The Difference in the Political System Structure Between Nasser and Sadat

The Egyptian revolution of 1952, which was a coup d’├ętat made by young military soldiers who named themselves “The free officers”, it was initially aiming to over throw King Farouk. However, thing ran more smoothly than the free officers thought, they made more political change that just overthrowing the king, they abolished the monarchy and established the republic, and ended the British occupation of Egypt. The free officers, who were headed and founded by colonel Gamal Abdel Nasser, chose Mohamed Naguib to be the first president of the Egyptian Republic. However, his reign did not last long due to disagreements with Nasser which lead to his forced removal from office, and put in house arrest. Nasser took power in 1956, the people cherished Nasser, as they saw him as one of them; under his leadership he nationalized the Suez Canal, this even made him more charismatic and loved by the people.

After Nasser’s death in 1970, his vice president, Anwar El Sadat took over the power and became the third president of Egypt. Most of the people were disappointed by Nasser’s death, and did not think of anyone else who can rule them. So, in his first speech as a president, Sadat promised the people that he will continue what Nasser had started and that he will follow his path. However, later, Sadat took a different path than Nasser’s. Sadat is well known for launching the 1973 war against Israel, and for signing a peace treaty with them after the war, which lead to the return of all Egypt’s territories which were occupied by the Israelis under Nasser’s era. Nasser’s and Sadat’s regimes are one of the most important in the modern Egyptian history. Their different characters played a great role in shaping the Egyptian political structure, as both of them had absolute powers as presidents. The base of the political structure did not change from Nasser to Sadat, the regime was still authoritarian with absolute power to the president, and however, each one of them used his absolute power in a different way that resulted in a big difference in the political structure of the country. In this essay I will illustrate Nasser’s and Sadat’s structure of the political system and to what degree they differed from each other.

Gamal Abdel Nasser was the leader who was almost worshiped by his people. He was incredibly charismatic and had a direct relationship with the Egyptian people. He used to always give public speeches that were very emotive and touching. He succeeded to build a common ground between him and the people, in his speeches he always referred to them as his “fellow citizens”. Nasser managed to remove the gap between the ruler and the public; this improved his credibility and his legitimacy to the Egyptian nation. Moreover, Nasser was a down to earth, simple person. He did not live in a palace or in a luxurious villa; he had a modest small house. According to the movie Nasser 56, he …

Effective Negotiation

INTRODUCTION

The whole cosmic economy is interactive phenomenon of animate and inanimate objects. In addition, the objects are interdependent on each other for growth and survival. Human beings are epitome of Divine Creative Activity. The interactive feature of mankind is vital aspect of Divine Scheme of Creation. A rational-moral human interaction quickens / softens evolution of individuals & groups. Mankind faces multiple challenges during varied interactions. The most complex, harmful, and frequent problem of interactive life is miscommunication. It creates mutual hatred and distrust among individuals / groups / nations and leads towards conspiracies, rivalries, and wars. The very basis of miscommunication are Perceptual Errors.Perceptual errors produce misconception among individuals / groups so that miscommunication is surfaced. Consequently, the people involved brake contacts with each other and opt long silence or confrontation or indifference. The unwanted situation can be solved through negotiation. Negotiation is helpful in every sphere of interactive life; it is used to bridge the gaps between husband and wife, parents and children, entrepreneurs and workers, business partners, political leaders, etc. In order to realize successful negotiation we must understand ins and outs of negotiation. Negotiation is the conflict management process of communication to make a compromise/better solution.The successful negotiation is called Effective Negotiation. Effective negotiation is knowledge based, manner driven, and wisdom led negotiation. It creates pragmatic and satisfactory solutions for each party.

PERCEPTUAL ERRORS

Man is intelligent creation of Absolute Intelligence. The distinctive human trait, intellect or perceptual intelligence, make the human being supreme creation of universe. But, intellect can misjudge/misinterpret due to ignorance or lustful tendencies of human nature. Perceptual errors or intellectual mistakes lead to biases in information processing / final judgments. There may arise three types of perceptual errors in a communication process.

