory body, it was then decided that editorial independence together with internal media policies were of outmost importance; that the broadcaster (using the SABC as an example) should safeguard its editorial independence to ensure its credibility as a national source of reliable and regular information.

As the democracy years rolled over, successive ministers of communication attempted to claw back some of the forfeited control over electronic communications, and correspondingly reduce some of the independence for the players involved. This trend has also been in broadcasting. “Government has felt that SABC has been law unto itself in deciding how to deliver on, and be accountable for, its legally enshrined mandate” (Berger, 2005). This is what led to the introduction of editorial policies in the SABC, which was initiated by the Broadcasting Amendment Bill of 2002. In embracing the importance of these internal media policies; parliament declared the independent regulator ICASA; which works at arms length from the government to approve them.

ICASA derives its mandate from ICASA Act of 2000, the Independent Broadcasting Act of 1993, Broadcasting act of 1999, and Telecommunications Authority Act of 1996. ICASA’s mandate includes the regulation of broadcasting in the public interest, and to perform adjudication functions. As part of delegated media regulation, ICASA works hand-in-hand with the Broadcasting Complaints Commission of South Africa. The BCCSA was set up by National Association of broadcaster of Southern Africa in 1993 to adjudicate and mediate complaints against broadcasters/broadcasting licence holders.

ICASA also ensures fairness and diversity of views broadly representing South African society. One of its objectives is to ensure that in the provision of broadcasting services, the needs to language, cultural and religious groups, and the need of educational programmes, are taken into consideration (ICASA Position Paper 2000). It also promotes and encourages ownership and control of telecommunications and broadcasting services from historically disadvantaged groups. Again ICASA works with the Media Diversity and Development. Agency which also ensures the empowerment of previously disadvantaged groups.

3.2 The Media Diversity and Development Agency

After the 1994 democratic elections, the media in South Africa was still not reflective of the country’s diversity. The legacy of apartheid still played itself in various spheres of society, including the media, where the nature of the public discourse was shaped by patterns of ownership and control, such that the poor and disadvantage remained marginalised. The White Paper on Broadcasting Policy, 1998 concluded that, “Society benefits from free, independent, and pluralistic media.” It was then decided that a supportive policy environment was required; and in achieving this Government committed itself to corrective action.

This was due to the need to rectify the wrongs inflicted by apartheid in media development and diversity. Government took an initiative to set up an independent agency that will address problems of the media development and diversity in the country and provide assistance through loans and subsidies to the marginalised groups (MDDA position paper, November 2000). The MDDA’s mandate is to promote diversity and development in print, broadcasting and new media. It works with bodies dealing with Telecommunications, licensing and film. Also develops policies that are informed by ongoing research and evaluation.

4. Conclusion

It is of common knowledge that freedom of expression is one of the hallmarks of democracy; which requires a media that is free from state control. Before the democratisation of South Africa, the South African government was empowered to control the media, to limit free speech as it pleased. During this time newspapers were closed down, and anything that seemed to be giving voice to the voiceless, being a novel or a film, it was banned. Press freedom was at this time described as having “its left leg in plaster, its right arm in a sling a patch over the left eye, deafness in the right ear, a sprained ankle and a number of teeth knocked out” (Joel Merwis, 1979, in Berger 2004).

In redressing the historic imbalances caused by the apartheid policies, government saw it necessary to free the airwaves by delegating media regulation to independent bodies. This was and still is a way of ensuring democracy in the media sector. The telecommunications Green paper stipulates that, “telecoms is an important means of building democracy by giving citizens access to the information and telecommunications services that enable them to participate effectively in the decision-making process of society,” thus the formation of SATRA to guard against government interference.

ICASA and the MDDA also work hand-in-hand to ensure that “the central public interest principle in broadcasting is that of universal access, that there is a diverse range of language, religious, and cultural programming,” (MDDA, 2005). One can conclude and say the independent regulators are working towards harmonising dysfunctions; which can include opportunities for small media companies, challenges or problems around media policies to improve the functioning of broadcasting media as a whole.