Generalization: –Small amount of information are used to draw universal conclusions, e.g., old people are conservative, this person is old so that is conservative, or a humble person is judged to be more honest than a scowling person, even there is no consistent relationship between conservativeness & age or courtesy and honesty. The multiple social rifts such as family rifts and neighborhood rifts are surfaced due to unscientific generalizations.

Projection: –It occurs when people ascribe to others the characteristics or feelings that they have, for instance, a person feels that he will be frustrated if he were in the other position, then he is likely to perceive that the other person is frustrated. People respond differently to similar situations so that projection of own feeling to other may be incorrect. The multiple political mis-communications are generally due to wrong projections.

Power: – Power is an important leverage during interactions; it gives edge to one party over the other. Power develops the perception that you have power and you can impose a verdict, the power-perception limits viable options or can make someone wrongdoer, because, power has germs of corruption-development – in Acton’s words, ‘Power tends to corrupt and absolute powers corrupts absolutely.’ The major sources of …

As Civilization Advances Culture Declines

Civilization and culture are two constellations that lie in the same continuum. Each influences and is in turn influenced by the other. Civilization is an advanced state of intellectual, cultural, and material development in human society, marked by progress in the arts and sciences, the extensive use of record-keeping, including writing, and the appearance of complex political and social institutions. This is basically a state of affair in a society at a particular time frame. The definition above suggests the advanced state of affair… in common parlance… but civilization may be traditional or not advanced.

People say Indus valley civilization or Egyptian civilizations which are primitive civilizations. On the other hand, culture means the ways of thinking, acting, behaving that people have internalized in them and which are transformed into reality through their actions in the society. For example, respecting the elders or treating guests as the God; as in “Atithi devo bhava” are examples of particular cultural traits. Here before proceeding any further one needs to understand the various constituents of the culture.

When one studies culture, two things can not be neglected; cultural traits and cultural complexes. Cultural traits are the individual acts that defy any scientific reason but are simply followed on the basis that they are rooted in tradition. The examples of cultural traits are folding hands in front of a deity or touching the feet of elders. The inter-related cultural traits form a cultural complex.

For example while performing a “pooja” one lights an “agarvati”, chants some hymns or devotional songs, offers “Prasad” to the lord etc. All these activities constitute the cultural complex. The inter-play and interaction of the different cultural complexes form the substratum of culture. With so much of epistemological differences between culture and civilization one needs to see what separates the both. Culture refers to those intrinsic and intangible elements that engulf human whereas civilization includes all the physical objects that are the exemplification of some objective realities.

Civilization is the human creativity, intellect and volition translated into reality whereas culture is the morality and intellect that remain as the under current of human thought. Civilization progresses thorough the vehicle of knowledge and technology whereas culture thrives in human mind and proceeds through tradition. But when one says they lie in the same continuum means culture determines the civilization. For example, that society where the dominant culture is heroism and hero-worships like the Sioux Indians their substrata of civilization is based on heroism, physical prowess.

Their chief industry is making weapons for hunting and defending own clan members. And their structure of authority and leadership also hovers around this principle only. But at the same time civilization also influences culture in many ways. The technical developments and objective rationality in knowledge inquires the truth among the traditional customs. Reinterpretation of cultural complexes and superstitions from a scientific point of view makes room for reinterpretation of culture. So culture and civilization influence each other. The present write up requires an analysis if …

Ten Tips to Use the Law of Attraction to Win at Casino Gambling

The Law of Attraction is the Law of the Universe that states that what you think about and focus on is what you will physically draw into your life to experience.

But what if you wanted to create more money for yourself by winning at gambling. Will the Law work for you then? The answer is Absolutely! — as long as you are vibrating in the right place mentally while you are doing it.

You see, I know this for a fact because I have been both studying the Law of Attraction for 20 years as well as enjoyed gambling for approximately the same amount of time; and I can tell you without a doubt that as my studying and learning has progressed, so has my winnings and jackpots!

While this article will mostly be focused on winning at Video Poker games in casinos (because it is personally my favorite to play and I know the most about it) I am sure you will find a lot of tips here that can help you win at other games as well.

Here are a few simple tips to help you get into vibrational alignment with winning as well.

1. Don’t gamble with money you cannot afford to lose.

Now, this may sound like typical “moral” advice that anyone would tell you, but from a Law of Attraction standpoint it is especially important. The fact of the matter is, if you are playing with rent or bill money then you are playing with scared or guilt money! Playing with scared money will put you in a negative vibrational place right from the start and will make it much more difficult to draw more money to you.

If money is a little tight right now – start a JACKPOT JAR in your home. (Be sure to write Jackpot Jar on it by the way. This way every time you look at it you are giving yourself a positive affirmation. Eventually you will come to believe that that is exactly what it is. ) Put some money in it every week. It doesn’t matter if it is $2, $5 or $10. Just put a little aside until you have accumulated the amount you would like to bring to the casino with you. Maybe you can cash in the penny or change jar you have sitting in the corner of your bedroom that is doing nothing.

The point is to go on your trip with “guilt-free” or “fear free” money. You will automatically be in a better vibrational place knowing that it really doesn’t matter if you win or lose it, as long as you have fun!

2. Visualize Winning Before You Go

My father was one of the luckiest Video Poker players I have ever met. When he hit, it was usually for some pretty big amounts. I remember a $13,000 jackpot, a few $8,000 jackpots and too many $4,000 and $1,000 jackpots to count.

Now the funny thing is my father didn’t technically …

Public Administration Vs Private Administration

Most authors differentiate public administration and private administration by educational institutions (public schools vs. private schools). Although it’s a good example to provide a comprehensive analysis between the two sectors, I found it not the quintessence for a comparative analysis. Historically, in our country, public schools have a much higher quality education than private schools, and studying economics and public administration, it is not just the nature of bureaucracies, nor the scope of public administration that the case today was reversed. While some authors identified over a dozen factors that differentiates public to private administration, Denhardt only speaks of the three fundamental differences between the two. In this paper, I would elaborate Denhardt’s three points since, together with economist Boadway’s Difference between Public and Private Sector, I found these as the most undisputable and concrete comparisons.

The most apparent difference between the two sectors is their organizing principles or goal. (Denhardt) While private administration has a definite mission, which is the pursuit of profit or stability or growth of revenues, public administration, on the other hand, has ambiguous purposes. Furthermore, the dilemma in ambiguity of purposes is exacerbated by too many unnecessary and inoperable agencies, with purposes that overlap and bloated bureaucracies. One might say that the goal of public administration is to enact public policies, but the overlapping and the main ambiguity of most of these policies, and the vagueness of the enactment of these policies make public administration’s purpose to be more ambiguous. Nevertheless, the fact that public institutions are not profit driven, should not lead us to believe that public sector employees and managers are not concerned about financial matters. As is the case with private companies, public sector units and organizations fight for funding and influence.

Another factor that makes the public sector different from the private is decision making. (Denhradt) In public administration, the decision must be and should be pluralistic. The founding fathers intentionally created a democratic republic where all key decisions are made in politicized environment. This allows for maximum participation: open debate, multiple veto points – a decision making hierarchy where consensus must be achieved at each level, ideally, an informed decision. While private administration’s decision-making is much more simple- it’s monopolistic or close to monopolistic. This type of decision-making would avoid any conflicts in interest; hence, the goal is clearly defined.

The visibility of public administrators is another notable difference between public and private sector. While a manager in a private business may work in relative obscurity, the public manager must operate in the public eye. His or her actions are constantly subjected to public scrutiny. (Denhardt) The publicness of the work of the public manager doesn’t end in merely carrying out public policy, the public manager has to respond to the demands of the public. Denhardt speaks of the “inevitable tension” between efficiency and responsiveness, the pressure to manage effectively and to be simultaneously responsive to public concerns. This pressure often leaves public organizations in a “no-win” situation, trying to …

4 Important Steps in Starting a Barber School

The demand for barbers and beauticians will continue to increase over the next several years. This industry will always be in high demand as long as men, woman, and children grow hair. Individuals with a barber’s license from an accredited school will always have the potential to earn top dollar with in this industry. With the demand for barbers, beauticians and stylist continuing to grow, so will the demand for schools where a potential barber can enroll and attain ample knowledge and training in order to become licensed.

The First Step: Creating a Business Plan & Raising Capital

Taking the time out to write an in depth business plan for your barber school. With this step it is imperative that you include a description and mission statement of the school. Include your marketing strategy, researched facts regarding other barber schools in the immediate area and any information on the schools insurance coverage. It is important to provide all documentation highlighting the financial records and needs. These needs should include how much capital you will begin with when the school starts and how you plan to raise the additional needed funds.

The Second Step: Raising Capital

By contacting your states Department of Education you will be able to apply for government grants and loans that are available. This is an important step to begin the process of getting the money you need to raise your start up capital. Working with a bank to complete and submit your loan applications is a must, unless you have all the money you’ll need to get started.

The Third Step: Attaining Insurance Coverage

Begin this step by speaking to local insurance providers. Be mindful that you will need to purchase enough insurance to cover damages (fire, flood & theft), as well as sufficient liability coverage. Speak with your insurance provider about employee coverage, such as workmen’s compensation, disability and unemployment benefits. Doing this will guarantee your school has ample coverage your students and instructors.

The Fourth Step: inventory

Communicate with different beauty wholesalers to get the best priced equipment for you. Comparing the costs of styling chairs, work stations, hair products, mirrors, scissors etc., will be beneficial to you when making sure you purchase enough inventory to supply sufficient training

Once these first 4 steps are complete you will be able to breathe a little easier. Nobody said this was going to be easy; however anything you work hard enough to attain will posses huge advantage when it’s all said and done. Being the owner of your own barber school will be extremely rewarding if you give it your absolute best. Providing individuals with the knowledge they’ll need to succeed in a field they love will make all the hard work worth it in the end.…

The Importance of Uniform Badge Insignia in Military and Law Enforcement

Webster’s dictionary defines uniform as n: dress of a distinctive design or fashion worn by members of a particular group and serving as a means of identification. Insignia is defined as badge of authority of honor an emblem as a distinguishing mark or sign. Wikipedia’s definition also verifies, “Insignia (the plural of Latin insigne: emblem, symbol) is a symbol or token of personal power, status or office, or of an official body of government or jurisdiction. Insignia are especially used as an emblem of a specific or general authority”.

In the majority of currant applications those groups that are organized to protect something or some one all wear both uniforms and shoulder sleeve patches. This would include the military, law enforcement units e.g. police, sheriff deputies, state troopers, government security organizations, government civilian law enforcement units e.g. Homeland Security, park rangers, and private security units to name a few. The various military patches available to a person authorize to wear on their dress uniforms will tell the complete story of that person’s service.

The concepts behind uniform patches have a well-documented history going back beyond 5000 years in China and Egypt. The efficacy of the visual impact is well understood and has many reasons to be firmly established in modern day implementation. Whether it is a casual information contact or a potential hostile action a person of authority’s identity needs to be quickly and unequivocally established. Insignia on an appropriate uniform do that quickly and efficiently.

Certain U.S custom made patches are even authorized to be worn on civilian clothing of veterans, and retired veterans. It would include Badges medals and ribbon earned while in the service of their country and when worn for certain occasions relating to military functions. This use of uniform emblems and other insignia can follow a person into the grave. It is very common for a fallen comrade especially in military and law enforcement units to honored in death by being buried in the uniform.

The variety of multiple colors of the uniform emblems and the rank emblems and badges make it easy to differentiate one officer from another by the uniform and the insignia place upon it. This has been a standard for American uniforms since the beginning of the American Revolution.

The need for uniform identity in a hostile environment warrants different considerations. This also generates some identity conflicts. One has to be specifically identified, be protected from bodily harm, and at the same time not be seen. These conflicting needs have generated some novel solutions.

The vast Saunders Military Insignia inventory attracts people who are serving or have served in various Military units, military insignia collectors with a love for the military and the beauty of the uniforms and different insignia they represent. We have helped U.S. Military insignia collectors in over 30 different countries and Supplied museums and American unit enactors in several countries with the items they need to advance their programs. We have made many custom made patches including …

Benjamin Disraeli – The Great British Conservative Leader Who Introduced the Public Health Act

Benjamin Disraeli, First Earl of Beaconsfield (1804-81) was a great British statesman and novelist. He was born in London and came from a Jewish family that had converted to Anglicanism.

He was a most ambitious and a larger than life individual. He dressed in colorful clothes. He always chose his words carefully and spoke only when he had something memorable and witty to say.

He began life working for three years in a lawyer’s office. He then – unsuccessfully – tried to start a newspaper.

His first big breakthrough was when he achieved fame and success as a popular novelist. His first novel was Vivian Grey (1826). The most famous of his many novels were perhaps his two political novels, Coningsby (1844) and Sibyl (1845).

Disraeli joined the Conservative Party and in 1837 he entered the British Parliament as the member for Maidstone.

His first speech to Parliament was heckled by other Members of Parliament who disliked his flowery manner of speaking and his colorful clothing. In concluding his speech, he made the famous reply: “Though I sit down now, the time will come when you will hear me.”

He became the leader of the Young England movement, which was home to that section of the Conservatives known as the Romantic Tories. The Romantic Tories were political conservatives who were critical of the effects of the Industrial Revolution that were occurring in Great Britain at that time. They believed that the monarchy and the church were the natural protectors of the agricultural and industrial working classes and were suspicious of the Industrial Revolution’s tendency to destroy the traditional protections and obligations which had been in place in Britain since time immemorial.

He also opposed the free trade policies of his fellow Conservative, Sir Robert Peel. Peel engineered the repeal of the Corn Laws (1845-46), which controlled the price of wheat and of other types of grain via the imposition of protective tariffs on the import of foreign grain. Instead, Disraeli favored protectionism to protect British agriculture and industry. In later days, Disraeli stopped supporting protectionism to a large extent, having come to the view that the Corn Laws had mostly favored the interests of landowners and hurt the poor.

While in Parliament, Disraeli became Chancellor of the Exchequer three times and then became the leader of the Commons (the lower house of the British Parliament). In the latter role, he introduced the Reform Bill of 1867.

Disraeli served as prime minister of the United Kingdom for two terms – first, in 1868, and then, later and more extensively, in the period 1874-80. During his second prime ministership, he promoted British imperialism (that is, the extension of the British Empire) and a forward foreign policy. In 1876 he passed legislation conferring on Queen Victoria a new title: Empress of India.

Disraeli led Britain into the Second Afghan War (1878-79) and into the Zulu War (1879), and he sought to lessen the power and influence of Russia.

He showed much skillful diplomacy …

GST Implementation in Malaysia – The Argument

There were many responses when the Malaysian government first announced the Financial Budget for Malaysia, year 2010, both good and bad. But when they were undecided about GST, it sparked more conversation on whether it’ll benefit the Rakyat, or further threaten poorer communities in Malaysia.

What goods GST covers

As proposed by our dear government, GST covers all types of goods & services sold to Malaysian & non-Malaysian residents (therefore consumers) except for a common commodities such as rice, flour & sugar.

This goes to mean: Whenever you walk into your favorite hypermarket with the family to get some groceries in the future, you will be charged additional ~{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056} (the proposed additional 4{512b763ef340c1c7e529c41476c7e03bc66d8daea696e1162822661d30dde056}) on top of your bill except for certain controlled items.

Further, Malaysia’s main revenue shouldn’t just live off petroleum. In other words, we shouldn’t put all eggs in one basket because petroleum revenues have risks of its own, seeing that it’s a natural resource.

What reason did they give? More funds for development and expenses.

How much would they probably get? RM1 billion (RM1,000,000,000) per annum in estimated rounded-up revenue.

Will it hurt the poor & middle class?

To a certain extent, it will somehow affect pockets of middle and lower income group Malaysians.

The arguments:

  1. Recent price hike in petrol, prices of commodities have increased drastically. And now another one called GST?
  2. Income tax brackets for high earners aren’t as ‘expensive’ as middle-to-low income groups.
  3. The Malaysian government has saved approximately RM2 billion (RM2,000,000,000) by lowering fuel subsidies – What’s the take on GST now for lower income groups?
  4. GST is tax on SPENDING. Basically, everything from parking fees to purchasing mattress. Even with GST-exempted items, this would still hit lower income groups in Malaysia.
  5. Private sectors aren’t paying much to Malaysians – Other more developed countries such as Singapore could take this hit because wages & salaries are much higher.
  6. Other countries such as Britain, India, Hong Kong, Japan and Singapore has GST – Doesn’t mean GST has to be implemented in Malaysia. Their economic status and way of gaining revenue varies from Malaysia. (GST is also called VAT – Value Added Tax in other countries)
  7. Inflation may happen. Prime Minister Mr. Najib has guaranteed no inflation – But with the introduction of GST, the chain of ‘passing the cost’ will end up usually at the hands of consumers.
  8. Corruption isn’t a rare thing in Malaysia – So businesses has already included ‘corruption prices’ in goods & services. How does that not reflect additional costs to consumers?
  9. Out of inflation pressures, higher prices for goods & services are sought.

Prime Minister Mr. Najib has promised Malaysians that they will be tabling a public discussion on GST (called the GST Bill) on December. There are also several upsides that could be seen – But until Mr. Najib tables the meeting on GST Bill, we shouldn’t be skeptical of anything yet.

Other side …

Delegated Media Regulation Within the Context of Broadcasting in South Africa

Introduction

This paper discusses the concept of delegated media regulation within the context of broadcasting in South Africa. It briefly discusses the history of media regulation during the apartheid period; the transformation of broadcasting media from an authoritarian government, to a liberalised media, the impact of the transformation with regards to internal media policies; focusing mostly in broadcasting media policy. The paper will then discuss the formation of independent regulatory agencies by government as delegated bodies; to monitor broadcasting media. These include the Independent Broadcasting Act of 1993 (IBA), the South African Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (SATRA) and the merger to the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA), the Broadcasting Complaints Commission of South Africa (BCCSA), and the existence of the Media Diversity and Development Agency (MDDA). In discussing these bodies, the paper will look at the role played by these organisations in regulating broadcasting media, and the impact they have in the development and monitoring of broadcasting media.

Brief History

Apartheid affected every single aspect of South Africa, including the media. Laws that regulated the media were tailor-made to restrict freedom of expression and subject the media to the extremes of the apartheid government. Before the rise of democracy, South Africa showed essential features of aristocracy; which consisted of whites, Indians and coloured people nominated to the legislative assembly. The ideology of apartheid brought division among the South African society along racial lines. The divisions in society and domination of the majority by the minority were reflected in policy formulation; which included stipulations that restricted the media (Fourie, 2004: 168). This was evident as the government exercised its powers in the broadcasting media. When the SABC was established in parliament, it was said to be the public broadcaster; but this was not the case. Because of political philosophies related to the political values of the society and those in power at the time, the SABC was the state broadcaster and not a public broadcaster; and as a result was said to be the apartheid state’s most powerful propaganda tool Dennis Jjuuko (2005: 3).

According to Jjuuko “The assumption to political power by the National Party in 1948 meant the Afrikanerisation of the SABC, which was achieved largely through controls of the board.” Jjuuko continues to say that during this time the SABC had to play a “significant role in the politics of the day, with no space to make independent editorial decisions.” This particularly had a negative impact on the importance on the SABC’s internal policies. As a result the SABC was referred to as “his master’s voice”, as it gave the government a platform to articulate the apartheid ideology, to control the people of South Africa; particularly blacks.

In support of this argument, one of the main laws that restricted media freedom was the one that reduced the broadcast/publication of activities of anti-government black groups. Fourie (2004) argues that from the apartheid laws “one can deduce that the public interest was very narrowly defined. (That) Many laws/policies of …